MIT Reports to the President 1997-98
This past year has been an excellent one for the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. We were pleased to once again be ranked first in both undergraduate education and graduate education among the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering by U.S. News and World Report. We have maintained this ranking ever since this began nine years ago.
In spite of the more difficult research funding climate, the research volume of the department has been relatively constant during the past year, while the number of graduate students has increased somewhat. The undergraduate student population has increased to 119. In June, 1998 we awarded 37 bachelors degrees, 21 masters and 13 doctorates. Our program of offering fellowships to a large percentage of domestic applicants continues to provide us with an outstanding graduate student body; 57% of our entering graduate student class in September, 1997 were domestic.
During the past three years the department has assumed responsibility for the Archaeological Science Program at MIT. This program, which is home to two faculty, Professors Heather Lechtman and Dorothy Hosler, builds on the strong materials emphasis that was brought by Professor Cyril Stanley Smith '26 ML. This program has begun to flourish in the department with well over 150 students taking subjects in archaeology. We believe that this interface between archaeology and materials science is one of the strongest such programs in the world, and we hope that it will grow and prosper in its new home.
We are pleased to have added a new faculty member to our ranks this year: Professor William Craig Carter comes to us from his position as Research Scientist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD. After graduating with three degrees from the University of California at Berkeley, Professor Carter became an NRC Fellow and later a permanent staff member at NIST. His work involves both the theory and computation of microstructural evolution in a wide range of materials. He has already won two major awards from the American Ceramics Society. In the spring of 1997 Professor Carter was a visiting associate professor in the department, and assisted Professor Samuel M. Allen in teaching one of our introductory graduate subjects on kinetic processes. For his efforts Professor Carter received the 1997 Graduate Student Council Teaching Award for the School of Engineering. Professor Carter is an unusually gifted educator and researcher, and the department feels that he will make an outstanding addition to our faculty. He arrived at MIT in July, 1998 as the Thomas Lord Associate Professor. This is the second Thomas Lord Career Development Chair in the department. The first one is held by Professor Caroline A. Ross. The Thomas Lord Career Development Chairs are funded on an annual basis by the Lord Foundation of Massachusetts which was established through the will of Thomas Lord, the son of the founder of the Lord Corporation.
The department is pleased to report that Professor Anne Mayes, Professor Eugene A. Fitzgerald, and Professor Gerbrand Ceder each received tenure this past year. These are the first successful tenure cases in the departmental faculty rank over the past six years, and reverses a disappointing trend. With their promotions each has agreed to take on significant leadership positions within the department during the coming year. Professor Anne Mayes will serve as the Undergraduate Committee Chairperson, Professor Fitzgerald has expressed an interest in taking over the Admissions Committee over the next two years, and Professor Ceder will chair our new Initiative in Computational Materials Science.
We regret to report that Professor Andreas Mortensen resigned his tenure as of the end of this academic year in order to take a new position at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland. In addition, Professor David Dunand, a promising young faculty member, resigned his position in order to take a position at Northwestern University in Chicago. Both of these departures were due to the employment of their spouses. While we wish them both many happy years with their new spouses, their departure is a significant loss to the department.
Last year we were grateful to have received two newly endowed professorships created in August, 1996 through a $4 million dollar gift from Dr. Vasilios S. Salapatas, an MIT alumnus and the managing director of Helliniki Halyvourgia, S.A., of Athens, Greece. The professorships are the Stavros V. Salapatas Professorship and the Matoula S. Salapatas Professorship, named in honor of Dr. Salapatas' deceased parents. These gifts are intended to strengthen the department and its teaching and research programs. Last year, Professor Lorna Gibson became the first holder of the Matoula S. Salapatas Professorship in Materials Science and Engineering. This year, Professor Carl V. Thompson became the first holder of the Stavros V. Salapatas Professorship in Materials Science and Engineering. Professor Thompson received his undergraduate degree at MIT, and then went on to Harvard for the doctorate, studying under Professor David Turnbull, one of the great theoretical metallurgists of this century. Professor Thompson came to MIT as a young faculty member in 1983, and rose through the ranks to become a full professor. Recently, he served as the President of the Materials Research Society; hence, he is widely known as a materials scientist. His current research emphasis is on thin films as applied to electronic circuits, and his intellectual interest is in the grain growth of metallic thin films on these electronic circuits. In addition, he has considerable interest in the manufacturability and quality control aspects of materials processing.
