Annotated Bibliography: Meteorites and Life

M. Ageno, 1972 Journal of Theoretical Biology 37:187.
An article on biological asymetry. Remarks in passing that the racemic nature of meteorite amino acids shows them to be non-biological.

L.J. Allamandola, et al., 1987 Science 237:56.
Review article on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in interplanetary dust and in meteorites; they have similar Raman spectra, isotope ratios, etc.

D.A. Allen and D.T. Wickramasinghe, 1987 Nature 329:615.
Report an emission feature of Comet Wilson, the spectrum of which indicates that it is probably a release of organic grains. However, the band shape does not resemble biological materials thus far studied.

B. Alpern and Y. Benkheiri, 1973 Earth and Planetary Science Letters 19:422.
Using fluorescent microscopy on Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite, conclude that most organic matter is small micron-wide spheres.

E. Anders, 1962 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 93:649.
Criticizes Nagy et al.'s comparison of mass spectra of biogenic materials (butter and recent sediments) to Orgueil, noting that the two biogenic substances look very dissimilar. Points out that Orgueil sample is likely to have absorbed fossil fuel residues in the century of its stay in New York City. Finds that resemblance between cracking pattern of Orgueil distillate and that of known biogenic hydrocarbons interesting but inconclusive. Questions Nagy's use of statistics as well.

E. Anders and F.W. Fitch, 1962 Science 138:1392
Unsuccessful attempt to confirm Nagy et al.'s finding of organized elements in the Orgueil stone. Found fewer simple-morphology particles than claimed by Nagy and no evidence of biological origin. Found no rare complex-morphology particles and suspects that those reported by Nagy et al. were contaminants or artifacts.

E. Anders et al, 1964 Science 146:1157.
Reports that a sample of the Orgueil stone in the Musée d' Histoire Naturelle, Montauban, France, contains coal fragments, reed seed-capsules, and a glue-like collagen. Concludes this sample was either deliberately or accidentally contaminated in the XIX Century. (The reed is local to the Montauban area, so is unlikely to be extraterrestrial). Perhaps other samples were contaminated as well.

E. Anders et al, 1973 Science 182:781.
Review article on organic compounds in meteorites, believed to have formed by catalytic reactions of CO, hydrogen and ammonia in the solar nebula.

E. Anders, 1989 Nature 342:255.
Because organic matter is largely destroyed by heating in a major impact, it is important to calculate how much organic material arrives in small meteorites which are gently decelerated. Figures for present and earlier epochs are deduced.

E. Anders and E. Zinner, 1993 Meteoritics 28:490.
Review article on interstellar grains (diamond, silicon carbide, graphite) in meteorites.

Anonymous, 1882 American Journal of Science 123:156.
States that Hahn's ``crinoids'' are pseudofossils similar to inorganic structure created in the laboratory by S. Meunier.

S. Aronowitz and S. Chang, 1980 Astrophysical Journal 242:149.
Try to calculate (from the Langevin equation) adsorption of various light molecules into silica grains. Conclude that abundance of interstellar grains likely to be small.

S. Arrhenius, 1907 Scientific American 96:196.
Argues for direct propagation of life between planets by microbes hurled into near-planet space by storms, then propelled by radiation pressure. (No comets or meteorites required.)

D.E. Backman and F. Paresce, 1993 in E.H. Levy and J.I. Lunine, eds., Protostars and Planets III (University of Arizona).
Report discovery of disks of grains near three main sequence stars, roughly where the ``Kuiper belt'' of comets would lie in our solar system.

J. Bada et al, 1983 Nature 301:494.
Attack Engel and Nagy, 1982, pointing out that a more likely explanation for the fact that only the protein amino acids are non-racemic is that they are terrestrial contaminants.
Engel and Nagy reply that they had made no speculations, just reported their results, and defend their analytic technique.

J. Bada et al, 1986 Origins of Life 16:185.
Suggest that alpha-amino isobutyric acid is associated with the KT boundary. If so, might earlier impacts have introduced the amino acids necessary for the appearance of life?

J.L. Bada. 1991 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B333:349.
Review article on amino acids in meteorites. Argues that the racemic nature of meteoritic acids suggest that amino acid chirality only arose after life was well-established on Earth.

B.L. Baker, 1971 Space Life Sciences 2:472.
Review of information on organic materials in the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.

E.L. Bandurski and B. Nagy, 1976 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 40:1397.
Report on analysis of polymer-like organic extract from Orgueil. Conclude it is a complex mixture similar, but not identical, to kerogen.

A. BarNun, et al, 1981 Origins of Life 11:387.
Attack the idea of Hoyle and Wickramasinghe that life arose in comets. Most organics are sublimed or blown off at perihelion in too short a time to migrate into interior; the structure is too tenuous for a liquid core; if there were a liquid core (due to aluminium-26), it would be too radioactive for life.

A.J. Bauman, et al, 1973 Nature 241:264.
Extract a non-graphitic carbonaceous phase from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite. It is probably not a classical polymer because it is ``intractable'' and thermally stable.

L. Becker, et al, 1994 Nature 372:507.
Report discovery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fullerenes in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite by time-of-flight mass spectroscopy.

Y. Benkheiri and B. Alpern, 1974 Comptes Rendus D278:3279.
Report existence of fluorescent organic microspheres indigenous to Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.

M. Berthelot, 1868 Comptes Rendus 67:849.
A theoretical paper seeking to explain presence of petroleumlike hydrocarbons in meteorites in terms of a reaction between metal carbides and water.

J.J. Berzelius, 1834 Annalen der physikalisches Chemie 33:113.
Found humic acid in Alais carbonaceous chondrite; decided a biological origin unlikely.

F. Birgham, 1881 Popular Science 20:83.
Reports alleged discovery of fossil multi-cellular invertebrates in stones of 1866 Knyahinya fall by Hahn and Weinland.

F.L. Boschke, 1988 Chem. Labor. Betr. 39:14.
German-language discussion, according to the abstract, of possible significance of carbonaceous chondrite biomolecules to exobiology.

M.N. Bramlette, 1967 Science 158:673.
Comment on the existence of numerous terrestrial pseudo-microfossils which might fool biologists.

T. Bernatowicz, et al, 1987 Nature 372:507.
Report discovery of interstellar SiC grain in the Murray carbonaceous chondrite.

M.C. Bitz and B. Nagy, 1966 Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S. 56:1383.
Attempt analysis of polymerlike materials extracted from Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite, coal, and kerogen by ozonolysis, but while there are marked similarities, the problem is complicated.

M.H. Briggs, 1961 Nature 191:1137.
Reports discovery of complex organic compounds in the Mokoia carbonaceous chondrite. Speculates they are either from decay of a dead extraterrestrial life-form or are abiotic compounds formed in the early solar system.

M.H. Briggs and G.B. Kitto, 1962 Nature 193:1126.
Find complex organic microstructures, some resembling unicellular organisms, in the Mokoia carbonaceous chondrite. Take no position on their origin.

M.H. Briggs, 1962 Observatory 82:216.
Argues that the large quantity of organic material associated with meteorites, especially with carbonaceous chondrites, is sufficient for a non-biological explanation of petroleum---also argues that some microfossils found in terrestrial sediments may be in fact ``polymeric hydrocarbons derived from meteoritic fragments,'' (i.e., that some terrestrial microfossils are really Nagy-type objects of non-biological, extraterrestrial origin).

M.H. Briggs, 1963 Nature 197:1290.
Isotopic analysis shows that organic material in various carbonaceous chondrites probably extraterrestrial, not a contaminant.

