A major goal of our current research is to understand how functionally specific cortical regions arise in development, and whether and how they change in adulthood. We have demonstrated important roles for experience by showing i) changes in the cortical representation of objects after training, ii) the existence of a cortical region whose specialization (for visual word perception) must be based on experience, and iii) changes in the response of retinotopic cortex in people with loss of foveal vision due to macular degeneration. On the other hand, exciting recent work from other labs suggests an important role for genes in determining cortical specialization. In a new line of work funded by the Ellison Medical Foundation, we are now beginning longitudinal studies of brain and behavior in typical children and children with autism aged 5-10 (in collaboration with Saxe, Gabrieli, and our colleagues Fischl and Wald who are developing new methods that will revolutionize pediatric neuroimaging). A central puzzle in this work is why the cortex continues to change into the teenage years even when the relevant underlying cognitive functions appear to be in place by age four.
Other lines of work in our lab explore the nature of the representations that enable us to recognize faces, objects, words, and scenes and that underlie our conscious experience of the visual world, the neural representation of visual arrays of multiple objects, the perceptual/cognitive functions that persist during diminished states of consciousness, and the role of feedback to retinotopic cortex in visual information processing.
These articles can be downloaded from my labwebsite: http://web.mit.edu/bcs/nklab/publications.shtmlHaushofer, J. Baker, C., Livingstone, M. & Kanwisher N. (2008). Privileged Coding of Convex Shapes in Human Object-Selective Cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology. 100(2):753-62.
Schwarzlose, R. F., Swisher, J.D., Dang, S., Kanwisher, N. (2008). The distribution of category and location information across object-selective regions of visual cortex. PNAS, 105, 4447-4452.
Reddy, L. & Kanwisher, N. (2007). Category Selectivity in the Ventral Visual Pathway Confers Robustness to Clutter and Diverted Attention. Current Biology, 17(23):2067-72.