In addition to these gifts from Dr. and Mrs. Salapatas, the department was pleased to receive another major donation this past year from them. This second gift has established the Danae and Vasilios Salapatas Professorship of Ferrous Metallurgy, and will fund the bulk of a career development chair in honor of Thomas B. King, a former head of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. The generosity of Dr. Salapatas and his wife has added greatly to the financial strength and well-being of the department as well as providing significant honors for four of our faculty.
The administrative clustering, which was begun a year ago, has been strengthened immeasurably during the past year. Dr. Elizabeth Cooper now serves as the Administrative Officer for the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, the Department of Chemical Engineering, and the Center for Bioengineering. The Administrative Services Organization offices have been moved to the third floor of building 8, resulting in a much better working environment and greater ability to interact with the faculty in both the departments and the center. We have learned much over the past year about the strengths of clustering administrative services, and we have noted some difficulties which are being corrected. We plan to provide a report to the Senior Administration early in the fall concerning the best methods of developing future clusters.
In October, 1997, during our departmental Visiting Committee, we were pleased to dedicate a portrait of Richard P. Simmons, currently a life member of the MIT Corporation, a graduate of the department, and a dedicated alumnus of MIT. In April, 1997 about 70 former colleagues, students, and invited guests gathered for a portrait dedication in honor of the late Professor John F. Elliott. This was a wonderful event attended by both family and friends of Professor Elliott, a leader for more than 40 years in the field of chemical-process metallurgy and steelmaking.
Our faculty members continue to occupy a number of important leadership positions at MIT. Professor Vander Sande is Associate Dean of Engineering, Professor Kimerling serves as Director of the Materials Processing Center (MPC), Professor Rose continues as Director of the Concourse Program, Professor Roylance serves as Executive Officer, Professor Rubner serves as Director of the Program in Polymer Science and Technology (PPST), Professor Clark is the Director of the Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, Professor Allen serves as Secretary of the MIT Faculty, Professor Latanision continues as Chairman of the MIT Council on Primary and Secondary Education, Professor Lechtman is Director of the Center for Materials Research in Archaeology and Ethnology (CMRAE), and Professor McGarry is the Director of the Summer Session.
Following our departmental Visiting Committee in October of 1997, the department become extremely active in developing a future strategic plan. In December, 1997 we held a full day retreat to define the areas of greatest need over the next several decades. During weekly faculty meetings over the spring semester we identified a number of strategic directions culminating in another full day retreat in May of 1998. At this meeting we agreed that it is necessary to develop a strong thrust in Biomaterials Engineering, to create a new Center for Computation Materials Science and Engineering, and to develop a Master's Engineering Program with emphasis on industrial practice. We will continue to further develop and refine these and other elements of our departmental strategy over the next six months, and beyond. This exercise has strengthened the department in many ways, especially in bringing the faculty together for thoughtful discussion about many topics. It significantly improved the morale of the department. The faculty appreciate the clear direction and the participative process through which it was achieved. Our challenge during the next few years will be successful implementation of these goals.
It is with regret that I announce the passing of Professor Carl F. Floe, a former metallurgy professor in the department who also served as MIT's Vice President for Research for 10 years.