M.H. Briggs, 1963 Life Sciences 2:63.
Reports discovery of urea, acetamide, and various aromatic acids in carbonaceous chondrites.

M.H. Briggs and G. Mamkiunian, 1963 Space Science Review 1:647.
Review article about organic substances in carbonaceous chondrites; agnostic about ``organized structures.''

J. Brooks, 1981 Philisophical Transactions of the Royal Society A303:595.
Review paper on carbonaceous chondrites and early preCambrian rocks.

H.S. Brown, 1953 A Bibliography on Meteorites (University of Chicago)
Over 8,000 references.

P. Bruston and F. Raulin, 1995 Planetary and Space Science 43:1JJ.
Very brief review of current status of exobilogogy; the entire joural issue develops these themes.

J.D. Buddhue, 1942 Popular Astronomy 50:561.
Attacks Lipman's claimed discovery of organic nitrogen compounds.

John G. Burke, 1986 Cosmic Debris: Meteorites in History (University of California)
An outstanding history of the study of meteorites (and of the role of meteorites in prescientific culture), including the debate over their exobiological significance.

A.L. Burlingame and H.K. Schnoes, 1966 Science 152:104.
Attack Studier et al.'s 1965 work with carbonaceous chondrites on various grounds as inadequate to serve as basis for any theory of carbonaceous chondrite origins.

C. Chyba and C. Sagan, 1987 Nature 329:208.
Argue that numerous other more "plausable" models explain the Comet Halley dust spectrum as well as does the theory of Hoyle and Wickramasinghe. Also criticize this theory's choice of a temperature.

C. Chyba and C. Sagan, 1987 Nature 330:350.
Describe laboratory spectra of simulated comet ice containing irradiated organic residues and producing a spectrum similar to that of Halley's comet.

C.F. Chyba and C. Sagan, 1988 Nature 332:592.
Argue against Hoyle and Wickramasinghe that if freeze-dried bacteria fit spectrum of Comet Halley, it is because of the presence of common organic functional groups found in bacteria and in non-living systems. Concede, however, that they had overstated their case. Also defend themselves against criticism by Greenberg and Zhao.

C.F. Chyba, 1990 Nature 348:113.
News article about discovery of asymetry in extraterrestrial amino acids, and Zahnle-Grinspoon proposal for method by which amino acids were transfered to earth by evaporating comet.

B.C. Clark, 1998 Origins of Life 18:209.
Suggests a ``soft landing'' mechanism by which comet could land on planet relatively intact and melt, providing a growth habitat for any life or prebiotic material. The probability of a soft landing is admitted to be low, about one per million.

G. Claus and B. Nagy, 1961 Nature 192:594.
Describes discovery of organized structures in New York and DC samples of Orgueil stone, and in the Ivuna stone, both carbonaceous chondrites, but not in ordinary stony meteorites, Holbrook and Bruderheim.

G. Claus, et al., 1963 Annals of the New York Academy of Science 108:580.
Morphology and staining behavior of organic structures in carbonaceous chondrites suggest that they are biological. The morphological method, standard in palynology, is defended.

G. Claus and C.A. Suba-C., 1964 Nature 204:118.
Verifies the abundance of organized structures in Orgueil.

S. Cloëz, 1864 Comptes Rendus 59:37.
Examined the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite and found material comparable to peat and lignite.

B.T. Commins and J.S. Harrington, 1966 Nature 212:273.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reported in Cold Bokkeveld and Orgueil carbonaceous chondrites. Remarks that there are several possible origins (extraterrestrial; atmospheric pyrolysis; burning of material at impact site; contamination).

G.W. Cooper and J.R. Cronin, 1995 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59:1003.
Describe numerous amides extracted from Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. Suggest these might serve as basis of primitive sequence coding system.

J.R. Cronin, 1976 Origins of Life 7:337 and 341.
Reports that twice as much amino acid can be extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite by subjecting samples to acid hydrolysis. This could mean either that more amino acids exist in rock than previously thought or that precursors exist which form amino acids in extraction process.

J.R. Cronin and C.B. Moore, 1976 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 40:853.
Amino acids reported in extracts from Nogoya and Mokoia carbonaceous chondrites. The Nogoya extract differs from previously studied samples.

J.R. Cronin, et al., 1981 Journal of Molecular Evolution 17:265.
Report on amino acids extracted from Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. Their properties are found to differ from those of acids created in electric disharge and Fischer-Tropsch experiments.

J.R. Cronin and S. Pizzarello, 1986 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 50:2419.
55 amino acids have been found in Murchison carbonaceous chondrite; 36 unique to meteorites.

J.R. Cronin, et al., 1987 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51:299.
Obtain carbon-13 NMR spectra of insoluble organic residues from Orgueil, Murchison, and Allende carbonaceous chondrites. Suggest that extensive polycylic aromatic sheets are found in all three extracts.

J.R. Cronin, et al., 1988 in J.F. Kerridge and M.S. Matthews, eds., Meteorites and the Early Solar System (University of Arizona).
Report 74 amino acids in the Murchison meteorite.

J.R. Cronin, 1989 Advances in Space Research 9:59.
Review of theories about origin of organic material in carbonaceous chondrites; favors view that organic molecules from interstellar clouds were incorporated into parent body and then subjected to aqueous processes.

J.R. Cronin and S. Chang, 1993 NATO ASI Series C 416 (Chemistry of Life's Origin):209.
Review of organic chemistry of Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

E.T. Degens and M. Bajor, 1962 Naturwissenschaft 49:605.
Report finding amino acids and sugars in the Bruderheim and Murray stones, distributed differently from on earth. However, say that for theoretical reasons, these results should be attributed to either an abiogenic origin or to contamination.

E.T. Degens, 1964 Nature 202:1092.
Compares terrestrial and extraterrestrial organic material spectra. Skeptical of biogenic theories of origin.

R.M. de Graaf, et al., 1995 Nature 378:474.
Synthesize various substances including phosphonic acid, which is found in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite, by UV irradiation of orthophosphorous acid in presence of various simple organic compounds such as formaldehyde.

A.H. Delsemme, 1984 Origins of Life 14:51.
A review of organic and prebiotic substances in comets.

J. Depireux, et al., 1964 Comptes Rendus 259:1891 and 4776.
Paramagnetic resonance study of Cold Bokkeveld, Mighei, and Nogoya carbonaceous chondrite free radicals, which are called partly attributable to a biogenic origin.

B. Donn, 1982 Journal of Molecular Evolution 18:157.
Argues against the probability of life arising on comets, or likelihood of liquid water having existed on them.

W.W. Duley and D.A. Williams, 1979 Nature 277:40.
Argue that spectroscopic data provide no evidence for the existence of grains in interstellar space, and an absorption band they would produce is not seen.

P. Ehrenfreund, et al., 1991 Astronomy and Astrophysics 252:712.
Report that three micron spectrum of deuterium-rich ``polymer'' extracted from Orgueil matches the galactic center infrared source IRS7 better than it does terrestrial kerogen. Argue that about half the carbon in the Orgueil stone therefore must come from interstellar organic grains.

P. Ehrenfreund, et al., 1992 International Astronomical Union Symposium 150 (Astrochemistry of Cosmic Phenomena):423.
Report that the three-micron spectrum of Orgueil is almost identical to that of the infrared source IRS7 near the galactic center, suggesting that organic macromolecules in meteorites are the same as in interstellar space.

