Algebra
in the Long Nineteenth Century.
Most material in Net Advance Retro
antedates 1920. It may be obsolete or incorrect.
 General:
 Leçons élémentaires sur
les mathematiques (1795)
by JosephLouis Lagrange. English translation:
Lectures on Elementary Mathematics
[Chicago: Open Court, 1898]

Leçons de mathématiques
donneées a l'École Normale en 1795
by Pierre Simon Laplace
[Journal de l'École Polytechnique , VII & VIII (1812)]

Traité de la résolution
des équations numériques de tous les degrés
by JosephLouis Lagrange
[Paris: Courcier, 1808]

Leçons sur le Calcul des Fonctions
by JosephLouis Lagrange
[Paris: Courcier, 1806]

Elements of Algebra Preliminary to the Differential Calculus
by Augustus De Morgan
[London: Taylor and Walton, 1837]

Trigonometry and Double Algebra
by Augustus De Morgan
[London: Taylor, Walton, and Maberly, 1849]
"The term double algebra ... means algebra in which
each symbol stands for an object of thought having two
distinct and independent qualities ... If by the application
of a somewhat startling adjective, any of those who are
still bewildered by an art in which impossible quantities
are made objects of reasoning should become aware that the art has
become a science, and the impossibilities possible, they, at
least, will have no objection to the phrase."
 Aspects:
MATRICES;
 Aspects: EQUATION THEORY (see also
Matrices):
 Aspects: EXTREMA without calculus:
 Aspects: NOTATION:
 Aspects: SUMMATIONS and EXTENDED PRODUCTS: