RaceSci
Syllabi
RaceSci

 

Science, Technology, and Race
Course Proposal
Carlos Martín, 
Construction, Civil Engineering and History &
Philosophy of Science & Technology, History,
Stanford University
 
5 Units; 3 meetings per week
Enrollment limited to 15 students

Open to all majors Prerequisites:
Intro to Ethnic Studies, Intro STS


Tools: Course Reader
Recording materials (video/photo camera, tape recorder)
Sources (field observations, interviews, archives, internet)


Description
This course is an introduction to the numerous ways in which
science, technology, and race are constructed and construct
each other. Since there has been little work on this topic,
students become researchers in addition to reading and
discussing existing studies and each others' work. We ask
specific questions about race and science/technology,
including those related to politics, class, and identity.
Instead of approaching the subject from a single scholarly
framework, we begin with these questions and see how various
disciplinary tools provide insight. Sources are also broad;
we introduce academic work, cultural productions,
statistical analyses, and, most importantly, our own
observations to create a new picture of these intersections.

We define race, science, and technology in broad terms which
we negotiate and develop as we explore cases and
observations. We start off with the following definitions:

We use the term "race" in its contemporary popular
form--that is, the categorization of individuals based on
color, nationality, ancestry, language, physical appearance,
behavior, or ideology. As we progress, we will distinguish
between biology, ethno-nationality, and cultural identity.

"Science" is the construction of knowledge and the
beliefs inherent in that construction. As ways of knowing,
science can take multiple forms across cultures. This
doesn't mean that there aren't clear physical and natural
universalities. Rather, different cultures and societies
approach, study, and understand these "realities"
in very different ways.

"Technology" includes artifacts, techniques, and
technical knowledge. Just as we can say that different
cultures approach scientific realities in radically
different manners, cultures vary in the ways that they put
these realities to use. Again, definitions of
science-as-knowing and technology-as-using will break down
soon enough when we discuss cultures who view them very
differently.

We include studies from international and US sources that
span a broad time frame for many reasons. There aren't too
many sources out there, so we use what is available. This
limitation, however, is a tremendous opportunity to study
how researchers of all backgrounds approach race, science,
and technology, and how we can shape their definition. So we
base our overarching questions on their historical
construction and how WE construct them:


How have definitions of race, science, and technology
informed their practice and use?

How can we define race, science, and technology for our
practices and uses? 


Requirements
Active preparation and participation are imperative.
Participation includes class discussion and commitment to
group projects, while preparation involves individual
reading and thinking in the form of working papers and
projects. I will provide examples of these assignments in
class.


Readings
I limit the amount of reading to between 50 and 150 pages
per week depending on assignment deadlines.


Working papers (WP)
I assign seven one-page assignments due the first meeting
(Monday) of almost every week. I ask specific questions for
each paper and expect you to incorporate readings,
discussions, and our own research.


Project One
Each student generates a specific question related to your
own personal experience, AND a specific method for studying
that question that you haven't used before. Written
assignments must be 5-7 pages. We will discuss the format of
other projects and the content of all projects in class.


Project Two
Based on a field trip you have taken during the course,
groups of students must phrase questions and methods to
interpret their findings. Students will be grouped based on
different backgrounds and first projects. Returning to
her/his method of choice, each student must negotiate how
their findings and methods can be joined with others. A
final "report" including written text, graphics,
etc., will be handed in and discussed. 

Evaluation
I base grades on individual effort, on student
self-evaluations, and group evaluations. Student evaluations
will occur at the course's mid-term and end. The following
distributions apply:

Discussion Participation: 25 %
Working Papers: 25 %
Project 1: 20 %
Project 2: 30 %


SCHEDULE

Week 1
Introduction

What are some links between race, science, and technology?

READINGS

Carney, "Landscapes of Technology Transfer: Rice
Cultivation and African Continuities" (p. 5-35); 

Headrick, "The Tools of Imperialism: Technology and the
Expansion of European Colonial Empires in the Nineteenth
Century" (p. 231-263); 

Runsten & Leveen, "Part II--The Political Economic
Context: California Agriculture's Unique Development and the
Choices of Technology" (p. 4-42) and "Part V--The
Mechanization of Canning Tomatoes" (p. 100-120); 

Johnson, "Science, Technology, & Black Community
Development" (p. 34-42).