M. Endress, et al., 1996 Nature 379:701.
Isotopic measurements suggest that parent body of Orgueil and Ivuna carbonaceous chondrites was undergoing aqueous activity from very early in the history of the solar system.

M.H. Engel and B. Nagy, 1982 Nature 296:837.
Reports finding apparently indigenous amino acids in Murchison carbonaceous chondrite which, however, are non-racemic. (suggests biology, although the authors avoid saying this.)

M.H. Engel, et al., 1990 Nature 348:47.
Isotopic analysis establishes extraterrestrial origin of amino acids on Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. The fact that there is an asymetry between optical isomers suggests optically active materials predate existence of life.

S. Epstein, et al., 1987 Nature 326:477.
Reports finding unusual ratio of isotopes in amino and carboxylic acids from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite, confirming their extraterrestrial origin and suggesting they formed in interstellar clouds.

M.A. Farrell, 1933 American Museum Novitates 645:1.
Attacks works of Lipman, attributing bacteria to terrestrial contamination.

F.W. Fitch, et al., 1962 Nature 193:1123.
Observed the same structures as Nagy et al, but believe them to be the same as certain known particles made of inorganic materials. Since fossils made of these particular materials would be ``unprecedented,'' they reject biological theory.

F.W. Fitch and E. Anders, 1963 Annals of the New York Academy of Science 108:495.
Similar to Fitch, et al., 1962.

F.W. Fitch and E. Anders, 1963 Science 140:1097.
Argue that some of Nagy et al's organic elements are ragweed pollen particles, distorted in the staining process.

C. Flammarion, 1864 La Pluralité des Mondes Habités (Didier, Paris).
An international popular-science bestseller which made extraterrestrial life an accepted topic of conversation among educated people in the XIX Century; carbonaceous chondrites are invoked as strong circumstantial evidence for life on other planets.

W. Flight, 1877 The Eclectic 89:711.
A popular article in support of Thomson's meteorite panspermia theory.

J. Flood, 1973 Nature 246:301.
Reports monocarboxylic acids in Murray and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites. The lack of preference for an even number of carbons suggests extraterrestrial (non-biological) origin.

C.E. Folsome, et al., 1971 Nature 232:108.
Reports discovery of heterocyclic compounds indigenous to the Murchison meteorite.

C.E. Folsome, et al., 1973 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37:455.
Report 4-hydroxypyrimidnes and other heterocyclic compounds extracted from Murray, Murchison, and Orgueil carbonaceous chondrites. No biological N-heterocyclics or triazines observed.

M.N. Fomekova, et al., 1994 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58:4503.
Discuss organic grains discovered near Comet Halley. Speculate they are related to the kerogenlike substance in carbonaceous chondrites.

T.R. Geballe, 1987 Nature 329:583.
News story about discovery of organic materials in comets Halley and Wilson.

E. Gelpi, et al., 1970 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 34:965.
Fischer-Tropsch experiments using meteoritic and terrestrial irons as catalyst produced small amount of hydrocarbons, none isoprenoid.
E. Gelpi, et al., 1970 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 34:981.
Report finding normal and isoprenoid alkanes in extracts from six carbonaceous chondrites.
E. Gelpi, et al., 1970 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 34:995.
Find small amounts of normal and isoprenic alkanes in Canyon Diablo, Odessa, and Cosby's Creek irons. Distribution is similar to carbonaceous chondrites; doubt they are indigenous, however, because most near the surface of nodule.

E. Gelpi and J. Oró, 1970 International Journal of Mass Spectroscopy and Ion Physics 4:323.
Report mass spectroscopic analysis of isoprenoids and other isomeric alkanes from numerous meteorites, including Canyon Diablo irons, and compare with terrestrial samples. Conclude that these are probably biogenic, but are contaminants from dust, air, auto exhaust, or smoke stack plumes. Allende carbonaceous chondrite, newly fallen, shows no such activity.

J.J. Gilvarry, 1960 Nature 188:886.
Argues that the Moon once had oceans, and that life may have evolved there; asks if rings of dark material around edge of lunar mountains are fossils left as seas dried.

V.I. Goldanskii, 1977 Nature 268:612.
Proposes a mechanism--molecular tunneling in condensed formaldehyde--by which formaldehyde polymers could form in interstellar space as postulated by Wickramasinghe.

V.I. Goldanskii, 1977 Nature 269:583.
Low temperature molecular tunneling processes in formaldehyde, such as the author suggested occur in interstellar clouds, could perhaps also lead to life on cold interstellar grains.

R.M. de Graaf, et al., 1995 Nature 378:474.
Synthesize various substances including phosphonic acid, which is found in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite, by UV irradiation of orthophosphorous acid in presence of various simple organic compounds such as formaldehyde.

J.M. Greenberg and N. Zhao, 1988 Nature 331:124.
Attack both Wickramasinghe-Hoyle and Chyba-Sagan models of Comet Halley, in favor of their own theory in which organics are formed by photoprocessing of dust. State that of the two, the Chyba-Sagan model is slightly better.

J.M. Greenberg, et al., 1995 Advances in Space Research 16:9.
Argue infrared spectra of interstellar dust, laboratory organic residues, and meteorites are similar to each other and show a composition arguably like Comet Halley's.

H. Gregory, 1962 Nature 194:1065.
Attempts to identify objects seen by Nagy as pollen or plant spores.

C.W. Gübel, 1878 Sitzungberichten der math. phys. Classe, Ak. Wiss. München 101:14.
Reports an unsuccessful search for organic structures in thin sections of Kaba and Cold Bokkeveld stones.

O. Hahn, 1879 Die Urzelle (Tübingen, Laupp'schen)
Claims to have identified algae-like plant fossils in various rocks, including the Knyahinya ordinary chondrite and the Toluca iron.

O. Hahn, 1880 Die Meteorite und ihre Organismen (Tübingen, Laupp'schen)
Examined 20 meteorites, none of which were carbonaceous chondrites. Claimed to have found fossils of sponges, corals, and crinoids, especially in the Knyahinya ordinary chondrite. Considers possibility that meteorites are of catastrophic terrestrial origin (i.e. sedimentary rocks blasted into space) but prefers the extraterrestrial theory.

P.B. Hamilton, 1965 Nature 205:284.
Finds that human skin is a major source of amino acid contamination of analytical samples in general.

J. Han, et al., 1969 Nature 222:364.
Find clearly biological organic material in the Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite. Attribute it to contamination and question, given rapidity of this contamination in a well-docuemented fall, all studies of meteorite organic contents.

R. Hayatsu, 1964 Science 146:1291.
Identifies purines and other organic nitrogen compounds in Orgueil sample. Large amounts of sym-triazine derivatives, of no biological significance, are noted.

R. Hayatsu, 1965 Science 149:443.
Fails to confirm Nagy's report of high optical rotation in Orgueil sample.

R. Hayatsu, 1966 Science 153:859.
Scattered light leads to spurious large optical rotations; this is probably what Nagy reported.

R. Hayatsu, et al., 1973 in E. Ingerson, ed., Proceedings of Tokyo Symposium in Hydrogeochemistry and Biogeochemistry, Vol. II (Clarke, Washington, DC).
Report use of Fischer-Tropsch type reaction to synthesize many of the compounds found in carbonaceous chondrites.

R. Hayatsu, et al., 1975 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 39:471.
Report discovery of organic nitrogen compounds in Murchison carbonaceous chondrite: purines and triazines, contrary to Folsome's results (Folsome, 1971 and 1973), but failed to detect 4-hydroxypyrimidines reported by Folsome.

