John Deutch was born in Belgium in 1938, to a very privileged family. They moved to the US, where he attended Sidwell Friends, one of Washington's most prominent private schools, then Amherst College and MIT. By then Deutch was already in demand at the Pentagon. "I had to fight to keep him at MIT," declared his Ph.D. thesis adviser, Irving Oppenheimer. Since his graduation Deutch has been continuously involved with the Pentagon. He worked at the Department of Defense (DOD) Office of Systems Analysis from 1961 to 1965. He then returned to academia, first to Princeton, then to MIT, where his research has centered on military applications of technology like fuel-air bombs, one of the most devastating non-nuclear weapons in existence. In 1975 he became a member of the DOD's Defense Science Board (DSB). He has been a member of half a dozen more such committees since, including the DSB summer study on Chemical Warfare in 1980, the DOD-University Forum in 1983, the Midgetman Missile panel in 1986, and President Bush's Foreign Intelligence Board. Deutch served as MIT Provost from 1985 to 1990. During his term he angered many at the Institute because of his authoritarian style of leadership. Especially controversial was his decision to close the MIT Department of Applied Biological Sciences, which was made precipitously after little more than a month of discussion. His ties to the Pentagon and conflicts of interest with the corporations on whose boards he served also came to the spotlight. Although he was the obvious candidate for the MIT presidency after Paul Gray retired, both of the above-mentioned controversies prevented that from occurring. In 1993 he returned to the Pentagon as the so-called "acquisition czar," in charge of buying tens of billions of dollars in weaponry. In 1994 he was promoted to the post of Deputy Secretary of Defense (the number 2 position at the Pentagon). This post gave him some authority over most of the intelligence budget, which comes from the Pentagon. Finally, in May 1995, he was appointed as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. He has also sat on many corporate boards of directors, including those of Perkin-Elmer, Schlumberger, Citicorp, and Science Applications and Instruments Corporation. In the fiscal year 1987-88 his income from those companies exceeded his MIT salary, which was one of the highest at the Institute. Deutch is considered a conservative in defense-intelligence issues, and has been a long-term advocate of US nuclear weapons build-up. He is also a strong supporter of biological weapons, and of using chemical and biological weapons together in order to increase their killing efficiency.