Manage different document formats

Here we describe the functions of the HTFormat module which handles conversion between different data representations. (In MIME parlance, a representation is known as a content- type. In WWW the term "format" is often used as it is shorter).

This module is implemented by HTFormat.c. The module is a part of the WWW library.


#ifndef HTFORMAT_H
#define HTFORMAT_H

#include "HTUtils.h"
#include "HTStream.h"
#include "HTAtom.h"
#include "HTList.h"

#define HTOutputSource HTOuSour
#define HTOutputBinary HTOuBina

typedef struct _HTContentDescription {
    char *	filename;
    HTAtom *	content_type;
    HTAtom *	content_language;
    HTAtom *	content_encoding;
    int		content_length;
    float	quality;
} HTContentDescription;

PUBLIC void HTAcceptEncoding PARAMS((HTList *	list,
				     char *	enc,
				     float	quality));

PUBLIC void HTAcceptLanguage PARAMS((HTList *	list,
				     char *	lang,
				     float	quality));

PUBLIC BOOL HTRank PARAMS((HTList * possibilities,
			   HTList * accepted_content_types,
			   HTList * accepted_content_languages,
			   HTList * accepted_content_encodings));

HT Input Socket: Buffering for network in

This routines provide simple character input from sockets. These are used for parsing input in arbitrary IP protocols (Gopher, NNTP, FTP).
#define INPUT_BUFFER_SIZE 4096		/* Tradeoff spped vs memory*/
typedef struct _socket_buffer {
	char input_buffer[INPUT_BUFFER_SIZE];
	char * input_pointer;
	char * input_limit;
	int input_file_number;
	BOOL	s_do_buffering;
	char *	s_buffer;
	int	s_buffer_size;
	char *	s_buffer_cur;
} HTInputSocket;

Create input buffer and set file number

extern HTInputSocket* HTInputSocket_new PARAMS((int file_number));

Get next character from buffer

extern int HTInputSocket_getCharacter PARAMS((HTInputSocket* isoc));

Read block from input socket

Read *len characters and return a buffer (don't free) containing *len characters ( *len may have changed). Buffer is not NULL-terminated.
extern char * HTInputSocket_getBlock PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc,
						  int *           len));

Free input socket buffer

extern void HTInputSocket_free PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc));

PUBLIC char * HTInputSocket_getLine PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc));
PUBLIC char * HTInputSocket_getUnfoldedLine PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc));
PUBLIC char * HTInputSocket_getStatusLine PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc));
PUBLIC BOOL   HTInputSocket_seemsBinary PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc));

Security Buffering

When it's necessary to get e.g. the header section, or part of it, exactly as it came from the client to calculate the message digest, these functions turn buffering on and off. All the material returned by HTInputSocket_getStatusLine(), HTInputSocket_getUnfoldedLine() and HTInputSocket_getLine() gets buffered after a call to HTInputSocket_startBuffering() until either HTInputSocket_stopBuffering() is called, or an empty line is returned by any of these functions (end of body section). HTInputSocket_getBuffer() returns the number of characters buffered, and sets the given buffer pointer to point to internal buffer. This buffer exists until HTInputSocket object is freed.

PUBLIC void HTInputSocket_startBuffering PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc));
PUBLIC void HTInputSocket_stopBuffering PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc));
PUBLIC int HTInputSocket_getBuffer PARAMS((HTInputSocket * isoc,
					   char ** buffer_ptr));

The HTFormat type

We use the HTAtom object for holding representations. This allows faster manipulation (comparison and copying) that if we stayed with strings.

The following have to be defined in advance of the other include files because of circular references.

typedef HTAtom * HTFormat;

#include "HTAccess.h"   /* Required for HTRequest definition */
These macros (which used to be constants) define some basic internally referenced representations.

Internal ones

The www/xxx ones are of course not MIME standard.

star/star is an output format which leaves the input untouched. It is useful for diagnostics, and for users who want to see the original, whatever it is.

#define WWW_SOURCE	HTAtom_for("*/*")      /* Whatever it was originally */
www/present represents the user's perception of the document. If you convert to www/present, you present the material to the user.
#define WWW_PRESENT	HTAtom_for("www/present")   /* The user's perception */
The message/rfc822 format means a MIME message or a plain text message with no MIME header. This is what is returned by an HTTP server.
#define WWW_MIME	HTAtom_for("www/mime")		   /* A MIME message */
www/print is like www/present except it represents a printed copy.
#define WWW_PRINT	HTAtom_for("www/print")		   /* A printed copy */
www/unknown is a really unknown type. Some default action is appropriate.
#define WWW_UNKNOWN     HTAtom_for("www/unknown")

MIME ones (a few)

These are regular MIME types. HTML is assumed to be added by the W3 code. application/octet-stream was mistakenly application/binary in earlier libwww versions (pre 2.11).
#define WWW_PLAINTEXT 	HTAtom_for("text/plain")
#define WWW_POSTSCRIPT 	HTAtom_for("application/postscript")
#define WWW_RICHTEXT 	HTAtom_for("application/rtf")
#define WWW_AUDIO       HTAtom_for("audio/basic")
#define WWW_HTML 	HTAtom_for("text/html")
#define WWW_BINARY 	HTAtom_for("application/octet-stream")
#define WWW_VIDEO 	HTAtom_for("video/mpeg")
Extra types used in the library
#define WWW_NEWSLIST 	HTAtom_for("text/newslist")
We must include the following file after defining HTFormat, to which it makes reference.