R. Hayatsu, et al., 1980 Science 207:1202.
Reports discovery of various phenolic acids and other organic acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

R. Hayatsu, et al., 1980 Science 209:1515.
Report discovery of carbynes in Allende carbonaceous chondrite.

J.M. Hayes, 1967 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 31:1395.
Extremely thorough review of all organic chemical analyses of meteorites 1900-1965, excluding specifically exobiological claims.

H. von Helmholtz, 1874 Nature 11:149.
Originally published in German edition of a book by William Thomson. Defends the future Lord Kelvin's philosophy of science and his stance on various issues, ranging from Weber's electrodynamics and the particle theory of light to panspermia, against criticism of J.K.F. Zöllner. Argues that meteoritic life could survive entry into the atmosphere if it were deep enough in the stone or if it gently blew off the surface before the stone reached the denser part of the atmosphere. Remarks that he independently proposed this idea a year before Kelvin.

I.M. Henderson,et al., 1987 Nature 326:22.
Attempt to determine number of nucleotide changes in comet-borne virus evolution and expected genetic distance between strains in successive epidemics. Conclude Hoyle and Wickramasinghe model disagrees with observation.

R.W. Hobbs and J.M. Hollis, 1982 Origins of Life 12:125.
Propose experiments for future space missions which could resolve biological questions about comets.

G.W. Hodgson and B.L. Baker, 1964 Nature 202:125.
Report discovery of porphyrins similar to those in ancient terrestrial sediment.

G.W. Hodgson and B.L. Baker, 1969 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 33:943.
Report discovery of porphyrin pigments in Orgueil, Murray, Cold Bokkeveld, and Mokoia carbonaceous chondrites. No evidence of bacterial or other contamination found. The fluorescence spectra differ from those of terrestrial samples.

G. Holzer and J. Oró, 1979 Journal of Molecular Evolution 13:265.
Antarctic meteorite ALH77306, a carbonaceous chondrite, contains a low level of racemic amino acids. The organic content of the stone on pyrolysis resembles the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

G. Horneck, 1995 Planetary and Space Science 43:189.
Review article on exobiology.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1976 Nature 264:45.
Show theoretically that physical conditions in prestellar molecular clouds favor formation of grains coated with complex organic materials, including amino acids; identify the grains with carbonaceous chondrite inclusions.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1977 Nature 266:241.
Argue that interstellar grains are found in gas clouds and in carbonaceous chondrites; that they are made of organic materials; and that life may have originated from a polymer coating such a grain.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1977 Nature 268:610.
Claim that spectra of gasclouds revel presence of polysaccharides.

F. Hoyle and C. Wickramasinghe, 1977 New Scientist 76:402.
Popular presentation of argument for comet-borne disease, alluding to Nagy's carbonaceous chondrite findings as evidence.

F. Hoyle, 1978 Mercury 7:2.
Popular account of his theory, emphasizing the role of interstellar clouds.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1981 Evolution from Space (Simon and Schuster, New York) .
One of the most radical of their works, attacking most forms of biological evolution as involving unbelievably small probabilities and advocating instead directed panspermia by an ancient extraterrestrial civilization. Also suggest that insects, flowers, etc. appeared on Earth via meteorites.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1981 Space Travellers (University College, Cardiff) .
Present the original, more moderate form of their theory for a popular audience: comets are vectors by which microorganisms are transmitted from interstellar space to the Earth.

F. Hoyle, et al., 1986 Viruses from Space (University College, Cardiff).
Attempt to provide technical support for the epidemiological aspects of panspermia.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1987 Nature 327:664.
Rebuttal to Henderson, et al.,1987. Say they do not claim every influenza virus is from a different comet, or that viruses invade Earth more than once a decade. What establishment biologists call ``evolutionary changes in the virus'' they see as changes in host immune response instead.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1987 Nature 328:117.
Response to Kissel and Krüger, 1987. Deny that they claimed all cometary dust must be biological. Question whether Vega spacecraft observations are reliable, or might have destroyed the molecules being sought. Point out many of Kissel and Krüger's comments assume a particular model of comet structure.
Kissel and Krüger reply: Vega also didn't find the right quantities of sodium and potassium for life, or even for nucleic acids, so it doesn't matter if molecules were destroyed by impact.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1988 Nature 331:123.
Object to a statement by Chyba and Sagan that the agreement between bacterial model and later measurement provides ``no evidence'' that their theory is true. Say that Chyba and Sagan abiotic model is a far worse violation of the Occam's razor principle than anything of which they are guilty: life, after all, is a well-known phenomenon, but who has ever seen complex pre-biological chemistry, much less biogenesis?

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1988 Nature 331:666.
Argue that Comet Halley's dust spectrum data agree with their bacterial model better than with the abiotic model of Chyba and Sagan, although both have difficulties at short wavelengths/low fluxes.

F. Hoyle and N.C. Wickramasinghe, 1991 Theory of Cosmic Grains (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht).
Review the history of all theories of interstellar grains, ultimately arguing for their own theory, of which this is (from the astronomical point of view) the most detailed presentation.

L.L. Hua, 1986 Origins of Life 16:226.
HPLC analysis of Murchison, Murray, and Orgueil reveals presence of all five nucleic acid bases.

W.M. Irvine, et al., 1980 Nature 283:748.
Comets are thought to contain carbonaceous chondrite-like material and ice. Argue that liquid water may have existed on comets at various times, and that life may have arisen on them. Perhaps this is an origin for viroids, although Hoyle's comet-evolved viruses cannot be Earth's because ours all share a common genetic system with each other and other cells.

W.M. Irvine and A. Hjalmarson, 1984 Origins of Life 14:15.
Report on abundance of (mainly small) molecules in several dense interstellar clouds.

C.P. Ivanov, et al., 1984 Origins of Life 14:61.
Report finding peptides as well as apparently indigenous (non-protein) amino acids in two ordinary chondrites, Goumoshnik and Pavel.

M.V. Ivanov and A.Yu. Lein, 1994 Advances in Space Research 15:215.
Explain the carbon isotope ratio of SNC meteorites in terms of a microbial reaction on Mars.

A.A. Jasinskaya, 1991 Mineral. Sb. (Lviv) 45:22.
Russian-language review article on organic matter in meteorites.

E.K. Jessberger and J. Kissel, 1991 in R.L. Newburn, et al., eds. Comets in the Post-Halley Era, Vol. II (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht).
Report on Giotto and Vega observations of dust from Comet Halley.

I.R. Kaplan, et al., 1963 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 27:805.
Report amino acids and sugars in eight carbonaceous chondrites, five ordinary chondrites, and the Norton County achondrite. No optical rotation was detected--nor were pigments nor fatty acids. The distribution pattern of amino acids also seemed nonbiological.

J.F. Kerridge, 1983 Earth and Planetary Science Letters 64:186.
The insoluable organic kerogen in Orgueil and Murray carbonaceous chondrites have same isotopic heterogeneity patterns, indicating a common source of kerogen itself (not of some precursor). This suggests an interstellar cloud origin for carbonaceous chondrites.

J.F. Kerridge, et al., 1987 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51:2527.
Relate different chemical and structural units in the kerogen-like organic extract from carbonaceous chondrites to different isotopic components. Argue that asome of the deuterium enrichment occurred in interstellar space, and that reactons as well as polymeriztion occurred there.

