HNO stands for 2,4,6,2',4',6'-hexanitro-oxanilide. This material uses the explosive TNO as its precursor. HNO was first prepared by A.G. Perkins in 1892 when he did nitrations of TNO and from oxanilide. HNO is a stable compound that resists mechanical shock, friction, and heat. Compared to TNO this compound is fairly similar, it has, perhaps, slightly greater stability and explosive power. HNO is used as a component in ignitors and pyrotechnics.
|ethyl alcohol||Buchner funnel|
|nitric acid||1000-mL Florence flask|
|sulfuric acid||graduated cylinder|
Prepare an acid mixture by pouring 125 mL of 90% nitric acid into a round bottomed 1000-mL Florence flask. Slowly add 55 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid. Set the flask into a salt-ice bath and cool it to 10 °C. You will need a magnetic stirrer if using a flask, otherwise stir by hand with a stirring rod in a beaker with extreme caution. Slowly add 29.2 of tetranitro-oxanilide (TNO) to the mixed acid with rapid agitation while keeping the temperature between 8-10 °C, this should require about 25 minutes. After adding the TNO, transfer the flask to a water bath and heat it to 85 °C over a 2 hour period, then hold the temperature between 85-90 ° for 1 hour more. The HNO slurry is filtered on a Buchner funnel and washed with water until it is almost acid free. The filter cake is placed in a beaker and sufficient water added to form a slurry. Steam is run into the slurry under agitation for 10 minutes. The slurry is filtered and the residue washed. The latter treatment of the slurry is repeated until the wash water is found to be neutral to litmus paper. The HNO is washed with ethyl alcohol, then acetone, dried in the air, and finally dried at 100-110 °C. You will need a graduated cylinder for measuring liquids, and a thermometer to monitor the temperature.
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