[These articles provide preliminary cases of the links
between race and science/technology to peak students'
interests and to begin conceiving basic ways in which racial
histories can be "retold" with scientific and
technology contingencies. The articles are temporally broad
(from colonialism to contemporary US racial politics) and
technologically varied (from groups of technological
knowledge to specific artifacts).]

Meeting 1: Course Introduction (Lecture)
Meeting 2: Introduction to cases (Lecture)
Meeting 3: Student introductions and lecture discussion


Week 2
Current Theories of Race, Racism, and Sociotechnology

How have we thought about these links?

READINGS

Lévi-Strauss, "Race and History" (p.
95-134); 

García, "Notes Toward an Ethnometaphysics"
(p. 69-92); 

Winner, "Do Artifacts Have Politics?" (p.
121-136). 

hooks, "Postmodern Blackness" (p. 421-427); 

Leigh Star, "Power, Technologies, and the Phenomenology
of Conventions: On Being Allergic to Onions" (p.
26-56). 
  
[I pick work in both ethnic and sci-tech studies to give a
theoretical framework for the course. The first two articles
describe the difference between biological and cultural
identifications of race, the Winner article discusses the
socio-political use of technology, and the juxtaposed hooks
and Leigh Star articles introduce cultural identity. The
works vary tremendously. This is both necessary and
intentional to give students an idea of the lack of academic
studies on the topic, and to have them think about possible
links they can create.]

WP 1: How do you view your racial identity? How do you view
technology and society? Where and how do these views
connect?

Meeting 1: Constructing race and racism in ethnic studies
(Lecture)
Meeting 2: Constructing social identity in sci/tech studies
(Lecture)
Meeting 3: Creating links (Lecture and discussion)


Week 3
Methods and Tools 

How can we identify these links?

READINGS

Greetham, "Textual Scholarship" (p. 103-129); 

Burawoy, "Teaching Participant Observation" (p.
291-300); 

Walton, "Making the Theoretical Case" (p.
121-139); 

Wright, "Morocco: Modernization and Preservation"
(p. 85-169); 

Hurley, "The Social Biases of Environmental Change in
Gary, Indiana, 1945-1980" (p. 1-19). 

Harding, "Is There a Feminist Method?" (p. 1-14); 

[These articles provide methods by which students can
critique the works they analyze and proceed with their own
research. The first three are methodological discussions
that also pose ways of reformulating traditional
investigations. I use the Wright and Hurley articles here
not for content but as cases of historical and
socio-historical analysis. Finally, the Harding introduction
provides a conceptual framework by which ethno-cultural
studies can be grouped within a general methodology that
blurs traditional disciplinary boundaries.]

WP 2: How do you define racism? Are there racist science or
technological practices? 

Meeting 1: Reading in policy, sociology, & anthropology
(Lecture and workshop)
Meeting 2: Reading in cultural production, history, and
philosophy (Lecture & workshop)
Meeting 3: An ethnocultural methodology? A technocultural
method? (Lecture and workshop)


Week 4
Science and Technology Constructing Race

How have science and technology defined race?

READINGS

Gould, "R. M. Yerkes and the Army Mental Tests: IQ
Comes of Age" (p. 192-233); 

Shockley, "Document 3: Proposed Research to Reduce
Racial Aspects of the Environment-Heredity Uncertainty"
(p. 99-104); 

Efron, "Zionism and Racial Anthropology" (p.
123-174); 

Barkan, "Confronting Racism: Scientists as
Politicians" (p. 279-340); 

Chadwick, "The Perfect Baby" (p. 93-135). 

[The course now turns to content questions. These articles
present historical sci/tech definitions of biological race
up to current genetic projects. In addition to presenting
how notions of biological race have developed, these
articles place their construction in varying political
frameworks. They also help students think of questions that
will be useful in the field trip to the Genome Project.] 

WP 3: Project 1 Proposal

Meeting 1: Lecture on biological race definitions
Meeting 2: Lecture on eugenics and discussion of proposals
Meeting 3: Trip to Genome Project


Week 5
Race Constructing Science and Technology

How have different cultures defined science and technology?

READINGS

Denny, "Cultural Ecology of Mathematics: Ojibway &
Inuit" (p. 129-180); 

Menchú, "Planting and Harvesting
Ceremonies" (p. 73-79); 

Jami, "Scholars and Mathematical Knowledge During the
Late Ming and Early Qing" (p. 99-109); 

Unschuld, "Religious Healing: The Foundation of
Theocratic Rule" (p 117-131); 

Dopamy, "African Traditional Religion & Science:
Reflections" (p. 63-76); 

Hammond-Tooke, "Patrolling the Herms: Social Structure,
Cosmology, and Pollution Concepts in Southern Africa"
(p. 1-24). 