J.R. Kerridge, 1991 Origins of Life 21:19.
Suggests that deuterium enrichment took place in a molecular cloud, actual synthesis of organic compounds in an aqueous environment on the carbonaceous chondrite parent body.

J.F. Kerridge, et al., 1993 National Institute of Polar Research Symposium on Antarctic Meteorites 6:293.
Review of theories about abiotic synthesis of organic compounds on meteorites. Argue that these processes probably took place in interstellar clouds or on asteroids, not in the primordial solar nebula.

B.N. Khare, et al., 1991 Astrophysics and Space Science Library 173 (Origin and Evolution of Interplanetary Dust):99.
Compare infrared spectra of kerogen and insoluble organic residue of Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

B.N. Khare, et al., 1993 Icarus 103:290.
Meaure the optical properties of (1:6)ethane-water ice tholin.

J. Kissel and F.R. Krüger, 1987 Nature 326:755.
The Vega I spacecraft found Comet Halley's core to be chondritic with an unsaturated organic mantle. No biological grains observed.

R.F. Knacke, 1977 Nature 269:132.
Suggests a new carbonaceous substance exists in interstellar space to account for observed astronomical spectra, and perhaps is found in carbonaceous chondrites.

K. Kobayashi, et al., 1995 Advances in Space Research 16:21.
Irradiation of cometlike ices with protons produces hydrocarbons and amino acid precursors.

M. Komiya, et al., 1993 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57:907.
Report on composition of insoluble organic matter in several Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites; it is mainly composed of benzene and naphthalene derivatives or of sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds.

R.K. Kotra, et al., 1979 Journal of Molecular Evolution 13:179.
ALH-77306, a carbonaceous chondrite from Antarctica, contains racemized amino acids, both protein and non-protein.

R.K. Kotra, et al., 1981 in Y. Wolman, ed., Origin of Life (Reidel, Dordrecht).
Report identification of extraterrestrial amino acids in ALH-77306 and Yamato 74662 carbonaceous chondrites.

L. Kovalenko, et al., 1992 Analytical Chemistry 64:682.
Describe use of a special instrument to detect polycyclic aromataic hydrocarbons in six meteorites; carbonaceous chondrites and ordinary chondrites are significantly different.

R.V. Krishnamurthy, et al., 1992 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56:4045.
Report chemical and isotopic analysis of hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. Observe that different classes of compounds exhibit different deuterium enrichment.

H.R. Krouse and V.E. Modzeleski, 1970 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 34:459.
Report that carbon isotope ratio in nine carbonaceous chondrites is different by a factor of three from terrestrial samples.

F.R. Krüger, 1994 Advances in Space Reseach 15:407.
Discusses carbonaceous matter found in dust and coma of Comet Halley, with special emphasis on possible aromatic heterocyclic ions of prebiotic importance.

K.A. Kvenvolden, et al., 1970 Nature 228:923.
Report that amino acids and other organic molecules on Murchison carbonaceous chondrite are extraterrestrial because they are racemic, have an unusual isotope distribution, and include non-protein species rare on Earth.

M.S. Lancet and E. Anders, 1970 Science 170:980.
Fischer-Tropsch reaction products show a distribution of carbon isotopes similar to that observed in carbonaceous chondrites. This suggests that carbonaceous chondrites formed in solar nebula.

J.G. Lawless, et al., 1971 Science 173:626.
Identify 17 amino acids in the Murray meteorite. Seven are racemic; eleven are not found in protein.

J.G. Lawless, et al., 1972 Nature 236:66.
Mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used to identify amino acids in the Orgueil sample, probably not contaminants.

J.G. Lawless, et al., 1972 Scientific American 226:38(June).
Popular review article on organic content of carbonaceous chondrites.

J.G. Lawless, 1973 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37:2207.
Report on amino acids isolated from Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

N.R. Lerner, et al., 1993 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57:4713.
Describe experiment to measure retention of deuterium by amino acids produced by the Strecker synthesis.

R.L. Levy, et al., 1970 Nature 227:148.
Describe recovery of organic material from the Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite; refute claim that it was contaminated, pointing out that more organic material is inside than is on the surface.

R.L. Levy, et al., 1973 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 37:467.
Report on various organic compounds extracted from the Murchison sample; they are said to be comparable with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

W.F. Libby, 1971 Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S. 68:377.
Because Murchison carbonaceous chondrite amino acids are racemic, they are extraterrestrial. However, the carbon isotopic signature is the same as that of terrestrial sediments, implying carbon isotope ratios are the same on Earth as in space.

C.B. Lipman, 1932 American Museum Novitates # 588.
Are there living bacteria in stony meteorites? (Apparently, he said yes.)

C.B. Lipman, 1932 American Museum Novitates # 589.
Reports discovery of organic nitrogen compounds in ordinary chondrite samples.

C.B. Lipman, 1936 Popular Astronomy 44:442.
Claims to have found evidence of living bacteria in meteorites.

G.D. McDonald and J.L. Bada, 1995 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59:1179.
Report finding non-racemic amino acids, assumed to be terrestrial contaminants, in SNC meteorite EETA 79001. The distribution resembles that found in Antarctic ice.

G.D. McDonald et al., 1996 Icarus 122:107.
Report production of a new tholin by irradiating ices which simulate those in comets; the new tholin includes polyalcohol and other organic functional groups.

G.J.H. McCall, 1973 Meteorites and their Origins (John Wiley, New York).
An introduction to the study of meteorites, including a chapter on the Nagy controversy.

D.S. McKay, et al. 1996 Science 273:924.
Report discovery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonate globules similar to bacterially induced precipitates, and possible microfossils in Antarctic SNC meteorite ALH84001. Mirror site (EurekAlert).

H.Y. McSween, 1987 Meteorites and their Parent Planets (Cambridge University).
One of the best general introductions to meteorites.

G. Mamikunian and M.H. Briggs, 1963 Nature 197:1245.
Describe ``microstructures of complex morphology'' seen in eight carbonaceous chondrites.

G. Mamikunian and M.H. Briggs, 1963 Science 139:873.
In light of widespread disagreement over nature of ``microstructures,'' the authors prepared a photographic catalogue, available (at the time) from JPL.

M.N. Mautner, et al., 1995 Planetary and Space Science 43:139.
Report that humic acid bacteria and oligotrophs can live in Murchison carbonaceous chondrite extract, and that nonanoic acid from the extract forms vesicles. This suggests meteorites may have played a role both in biogenesis and in nourishing early organisms.

W.G. Meinschein, et al., 1963 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 108:553.
Find saturated hydrocarbon content and behavior of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and terrestrial marine sediments to be similar.

W.G. Meinschein, 1966 Science 154:377.
Reports optical activity (Cotton effect) in Homestead and Holbrook ordinary chondrites. However, is reluctant to attribute this to anything other than contamination.

S. Meunier, 1881 Comptes Rendus 93:737.
Describes an attempt to create artificial minerals, including some resembling those in meteorites.

S.L. Miller, et al., 1976 Journal of Molecular Evolution 9:59.
Review various theories of the origin of organic compounds on earth and in meteorites. Conclude electric discharges, UV, and to a lesser extent the Fischer-Tropsch reaction may all have played a role.

S.L. Miller and J.L. Bada, 1993 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57:3473.
Argue against Shock and Schulte 1990 that abundance of amino acids in Murchison meteorite is not correlated with solubility, nor should it be.
Shock and Schulte reply: they say their work is being misrepresented here.