The HTEncoding type

typedef HTAtom* HTEncoding;

The following are values for the MIME types:
#define WWW_ENC_7BIT		HTAtom_for("7bit")
#define WWW_ENC_8BIT		HTAtom_for("8bit")
#define WWW_ENC_BINARY		HTAtom_for("binary")

We also add
#define WWW_ENC_COMPRESS	HTAtom_for("compress")

#include "HTAnchor.h"

The HTPresentation and HTConverter types

This HTPresentation structure represents a possible conversion algorithm from one format to annother. It includes a pointer to a conversion routine. The conversion routine returns a stream to which data should be fed. See also HTStreamStack which scans the list of registered converters and calls one. See the initialisation module for a list of conversion routines.
typedef struct _HTPresentation HTPresentation;

typedef HTStream * HTConverter PARAMS((
	HTRequest *		request,
	void *			param,
	HTFormat		input_format,
	HTFormat		output_format,
	HTStream *		output_stream));
struct _HTPresentation {
	HTAtom* rep;		/* representation name atomized */
	HTAtom* rep_out;	/* resulting representation */
	HTConverter *converter;	/* The routine to gen the stream stack */
	char *  command;	/* MIME-format string */
	float	quality;	/* Between 0 (bad) and 1 (good) */
	float   secs;
	float   secs_per_byte;
A global list of converters is kept by this module. It is also scanned by modules which want to know the set of formats supported. for example. Note there is also an additional list associated with each request.
extern HTList * HTConversions ;

HTSetPresentation: Register a system command to present a format

On entry,

is the MIME - style format name
is the MAILCAP - style command template
A degradation faction 0..1
A limit on the length acceptable as input (0 infinite)
A limit on the time user will wait (0 for infinity)
extern void HTSetPresentation PARAMS((
	HTList *	conversions,
	CONST char * 	representation,
	CONST char * 	command,
	float		quality,
	float		secs, 
	float		secs_per_byte

HTSetConversion: Register a converstion routine

On entry,

is the content-type input
is the resulting content-type
is the routine to make the stream to do it
extern void HTSetConversion PARAMS((
	HTList *	conversions,
	CONST char * 	rep_in,
	CONST char * 	rep_out,
	HTConverter *	converter,
	float		quality,
	float		secs, 
	float		secs_per_byte

HTStreamStack: Create a stack of streams

This is the routine which actually sets up the conversion. It currently checks only for direct conversions, but multi-stage conversions are forseen. It takes a stream into which the output should be sent in the final format, builds the conversion stack, and returns a stream into which the data in the input format should be fed. The anchor is passed because hypertxet objects load information into the anchor object which represents them.

If guess is true and input format is www/unknown, try to guess the format by looking at the first few butes of the stream.

extern HTStream * HTStreamStack PARAMS((
	HTFormat		format_in,
	HTRequest *		request,
	BOOL			guess));

HTStackValue: Find the cost of a filter stack

Must return the cost of the same stack which HTStreamStack would set up.

On entry,

The fomat of the data to be converted
The format required
The intrinsic "value" of the data before conversion on a scale from 0 to 1
The number of bytes expected in the input format
extern float HTStackValue PARAMS((
	HTList *		conversions,
	HTFormat		format_in,
	HTFormat		format_out,
	float			initial_value,
	long int		length));

#define NO_VALUE_FOUND	-1e20		/* returned if none found */

HTCopy: Copy a socket to a stream

This is used by the protocol engines to send data down a stream, typically one which has been generated by HTStreamStack. Returns the number of bytes transferred.
extern int HTCopy PARAMS((
	int			file_number,
	HTStream*		sink));


HTFileCopy: Copy a file to a stream

This is used by the protocol engines to send data down a stream, typically one which has been generated by HTStreamStack. It is currently called by HTParseFile
extern void HTFileCopy PARAMS((
	FILE*			fp,
	HTStream*		sink));


HTCopyNoCR: Copy a socket to a stream, stripping CR characters.

It is slower than HTCopy .
extern void HTCopyNoCR PARAMS((
	int			file_number,
	HTStream*		sink));

HTParseSocket: Parse a socket given its format

This routine is called by protocol modules to load an object. uses HTStreamStack and the copy routines above. Returns HT_LOADED if succesful, <0 if not.
extern int HTParseSocket PARAMS((
	HTFormat	format_in,
	int 		file_number,
	HTRequest *	request));

HTParseFile: Parse a File through a file pointer

This routine is called by protocols modules to load an object. uses HTStreamStack and HTFileCopy . Returns HT_LOADED if succesful, <0 if not.
extern int HTParseFile PARAMS((
	HTFormat	format_in,
	FILE		*fp,
	HTRequest *	request));

HTNetToText: Convert Net ASCII to local representation

This is a filter stream suitable for taking text from a socket and passing it into a stream which expects text in the local C representation. It does ASCII and newline conversion. As usual, pass its output stream to it when creating it.
extern HTStream *  HTNetToText PARAMS ((HTStream * sink));

HTFormatInit: Set up default presentations and conversions

These are defined in HTInit.c or HTSInit.c if these have been replaced. If you don't call this routine, and you don't define any presentations, then this routine will automatically be called the first time a conversion is needed. However, if you explicitly add some conversions (eg using HTLoadRules) then you may want also to explicitly call this to get the defaults as well.
extern void HTFormatInit PARAMS((HTList * conversions));

HTFormatInitNIM: Set up default presentations and conversions

This is a slightly different version of HTFormatInit, but without any conversions that might use third party programs. This is intended for Non Interactive Mode.
extern void HTFormatInitNIM PARAMS((HTList * conversions));

HTFormatDelete: Remove presentations and conversions

Deletes the list from HTFormatInit or HTFormatInitNIM
extern void HTFormatDelete PARAMS((HTList * conversions));


extern BOOL HTOutputSource;	/* Flag: shortcut parser */