[This huge but generally quick group of readings
demonstrates how understandings and definitions of science
and technology can vary across cultures. Each discusses how
science and technology are socially situated within a
culture and how their subsequent methods and utility are
transformed by cultural sensibilities while accounting for
physical and natural realities. I could teach a whole course
on this topic alone.]

WP 4: How could the Genome Project effect your life?

Meeting 1: Sciences and technologies in Africa (Lecture and
brief discussion)
Meeting 2: Sciences and technologies in Asia (Lecture and
brief discussion)
Meeting 3: Sciences and technologies in the Americas
(Lecture and brief discussion)


Week 6
Science and Technology Constructing Racial Politics

How have science and technology been used for racial
political ends?

READINGS

Adas, "Attributes of the Dominant" (p. 199-270); 

Arnold, "Cholera: Disease as Disorder" (p.
159-199); 

Cairnes, "The Negro Suffrage (1865)" (p. 73-88); 

Tyler, "Underground Water in Hispanic New Mexico"
(p. 287-301); 

Jarrell, "Native American Women & Forced
Sterilization, 1973-76" (p. 45-58); 

Lane, "The Tainted Sources of the 'Bell Curve'"
(p. 14-19). 

[These readings are arranged in historical order (from most
distant to most contemporary). The articles run from
colonialism and post-colonial technological conflicts to
current (mis)use of science and technology for implicit
politics. Each shows a unique political aspect of the
ongoing construction of race and sci/tech. These include how
political motives determine the products and use of
sci/tech, and how sci/tech create political crises.]

Project 1 Due.

Meeting 1: Colonial and post-colonial politics, science, and
technology (Lecture)
Meeting 2: Continuing lecture, discussion, and midterm
evaluation discussion
Meeting 3: Assigned group trips to local industries


Week 7
Science, Technology and the Racial Composition of
Class

How have science and technology been used to create racial
class differences?

READINGS

Grim, "The Impact of Mechanized Farming on Black Farm
Families in the Rural South" (p. 169-184); 

Heinricke, "African-American Migration and Urban Labor
Skills" (p. 185-198); 

O'Neill, "Domesticity Deployed: Gender, Race and the
Construction of Class Struggle in the Bisbee
Deportation" (p. 256-73); 

Vargas, "Chapter 3: Mexicans and Factory Work in the
1920s" (p. 86-123); 

Fernández Kelly, "Technology and Employment
Along the US-Mexico Border" (p. 153-168). 

[Skill, labor, and class are introduced in socio-racial
contexts from post-bellum sharecropping and Black urban
migration to "low-skill" employment, to Chicano/a
scabbing and industrial work. The Fernández Kelly
article brings current international labor divisions into
the course by relating contemporary production technologies
and their ability to separate design from production to the
geographic and class differences between Mexican female
maquiladora labor and US computer companies.

WP 5: If you could assume an authority position like
Cairnes', how would you "solve" one of the
political crises in the readings?

Meeting 1: Technology and the construction of class
(Lecture)
Meeting 2: Class along race lines (Lecture)
Meeting 3: Building Project 2 (Workshop)


Week 8
Science, Technology, Race, and Cultural Production

How do artists and writers depict race in post-modern,
post-colonial, high-tech worlds?

READINGS

Moskowitz, "Rockets to Green Pastures" (p. 50-69);

Edwards, "Minds, Machines, and Subjectivity in the
Closed World" (p. 303-52); 

Opubur & Ogunbi, "Ooga-Booga: The African Image in
American Films" (p. 376-392); 

Miller, "Pigeon City" (p. 227-257); 

VisionQuest Entertainment, "WarGods--Azteca" 

Blue Pearl Productions," Generational Break," 
http://www.bluepearl.com/ 

Trujillo, "The Nightmare" (p. 229-246); 

Rojas, "The Enacted Environment of East Los
Angeles" (p. 42-53). 

[I group these articles into three types. The first three
introduce the genres and discuss the role (or lack of role)
of race in cultural productions such as science fiction
literature and film. The next article and two websites are
Black and Latino works of science fiction that reproduce
racial differences that deal more with technological power
than technological constructions of race. This concept is
better outlined in the final short story (a futuristic
reconquest of Mexico by Spain), and the discussion of
Chicano architectural hybrids.]