K. Mimura, 1995 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59:579.
Synthesized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reported in carbonaceous chondrites by passing shockwaves through benzene.

G. Moreels, et al., 1994 Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 5:107.
Identify UV peaks in spectrum of Comet Halley as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: phenanthrene and probably naphthalene.

P. Morrison, 1962 Science 135:663.
Suggests the ``organized elements'' seen by Nagy are organic analogues of snowflakes; such objects may themselves have played a role in the evolution of life.

G. Mueller, 1953 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 4:1.
Reports on organic content of Cold Bokkeveld carbonaceous chondrite. It is optically neutral, suggesting that organic matter formed abiotically from the atmosphere of the parent body.

G. Mueller, 1962 Nature 196:929.
Interprets microstructures of carbonaceous chondrites as inorganic mineral inclusions.

L. Mukhin, et al., 1991 Nature 350:480.
Argue that dust grains in coma of Comet Halley fall into two populations, one chondritic and the other not.

F. Mullie and J. Reisse, 1987 Topics in Current Chemistry 139:83.
Review article on organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites.

T. Murae, 1994 Proceedings of the National Institute of Polar Research Symposium on Antarctic Meteorites 7:22.
Fourier-transform infrared spectra of several carbonaceous chondrites indicate that similar organic compounds must exist in all samples; the spectrum is similar to kerogen (coal).

Z.A. Mushina and E.A. Glebovskaya, 1991 Doklady Bulg. Akad. Nauk 44:47.
Russian-language: the Sikhote-Alin iron is compared with fossiliferous rock from the Lower Silurian subjected to strong contact metamorphism. Organic material from the two samples is found to be very similar, and it is suggested that this is evidence of biological origin for the meteoritic organic matter.

B. Nagy, et al., 1961 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 93:27.
Nagy's most celebrated article; so celebrated that someone stole it from MIT's library, so we haven't read it---yet another reason that everything should be online!

B. Nagy, et al., 1962 Nature 193:1129.
Report discovery of organized structures identical to those of the Orgueil stone in the Tonk and Alais stones, ruling out local contamination. Report tests showing that the structures are not inorganic particles of Anders, as claimed by Fitch, et al., 1962. Say they compared microstructures to dust samples from museums and found no resemblance.

B. Nagy and G. Claus, 1962 in U. Columbo and G.D. Hobson, eds., Advances in Organic Geochemistry (Pergamon, New York).
Describe the ``organized structures'' and argue that some, at least, are fossil organisms.

B. Nagy and M.C. Bitz, 1963 Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 101:240.
Report isolating long-chain fatty acids from Orgueil sample, resembling chains found in ancient terrestrial sediments.

B. Nagy, et al., 1963 Nature 198:121.
Electron probe x-ray microanalysis of 28 ``organized elements'' in Orgueil sample reveals presence of iron and other substances. It is argued that mineralization with iron precludes possibility of contamination.

B. Nagy, et al., 1963 Nature 200:565.
Report on UV spectra of "organized elements" in Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.

B. Nagy, et al., 1964 Nature 202:228.
Report on optical activity of saponified organic extract from Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite. Suggest this is evidence of biological activity.

B. Nagy, 1966 Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 88:235.
English-language review article on investigations of Orgueil meteorite.

B. Nagy, 1966 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S. 56:389.
Identifies possible source of error in measuring optical activity of lipids in natural samples; designs methods to reduce them. Finds that Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite lipids are optically active, even so.

B. Nagy, 1967 Review of Palæobotany and Palynology 3:237.
Summarizes his own work on carbonaceous chondrites.

B. Nagy, 1975 Carbonaceous Chondrites (Elsevier, Amsterdam).
In survey of field, includes his work on organized structures which he still seems to suspect are biological. Also contains material on XIX-Century life-in-meteorite controversies.

H. Naraoka, et al., 1988 Chemistry Letters 1988:831.
Report on hydrocarbons extracted from Yamato-791198 carbonaceous chondrite.

N.H. Nininger, 1933 Popular Astronomy 41:214.
Attributes Lipman's results to terrestrial contamination.

D.W. Nooner and J. Oró, 1967 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 31:1359.
Found aliphatic hydrocarbons in extracts from 30 meteorites (iron, ordinary chondrites, and carbonaceous chondrites). Also found isomeric alkanes in most samples. No even-or-odd preference in length of alkanes, except in Orgueil sample.

D.W. Nooner, et al., 1976 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 40:915.
A series of Fischer-Tropsch experiments using meteoritic and terrestrial iron produced aromatic hydrocarbons and, in one case, fatty acids.

R.J. Olson, et al., 1967 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 31:1935.
Found very small quantities of aromatic hydrocarbons in extracts from a number of carbonaceous chondrites.

J. Oró, 1961 Nature 190:389.
Suggests that comets transported various carbon compounds to Earth, where they were transformed into life.

J. Oró and H.B. Skewes, 1965 Nature 207:1042.
Study the question of amino acid contamination of microsamples (in general) by human skin. Conclude that most reported carbonaceous chondrite amino acids are contamination.

J. Oró and T. Tornabene, 1965 Science 150:1046.
Isolate live bacteria of three common types from Orgueil and Mokoia carbonaceous chondrites, and conclude they are obviously contamination.

J. Oró and E. Gelpi, 1969 in P.M. Miller, ed., Meteorite Research (D. Reidel, Dordrecht) 518.
Report identifying nine homologous series of isomeric alkanes (as well as the normal series) in a GC study of nine carbonaceous chondrite samples. Similar results obtained with three iron meteorites. Every sample found to include isoprenoid structures distributed in a way more similar to the distribution in terrestrial sediments and crude oil than to that in Fischer-Tropsch process.

J. Oró, et al., 1971 Nature 230:105.
Reports discovery of amino acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. They are approximately racemic, suggesting a non-biological origin.

J. Oró, et al., 1994 Advances in Space Research 15:81.
Review article on theory that comets supplied essential prebiotic materials to the Earth.

U. Ott, 1993 Nature 364:25.
Review article on interstellar grains in meteorites.

P. Palik, 1962 Nature 194:1065.
Reports observation of odd filamentary structures in the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite; is reminded of algae.

R. Pearson, 1962 Nature 194:1064.
Attempts to identify structures seen by Nagy, et al., as pollen, presumably a contaminant.

K.L. Pering and C. Ponnaperuma, 1971 Science 173:237.
Reports discovery in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite of aromatic hydrocarbons, distributed in a way suggesting they were synthesized at high temperatures.

S. Pizzarello, et al., 1991 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55:905.
Try to show that the isotope enrichment of the amino acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite is a real effect, residing in the amino acids and not in some other component of the meteorite.

C.T. Pillinger, 1982 Nature 296:802.
Reviews history of amino acid findings in carbonaceous chondrites, which until Engel and Nagy's report of 1982 were always said to be racemic (unlike biological amino acids.)

C.T. Pillinger, 1987 Nature 326:445.
Article about the history of origin theories of organic content of carbonaceous chondrites, culminating in Epstein and Krishnamurthy's view that the amino and carboxylic acids originate in interstellar clouds.

J.B. Pollack, et al., 1978 Science 199:66.
Viking photographs suggest that Phobos has a carbonaceous chondrite composition.

C. Ponnamperuma, 1971 Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics 4:77.
Review article on the origin of life, including carbonaceous chondrite studies.

C. Ponnamperuma and E. Ochai, 1982 in L.L. Wilkening, ed., Comets (University of Arizona).
Argue that prebiotic processes in comets unlikely to reach the biological stage. Criticize Wickramasinghe and Hoyle on general grounds.