Our undergraduate enrollment remains at historically high levels. Essential to maintaining our undergraduate body are extensive recruiting efforts including a two day Open House, our annual John Wulff Lecture, direct mailings to the freshman class, Freshman Advisor Seminars, and IAP Activities. Our III-B Internship Program continues to attract the majority of the undergraduate students in our department. Through this program we have strengthened our interactions with 38 companies and government laboratories in the US, Europe, and Asia while providing summer experiences relevant to the educational development of our undergraduates. Our undergraduate body currently comprises 57% women, 12% underrepresented minorities, and 3% international students.
Professor Lorna Gibson continues to chair the Undergraduate Study Abroad Committee and coordinate the activities of the Materials Undergraduate Study Exchange Program (MUSE). In 1995 the department signed agreements to establish an undergraduate exchange program with KTH Stockholm, ETH Zurich, the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, and Oxford University. During academic year 1997-1998 the department hosted four exchange students (two from KTH Stockholm, one from Oxford University, and one from ETH Zurich), while two of our students attended a semester at Oxford and two more students attended KTH Stockholm.
The Student Undergraduate Materials Society (SUMS) continued to be a source of strength for the undergraduate program. SUMS assisted in end-of-term subject evaluations, assisted in the organization of the UROP Open House, sponsored a Freshman Open House to help recruit new majors, organized seminars by departmental faculty members, planned socials, and assisted in tutoring of fellow students. In 1998 SUMS held the first Curriculum Colloquium in approximately five years in order to solicit feedback from undergraduates on the DMSE curriculum. Officers of the society during the spring and fall semesters of 1997 were: Kim Marie Levis (President), Ryan Cush (Vice President), June Cheng (Treasurer), and Chelsea Russell (Secretary). New officers elected in the spring of 1998 are: Ryan Cush (President), June Cheng (Vice President), Kathleen O'Brien (Treasurer), and Sandy Jen (Secretary).
Approximately 23% of our graduate students are women and 2.3% are underrepresented minorities. The distribution of students among our six graduate degree programs and their affiliates is somewhat changed from last year. As of February, 1998 it was:
Percent of Total
Six of our students in Materials Engineering were enrolled in the Technology and Policy Program (TPP). Of these, two were in the Technology, Management and Policy (TMP) doctoral program, and seven were enrolled in the Leaders for Manufacturing Program (LFM). Sixteen of our Polymer students were enrolled in the Program for Polymer Science and Technology (PPST). We anticipate for the fall of 1998 a total graduate class of about 180. The program we adopted five years ago of offering one-term fellowships to a large percent of domestic applicants has been successful. We estimate we will register an incoming class of 42 for the coming fall, over 59% percent of which will be domestic.
Nearly all undesignated gifts to the department are currently being used to fund endowed fellowships (including the Nicholas J. Grant Fellowship, the John F. Elliott Fellowship, the Ronald A. Kurtz Fellowship, the Gilbert Y. Chin Fellowship, the R. L. Coble Fellowship, the Carl M. Loeb Fellowship, the David V. Ragone Fellowship, the H. H. Uhlig Graduate Fellowship, the Stuart Z. Uram Fellowship, the Class of `39 Fellowship, the Julian Szekely Fellowship, the Anthony D. Kurtz Fellowship, and the Department Endowed Fellowship).
Our endowed fellowships now provide sufficient annual income for one-term fellowships for approximately nine students. In addition to the above, we are the grateful recipients of a number of grants from corporations and foundations to aid our first year students. We have received two fellowships from the Lord Foundation of Massachusetts. These have been instrumental in assisting us to maintain the size and quality of our incoming domestic student class. We have fellowship support from a number of corporations including TECHINT and 3M. Of course, many students have other outside fellowship support as indicated elsewhere in this report. Of the 27 domestic students expected to enter in the fall of 1998, 13 will be entering on fellowships from the department and from a variety of sources including; MIT, NSF, DOD, NDSEG, and the Air Force.