WP 6 Due: Project 2 proposal from individuals and groups

Meeting 1: Modern colonialism and the arts (Lecture and
screening of Star Trek episode)
Meeting 2: Post-colonial modernity (Lecture and possible
screening)
Meeting 3: The techno-racial hybrid (Lecture, screening of
artwork, and discussion)


Session 9: Race and the Practice of Science and
Technology

How does a scientist's or engineer's race contribute to our
broader definitions?

READINGS

Lerman, "'Preparation for the Labors of Life:'
Technology and Social Structure in Mid-19th Century
Philadelphia" (p. 1-44); 

Oakes, "II: The Effects of Student Characteristics on
Opportunity" (p. 13-25) and "VII:
Implications" (p. 107-114); 

Jones, "A Moral Astigmatism" (p. 1-15). 

[The first two articles introduce the gaps between racial
groups in scientific and technological education and
careers. The last article on the Tuskegee syphilis
experiment is placed here to make students question whether
a practitioner's race plays a role in the methods and
approach to praxis.]

WP 7: Write a one-page science fiction story or animation 

Meeting 1: Science and technology education and the place of
race (Lecture)
Meeting 2: Race in science and technology practice (Lecture)
and proposal discussions
Meeting 3: Fieldwork-- Interviews with engineers, doctors,
or scientists


Week 10
Science, Technology and Cultural Identity

How do science and technology effect a culture's
self-perception?

READINGS

joannemariebarker & Teaiwa, "Native
InFormation" (p. 17-41); 

Wallace, "Michael Jackson, Black Modernisms and the
'Ecstacy of Communication' " (p. 301-318); 

Meyrowitz & Maguire, "Media, Place, and
Multiculturalism" (p. 41-48); 

Aframian World Enterprise, "Virtually Afrocentric"
http://www.he.net/~awe/makheru.html 

Rivas, "CyberSpanglish WebSite" 
http://www.actlab.utexas.edu:80/~seagull/spanglish.html 

POCHO, "Virtual Varrio" 
http://www.pocho.com/varrio.html 

[The four articles bring up the role of
technology--especially contemporary communications--in
depicting and recreating racial and cultural
representations. Further, they discuss the dynamism inherent
in current technologies that simultaneously recreate
cultural definitions and self-definitions. The three
websites are presented as cases of changing identity through
technological means.]

Meeting 1: Technology and identity transformation in
Modernist works (Lecture)
Meeting 2: Technology and identity transformation in current
works (Lecture and discussion)
Meeting 3: Project working session


Week 11
Conclusion

What can we take from this class to our studies and careers?


READINGS

Young, "Pity the Indians of Outer Space: Native American Views of the Space Program" (p. 269-279). 

[This quick article summarizes the two primary connections
the course tries to make--that race informs science and
technology, and that science and technology effect racial
constructions. Students can finish their projects.]

Project 2 Due. 

Meeting 1: Student presentations
Meeting 2: Student presentations
Meeting 3: Discussion and final evaluations



Complete References

Adas, Michael. "Attributes of the Dominant." P
  199-27. Machines as the Measure of Man. Cornell
  University. 1989.

Aframian World Enterprise, "Virtually Afrocentric.
http://www.he.net/~awe/makheru.html

Arnold, David. "Cholera: Disease as Disorder." P
  159-199. Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and
  Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India.
  University of California. 1993.

Barkan, Elazar. "Confronting Racism: Scientists as
  Politicians." P 279-340. The Retreat of
  Scientific Racism. Cambridge University. 1992.

Blue Pearl Productions, "Generational Break,"
 http://www.bluepearl.com/

Burawoy, Michael. "Teaching Participant
  Observation." P 291-300. Ethnography Unbound:
  Power and Resistance in the Modern Metropolis.
  University of California. 1991.

Cairnes, John Elliot. "The Negro Suffrage."
  (Originally written in 1865). P 73-88. Images of
  Race. Michael Biddiss [ed.]. Holmes and Meier. 1979.

Carney, Judith. "Landscapes of Technology Transfer:
  Rice Cultivation and African Continuities."
  Technology and Culture. V31, P 5-35. January
  1996.