D. Prialnik and M. Podolak, 1995 Icarus 117:420.
Mathematical model of radioactive heating in comet nuclei, including conditions under which a comet could have a liquid core.

F.B. Reed, 1973 Journal of Theoretical Biology 39:683.
Attacks Ageno's paper on racemization because the same argument would prove fossil shells or bones are abiotic. (They, too, are racemic because of their age.)

J. Reisse and F. Mullie, 1993 Pure and Applied Chemistry 65:1281.
Review of the different theories on the origin of organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites.

F. Robert, 1993 Actual. Chim. 1993:24.
Argues that meteorite organic molecules reflect the organic compounds in interstellar space, in spite of difference in isotope ratios of interstellar and meteoritic organic molecules.

M. Rossignol-Strick and E.S. Barghoorn, 1971 Space Life Sciences 3:89.
When Orgueil fragments treated in way terrestrial sediments would be to extract pollen and spores, numerous spherical hollow objects found. Although they look biogenic, they are not in a sedimentary matrix. Perhaps they are glass/magnetite globules coated in some organic substance by a thermal process.

S.K. Roy, 1935 "The Question of Living Bacteria in Stony Meteorites." Field Museum, Geology, Series 4, 179-98.
Attack on C.B. Lipman's claim.

S.K. Roy, 1937 Popular Astronomy 45:499.
Charles Lipman claimed to have found living bacteria in stony meteorites. Roy doubts this, pointing out Lipman had also "found" living bacteria in ancient terrestrial rocks and coal, but that other scientists had failed to verify this. Roy also tried to obtain living cultures from meteorites, but failed.

C. Sagan and B.N. Khare, 1979 Nature 277:102.
Argue that interstellar grains are made of "tholins," complex organic solids.

C. Sagan and B.N. Khare, 1979 Nature 281:708.
Reply to criticism of Whittet; argue that the peak he says is missing does not occur in tholins.

A. Sakata, et al., 1977 Nature 266:241.
Report that meteoritic inclusions in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite have a UV spectrum similar to interstellar space, suggesting that it includes interstellar grains.

A. Sakata, et al., 1983 Nature 301:493.
Absorption spectrum of carbonaceous material formed in laboratory from a hydrogen/carbon plasma has peak in same place as interstellar extinction curve.

G. Shaw and J. Brooks, 1969 Nature 223:754.
Argue that sporopollenin, an ingredient of pollen, is present in large quantity (~4%) in the insoluable organic part of the Orgueil and Murray carbonaceous chondrites, and that it is NOT a contaminant. Claim similar results in PreCambrian terrestrial sediments.

J. Shi, et al., 1978 Geochimica 1978:57.
Chinese language: Report finding hydrocarbons, purine, and pyrimidine in the Jilin meteorite.

J. Shi, et al., 1992 Diqiu Huaxue 1992:34.
Chinese language: Report extracting and analyzing organic matter from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite.

A. Shimoyama, et al., 1979 Nature 282:394.
Report discovery of racemic amino acids in the Antarctic Yamato carbonaceous chondrite.

A. Shimoyama, et al., 1986 Origins of Life 16:215.
Report finding amino acids, carboxylic acids, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in Antarctic carbonaceous chondrite Yamato-791198, but not in two others.

A. Shimoyama, et al., 1990 Geochemical Journal 24:343.
Report finding some nucleic acid bases in Yamato-74662 and -791198 but not in Yamato-793321 or Belgica-7904.

A. Shimoyama, 1993 Viva Origino 21:157.
Japanese-language review article on organic chemistry of carbonaceous chondrites.

E.L. Shock and M.D. Schulte, 1990 Nature 343:728.
Interested in idea that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons condense onto inorganic grains, and are then aqueously altered to form amino acids. Try to calculate distribution of aqueous organic compounds in equilibrium with different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as function of gas fugacities. The results, though inconclusive, are encouraging.

P.G. Simmons, et al., 1969 Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S. 64:1027.
Argue an insoluble, coal-like nongraphitic aromatic polymer exists in the Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite.

J.L. Smith, 1882 Popular Science 20:568.
Attacks Hahn's claims. Has looked at many meteorites and never seen any fossils; there would be carbonate of lime present if the fossils were genuine, and in any case, meteorites are igneous, not sedimentary.

P.E. Spielmann, 1924 Nature 114:276.
Denies existence of bitumen in meteorites, as claimed by Berzelius, et al.; argues that a hydrocarbon forms after the arrival on earth of the meteorite, by reaction of iron-nickel carbide with terrestrial water.

P.G. Stoks and A.W. Schwartz, 1979 Nature 282:709.
Report discovery of pyrimidines in Murchison, Murray, and Orgueil carbonaceous chondrites.

P.G. Stoks and A.W. Schwartz, 1981 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45:563.
Purines extracted from Murchison, Murray, and Orgueil carbonaceous chondrites. Hydroxypyrimidines and triazines not observed; perhaps earlier workers who reported them accidentally synthesized them in process of extraction. It is hard to say what abiotic process of the several candidates best explains the data.

M.H. Studier, et al., 1965 Science 149:1455.
Studied organic content of Orgueil, Cold Bokkevold, and Murray carbonaceous chondrites. Argue that equilibrium processes in the solar nebula, not biological processes, are responsible for observed properties.

M.H. Studier, et al., 1966 Science 152:106.
Response to Urey-Lewis, 1966 attack on Studier's 1965 paper.

M.H. Studier, et al., 1972 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 36:189.
Defend idea that Fischer-Tropsch reaction can account for most (though not all) properties of meteorite organic matter. Also report on extraction of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as porphyrin-like pigments, from Murchison carbonaceous chondrite; isoprenoids are also observed but considered contaminants because they are near the surface.

K. Tamaru, 1972 American Scientist 60:474.
Describes methods of catalysis in chemistry of lamellar compounds; suggests that this may have a role in condensation of extraterrestrial organic material and origins of life.

P. Tasch, 1964 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 105:927.
Finds organic structures in meteorites and not in control slides, so they could not be contaminants from lab, although they might be contaminants from years past since fall.

W. Thomson [Lord Kelvin], 1871 Nature 4:262.
An address to the British association for the Advancement of Science, describing the current state of science and reflecting the speaker's anti-Darwinian views. At the end, suggests that life was seeded on Earth by meteorites: ``moss-grown fragments from the ruins of another world.''
Burke, 1986 says that this address was discussed unfavorably in the letters of Joseph Hooker to Charles Darwin, and was also criticized by T.H. Huxley.

T.N. Tingle, et al., 1991 Meteoritics 26:117.
Describe a new method of studying organic compounds in meteorites--photoionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy--which is capable of reproducing results of conventional methods using only nanomole samples.

H.C. Urey, 1962 Nature 193:1119.
Argues the Moon was captured by the Earth and in the process contaminated with terrestrial water. Also argues that carbonaceous chondrites come from the Moon. Attacks Gilvarry's theory that the Moon once had oceans and points out that carbonaceous chondrites are not sedimentary.

H.C. Urey, 1962 Science 137:623.
Reports on New York Academy of Science meeting, 1 May, 1962, where various participants in the Nagy affair met.

H.C. Urey, 1965. Science 147:1262.
Popular presentation of his lunar theory.

H.C. Urey, 1966 in B.G.Marsen and A.G.W. Cameron, eds., The Earth-Moon System (Plenum, New York) .
Very brief account with full bibliography of Urey's own papers on the lunar capture theory.