The Graduate Materials Society Core Committee (GMC) continued its role in programming the Graduate Student Orientation/Luncheon for incoming students. Debbie Lightly and Philip Soo participated in two well-received informational Q&A format sessions with prospective students. Under the direction of social chairs Steven Murray and Chris Vineis, the GMC held monthly socials and an end-of-the-year barbecue. Vab Andleigh programmed MESS seminars featuring well-known lecturers such as Dr. Bob O'Handley and Professor Caroline Ross. The group continued to undertake the supervision of the arduous but important task of course evaluations, and this year introduced a more concise short answer course evaluation form. Officers of GMC Core Committee during academic year 1997-1998 were: Philip Soo (President), Debra Lightly (Vice President), Vab Andleigh (MESS Seminars), Matthew Rosenthal (Treasurer), Eric Wu and Todd Stefanik (Athletic Chairs), Steven Murray and Christopher Vineis (Social Chairs), Michael Groenert and Nicole Lazo (DCGS Representatives), and Matthew Farinelli and Olivera Kesler (GSC Representatives). Newly elected Officers of the GMC Core Committee for academic year 1998-1999 are: Christopher Henry (President), Wendy Katstra (Vice President), Tom Langdo (Treasurer), Tim Rittenhouse (GSC Representative), Richard Holman (MESS Seminars), Surekha Vajjhala and Mike Groenert (DCGS Representatives), Jim Yurko and Ben Hellweg (Social Chairs), Todd Stefanik and Eric Wu (Athletic Chairs).
The chairman of the the MIT Student Chapter of the Materials Research Society during the academic year 1997-1998 was Srikanth Samavedam. New officers for the 1998-1999 academic year will be elected in the fall. Professor Linn W. Hobbs will continue as the MRS Student Chapter faculty advisor for 1998-1999. The chapter arranged information sessions, seminars and special lectures dealing with issues of topical interest in materials science. The Association of Materials Students Societies (aMaSS) is a coalition of student chapters of three materials professional societies: Materials Research Society (MRS), ASM International/The Materials, Metals & Minerals Society (ASM/TMS), and the American Ceramics Society (ACerS). The association was formed in 1992 with the purpose of increasing the profile of MIT in the professional societies of materials research. Membership is offered to undergraduate and graduate students from all departments of MIT who are interested in materials. Members of the Executive Committee of aMaSS during academic year 1997-1998 were: Andrew Gouldstone, Michael Shin, Melody Kuroda and Andrew Takahashi. Elections for the 1998-1999 executive committee positions of aMaSS will be held in the fall. Professor Samuel M. Allen will continue as the faculty advisor for aMaSS during academic year 1998-1999.
Faculty members of this department now occupy 15 endowed chairs. The chairholders are: Sandra L. Burkett, John Chipman Assistant Professor; Yet-Ming Chiang, Kyocera Professor of Ceramics; Michael J. Cima, Sumitomo Electric Industries Professor of Engineering; Thomas W. Eagar, POSCO Professor of Materials Engineering; Merton C. Flemings, Toyota Professor of Materials Processing; Lorna Gibson, Matoula S. Salapatas Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Linn W. Hobbs, John F. Elliott Professor of Materials; Lionel C. Kimerling, Thomas Lord Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Anne M. Mayes, Class of '48 Associate Professor of Polymer Physics; Michael F. Rubner, TDK Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Subra Suresh, Richard P. Simmons Professor of Metallurgy; Edwin L. Thomas, Morris Cohen Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Carl V. Thompson, Stavros Salapatas Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; John B. Vander Sande, Cecil and Ida Green Distinguished Professor; and August F. Witt, Ford Professor of Engineering.
Term chairs, especially those held by junior faculty members, are of immense value to the holders in building careers. Faculty from this department currently occupy two such chairs; W. Craig Carter, Thomas Lord Associate Professor of Materials Science, and Caroline A. Ross, Thomas Lord Assistant Professor of Materials Science.