Chadwick, Ruth. "The Perfect Baby." P 93-135.
  Ethics, Reproduction, and Genetic Control. Ruth
  Chadwick [ed.]. Routledge. 1992.

Denny, J. Peter. "Cultural Ecology of Mathematics:
  Ojibway & Inuit Hunters." P 129-180. Native
  American Mathematics. Michael Closs [ed.].
  University of Texa Press. 1986.

Dopamy, R. Ade. "African Traditional Religion &
  Science: Reflections." P 63-76. The Historical
  Development of Science and Technology in Nigeria.
  Gloria Thomas-Emeagwali [ed.]. Edwin Mellen Press. 1992.

Edwards, Paul. "Minds, Machines, and Subjectivity in
  the Closed World." P 303-52. The Closed World:
  Computers and thePolitics of Cold War America. MIT
  Press. 1996.

Efron, John M. "Zionism and Racial Anthropology."
  P 123-174. Defenders of the Race: Jewish Doctors and
  Race Science in Fin-de-siècle Europe. Yale
  University. 1994.

Fernández Kelly, Ma. Patricia. "Technology and
  Employment Along the US-Mexico Border." P 153-168.
  The United States and Mexico: Face to Face with New
  Technology. Cathryn Thorup [ed.]. Transaction Books.
  1987.

García, Reyes. "Notes Toward an
  Ethnometaphysics." P 69-92. Multiethnic
  Literature of the United States: Critical Introductions
  and Classroom Resources. Cordelia Candelaria [ed.].
  Multiethnic Literature Project, University of Colorado.
  1989.

Gould, Stephen Jay. "R. M. Yerkes and the Army Mental
  Tests: IQ Comes of Age." P 192-233. The
  Mismeasure of Man. Norton. 1981.

Greetham, D. C. "Textual Scholarship." P 103-129.
  Introduction to Scholarship in Modern Languages and
  Literatures. Joseph Gibaldi [ed.]. Modern Language
  Association. 1992.

Grim, Valerie. "The Impact of Mechanized Farming on
  Black Farm Families in the Rural South."
  Agricultural History. V 68, N 2, P 169-184.
  Spring 1994.

Hammond-Tooke, W. D. Patrolling the Herms: Social
  Structure, Cosmology, and Pollution Concepts in Southern
  Africa. P 1-24. Witwatersrand University Press.
  1981.

Harding, Sandra. "Is There a Feminist Method?" P
  1-14. Feminism and Methodology. Sandra Harding
  [ed.]. Indiana University Press. 1987.

Headrick, Daniel R. "The Tools of Imperialism:
  Technology and the Expansion of European Colonial
  Empires in the Nineteenth Century." Journal of
  Modern History. V 51. P 231-263. June 1979.

Heinricke, Craig. "African-American Migration and Urban
  Labor Skills." Agricultural History. V 68, N
  2, P 185-198. Spring 1994.

hooks, bell. "Postmodern Blackness." P 421-427.
  Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A
  Reader. Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman [eds.].
  Columbia University Press. 1994.

Hurley, Andrew. "The Social Biases of Environmental
  Change in Gary, Indiana, 1945-1980."
  Environmental Review. P 1-19. Winter 1988.

Jami, Catherine. "Scholars and Mathematical Knowledge
  During the Late Ming and Early Qing." P 99-109.
  Historia Scientarum. N 42. March 1991.

Jarrell, Robin H. "Native American Women & Forced
  Sterilization, 1973-76." Caduceus. V 8, P
  45-58. 1992.

joannemariebarker and Teresia Teaiwa. "Native
  InFormation." P 17-41. Enunciating Our Terms:
  Women of Color in Collaboration and
  Conflict--Inscriptions 7. María Ochoa and
  Teresia Teaiwa [eds.]. UC Santa Cruz Center for Cultural
  Studies. 1994.

Johnson, Robert C. "Science, Technology, & Black
  Community Development." The Black Scholar. V
  15, N 2, P 34-42. March 1984.

Jones, James. "A Moral Astigmatism." P 1-15.
  Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Free
  Press. 1993.

Lane, Charles. "The Tainted Sources of the 'Bell
  Curve'." The New York Review. P 14-19.
  December 1, 1994.

Leigh Star, Susan. "Power, Technologies, and the
  Phenomenology of Conventions: On Being Allergic to
  Onions." 26-56. A Sociology of Monsters: Essays
  on Power, Technology, and Domination. J. Law [ed].
  Routledge. 1991.