H.C. Urey, 1966 Science 151:157.
Review article on biological material in meteorites, especially in carbonaceous chondrites.

H.C. Urey and J.R. Arnold, 1966 in C.S. Pittendrigh et al., eds., Biology and the Exploration of Mars (National Academy of Science/National Research Council).
Brief review article on organic substances and microfossils in carbonaceous chondrites.

H.C. Urey and J.S. Lewis, 1966 Science 152:102.
Attack on Studier et al.'s claim that mass spectrometry of Orgueil has given information about chemical equilibrium of solar nebula. Question their experimental work and raise possibility of contamination. Argue instead that compounds the group observed must have been formed either by high energy processes or biologically.

H.C. Urey, 1968 Naturwissenschaft 55:49.
Argues that carbonaceous chondrites come from the Moon and that the Moon once had water, which was deposited from Earth in the capture process.

S.L. VanLandingham, 1965 Nature 208:947.
Reports microfossil-like structures in the Alais and Orgueil carbonaceous chondrites. Also observed very small amount of fungus, pollen, etc., presumed to be terrestrial contamination. No contamination seen on Bruderheim stony meteorite, and no microfossils. Feels the microfossils are genuinely extraterrestrial.

S.L. VanLandingham, 1967 Nature 216:252.
Electron microscope examination of Orgueil slices. Observed organic structures which are unlike mineral inclusions in that they are electron opaque. These structures seem too deeply imbedded to be contaminants.

G.P. Vdovykin, 1962 Geochemistry International 1962:152.
Reports extracting bituminous matter from the Groznaya and Mighei carbonaceous chondrites.

G.P. Vdovykin and N.V. Pomortseva, 1962 Geochemistry International 1962:1251.
Successfully cultured hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria on samples of Groznaya and Mighei carbonaceous chondrites. Argue that this somehow shows that organic material in carbonaceous chondrites is due to the meteorite itself and not to biogenic elements.

G.P. Vdovykin, 1964 Geochemistry International 1964:693.
Observes "organized structures" in the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite and concludes they are non-biological, because they are identical with non-biological structures as reported earlier.

G.P. Vdovykin, 1965 in N.I. Khitarov, ed. Problems of Geochemistry (Israel Program for Scientific Translations).
Reviews his own work on the organic content of carbonaceous chondrites.

G.P. Vdovykin, 1969 in P.A. Schenck and I. Havenaar, eds. Advances in Organic Geochemistry '68 (Pergamon, Oxford).
In a review of various forms of carbon in meteorites, argues that biological activity is present and should be considered a normal part of carbon chemistry.

A.P. Vinogradov, et al., 1964 Geochemistry International 1964:831.
Report on EPR investigation of free radicals in carbonaceous chondrites. Theorize that cosmic radiation is the energy source by which complex organic molecules are non-biologically evolved from simpler ones.

C. Vogt, 1882 Les Prétendus Organismes des Météorites (Georg, Geneva)
Attacks the work of Hahn and Weinland on the Knyahinya stone, saying the structures observed do not look biological.

M. Wallis, 1980 Nature 284:431.
Argues that the center of a comet would be originally liquid, due to Aluminum-26, and potentially hospitable to life.

T.J. Wdowiak, et al., 1988 Astrophysical Journal 328:L75.
Report that nonvolatile organic extract of Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite pressed onto KBr pellet has spectrum resembling the Orion nebula, and also a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon band similar to an observed, unidentified interstellar band.

T.J. Wdowiak, et al., 1988 Astrophysics And Space Science Library 149 (Exp. Cosmic Dust Analogues:145.
Black acid-insoluble extract from Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite has infrared spectrum resembling polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

T.J. Wdowiak, et al., 1988 Astrophysics And Spsce Science Library 149 (Exp. Cosmic Dust Analogues):271.
Bombarding a frozen mixture of gases and irradiating with protons resulted in particulate matter with a spectrum resembling acid insoluble extract from Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.

O.F. Weinland, 1882 Ueber die in Meteoriten entdecken Thierreste (Esslingen: Fröhner)
Verifies Hahn's claim of having discovered numerous invertebrate fossils in the Knyahinya ordinary chondrite.

M.W. West and C. Ponnampe, 1970 Space Life Sciences 2:225.
Comprehensive origin of life bibliography.

M.W. West, et al., 1972 Space Life Science 3:293.
Comprehensive origin of life bibliography.

A.G. Whittaker, et al., 1980 Science 209:1512.
Isotopic analysis of Allende and Murchison noble gas component indicates that carbynes in the latter, but not in the former, are of extra-solar origin, possibly interstellar grains.

D.C.B. Whittet, 1979 Nature 281:708.
Argues that the spectra of dust-embedded stars lack characteristic organic absorption band.

C. Wickramasinghe, 1977 New Scientist 74:119.
Argues that life originated in dense molecular clouds in interstellar space, and was thence spread by meteorites.

D.T. Wickramasinghe and D.A. Allen, 1986 Nature 323:44.
Report discovery of organic grains in Comet Halley, on the basis of an infrared absorption band.

M.R. Wing and J.L. Bada, 1991 Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55:2935.
Describe laboratory geo-chromatography experiment in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Suggest that the process took place in aqueous environment on parent body of Ivuna carbonaceous chondrite.

M.R. Wing and J.L. Bada, 1992 Origins of Life 21:375.
Argue that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous chondrites are the result of high temperataure synthesis, and are not derived from pre-existing aliphatic compounds. Suggest that different carbonaceous chondrites have different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species because migrating water on the parent body chromatographically separated them.

M.F. Wöhler and M. Hörnes, 1859 Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math-nat. Kl. 34:7.
Examine Kaba fall in Hungary and found carbon compounds which they believed of biological origin.

I.P. Wright, et al., 1989 Nature 340:220.
Report unexpectedly high concentrations of organic materials on samples of Antarctic Martian SNC meteorite EETA 79001. Although isotope compostion looks terrestrial, argue that something deep in interior of an Antarctic meteorite unlikely to be a contaminant.

I.P. Wright and I. Gilmour, 1990 Nature 345:110.
General-audience article on the dispute between E. Anders and S. Chang's group (Yuen, 1990) about Fischer-Tropsch reaction.

S. Yabushita and I. Hasegawa, 1978 Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 185:549.
Suggest comets originate in interstellar dust clouds and their nuclei contain interstellar grains.

S. Yabushita, et al., 1987 Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 229:45P.
Argue that UV spectra of the Yamato carbonaceous chondrite do not support claim that organic dust grains account for astronomical UV extinction curve.

G.U. Yuen and K.A. Kvenvolden, 1973 Nature 246:301.
Report discovery of monocarboxylic acids in Murray and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites. The distribution is non-biological.

G.U. Yuen, et al.,1990 Lunar and Planetary Science 21:1367.
Repeat experiment of Anders, 1970 and find that in general non-equilibrium case no isotope fractionation observed. This weakens argument for Fischer-Topsch reaction in solar nebula as cause of carbonaceous chondrite organic compounds.

K. Zahnle and D. Grinspoon, 1990 Nature 348:157.
Suggest that extraterrestrial amino acids at KT boundary not part of the impacting body (comet), but dust deposited by it before or after impact.

J.K.F. Zöllner, 1873 Annalen der Physik 148:322.
Argues against Thomson that life could not survive heating on entry to the atmoshere, hence meteorites cannot explain the origin of life.