Lerman, Nina. "'Preparation for the Labors of Life:'
  Technology and Social Structure in Mid-19th Century
  Philadelphia." P 1-44. DRAFT.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude. "Race and History." P
  95-134. Race, Science, and Society. Leo Kruper
  [ed.]. UNESCO. 1956.

Menchú, Rigoberta. "Planting and Harvesting
  Ceremonies." P 73-79. Me llamo Rigoberta
  Menchú y así me nació la
  conciencia. Elizabeth Burgos [ed.]. Siglo Veintiuno.
  1988.

Meyrowitz, Joshua & John Maguire. "Media, Place,
  & Multiculturalism."American
  Culture.V30, N5, P41-48. 1993.

Miller, Jesse. "Pigeon City." P 227-257.
  Sociology Through Science Fiction. J. Milstead
  [eds.]. St. Martin's. 1974.

Moskowitz, Sam. "Rockets to Green Pastures." P
  50-69. Strange Horizons. Scribner. 1976.

O'Neill, Colleen. "Domesticity Deployed: Gender, Race
  and the Construction of Class Struggle in the Bisbee
  Deportation." Labor History. V 34, P 256-73.
  Spring 1993.

Oakes, Jeannie. "II: The Effects of Student
  Characteristics on Opportunity" P. 13-25 &
  "VII: Implications" P 107-114. Multiplying
  Inequalities: The Effects of Race, Social Class, and
  Tracking on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and
  Science. Rand Corporation. 1990.

Opubur, Alfred and Adebayo Ogunbi. "Ooga-Booga: The
  African Image in American Films." P 376-392. Other
  Voices, Other Views. Robin Winks [ed.]. Greenwood Press.
  1978.

POCHO Productions, "Virtual Varrio,"
http://www.silcom.com/~tonkin/pocho/varrio.html Pusey, James. "When All Was Said and Done." P 435-460. China and Charles Darwin. Harvard University. 1983. Rivas, Yolanda. "CyberSpanglish Website."
http://www.actlab.utexas.edu:80/~seagull/spanglish.html Rojas, James. "The Enacted Environment of East Los Angeles." Places. V 8, N 3, P 42-53. Spring 1993. Runsten, David & Phillip Leveen. Mechanization and Mexican Labor in California Agriculture. Monographs in US-Mexican Studies, No. 6. UCSD Program in United States-Mexican Studies. 1981. Shockley, William. "Document 3: Proposed Research to Reduce Racial Aspects of the Environment-Heredity Uncertainty." P 99-104. Shockley on Eugenics and Race: The Application of Science to the Solution of Human Problems. Roger Pearson [ed.]. Scott-Townsend Publishers. 1992. Trujillo, "La pesadilla (the nightmare)." P 229-246. Sin permiso de Colón: fantasías mexicanas en el Quinto Centenario (Without Columbus' Permission: Mexican Fantasies at the Quincentenary). Federico Shaffler González [ed.]. Universidad de Guadalajara. 1993. [Translated without permission.] Tyler, Daniel. "Underground Water in Hispanic New Mexico." New Mexico Historical Review. V66, P287-30. 1991. Unshchuld, Paul. "Religious Healing: The Foundation of Theocratic Rule." P 117-131. Medicine in China: A History of Ideas. University of California. 1985. Vargas, Zaragosa. "Chapter 3: Mexicans and Factory Work in the 1920s." P 86-123. Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917-1933. University of California. 1993. "Virtual Varrio." http://www.silcom.com/~tonkin/pocho/varrio.html Vision Quest Entertainment," WarGods--Azteca" Wallace, Michele. "Michael Jackson, Black Modernisms and the 'Ecstacy ofCommunication'. " P 301-318. Global Television. Cynthia Schneider and Brian Wallis [eds.]. MIT Press, 1988. Walton, John. "Making the Theoretical Case." P 121-138. What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry. Charles Ragin and Howard Becker [ed.]. Cambridge University. 1992. Winner, Langdon. "Do Artifacts Have Politics?" Daedalus. V 109, N 1, P 121-135. Winter 1980. Wright, Gwendolyn. "Morocco: Modernization and Preservation." P 85-169. The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism. University of Chicago. 1991. Young, M. Jane. "Pity the Indians of Outer Space: Native American Views of the Space Program." Western Folklore. V 46, P 269-279. October 1987.
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