Professor Yet-Ming Chiang was inducted as a Fellow of the American Ceramic Society at its 100th Annual Meeting in May, 1998 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Professor Chiang, along with Professors Gerbrand Ceder, Anne Mayes, and Donald Sadoway, was featured in the April 29 issue of Tech Talk in an article about how their research has led to the development of a new material for rechargeable batteries. Their work was reported in the April 16 issue of Nature Magazine. Their findings take the DMSE professors one step closer to making cheap, light and powerful batteries which they hope will ultimately galvanize the electric car industry. "Our dream as a team is to make a battery that will enable the dawn of the electric vehicle age," Professor Sadoway told Tech Talk. Other DMSE researchers working on this project are postdoctoral associates Mehmet K. Aydinol and Biying Huang, and graduate student Youn-Il Jang. Professor Joel P. Clark became an AT&T Fellow in 1997. Professor Thomas W. Eagar presented the opening Plenary lectures at the Fifth International Conference on Welding Research and the Pacific Rim International Conference on Materials.
Professor Merton C. Flemings, Toyota Professor of Materials Processing and former DMSE department head, was presented with the eighth annual Acta Metallurgica J. Herbert Hollomon Award on September 16, 1997 in Indianapolis, Indiana. This award recognizes outstanding contributions to understanding the relations between materials technology and society, and/or contributions to materials technology that have had a major impact on society. Professor Flemings was cited for his contributions to the theory and practice of solidification processing, which are recognized as among the most significant in the world, and for his scholarly work and intellectual leadership in the field of Materials Science and Engineering. He was selected for this honor by an international selection committee, and was presented with the award during the ASM Annual Meeting. The award was established in memory of the late Dr. J. Herbert Hollomon, a graduate and former MIT faculty member, who was noted for his dedication in promoting positive societal consequences of science and technology. Dr. Hollomon was also the principal initiator of the international journal of the science of materials, Acta Metallurgica. Professor Flemings was also honored by The Materials Research Society (MRS) as the recipient of the 1997 David Turnbull Lectureship. He was cited for "his contributions to the foundations and technology of solidification processing and for educating a generation of materials engineers." The David Turnbull Lectureship recognizes the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing.
Dr. Tae Kwon Ha, a Visiting Scientist in Professor Samuel M. Allen's group, was selected to receive the 1998 Young Scientist Award of the Korean Institute for Metals (KIM). Dr. Ha visited MIT from the Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials at the University of Science and Technology as part of a collaborative program with MIT's Materials Processing Center (MPC). His research focuses on experimental studies of high-temperature deformation mechanisms in metals including superplasticity and deformation-induced phase transformations. Dr. Ha received the award in February, 1998 at the KIM annual meeting. In addition, Dr. Ha gave a presentation on behalf of Dr. Robert C. O'Handley, who was one of about a dozen US scientists invited to speak at the June, 1998 symposium at the Max Planck Institute in Halle, Germany, on the effects of stress and strain in thin films and surfaces.
Professor Linn W. Hobbs was the Plenary Lecturer at the Joint Fall Meeting of the American Ceramic Society, Glass and Optical Materials Division; Optical Society of American Conference on Bragg Gratings; 12th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors in Williamsburg, VA on October 25-28, 1997. Professor Dorothy Hosler was named the Hennebach Visiting Professor in the Humanities at the Colorado School of Mines, where she will spend the 1998-1999 academic year. The purpose of the Hennebach Chair is to infuse the Division of Liberal Arts at Colorado School of Mines with new perspectives, courses, and teaching methods and to help stimulate faculty interest and student involvement in the humanities. The chair was created with an NEH Challenge Grant that was met by Ralph E. Hennebach, a 1941 metallurgy graduate of Mines and the former chairman, CEO and director of the American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO). During Mr. Hennebach's tenure at ASARCO the company supported Professor Hosler's dissertation and her post-doctoral research at MIT on ancient Mexican metallurgy. Professor Hosler is currently on sabbatical in west Mexico, where she is investigating the earliest copper smelting and alloy production sites in Mesoamerica. During the past academic year she gave many distinguished lectures on and off campus, including those at: Colorado School of Mines, Dumbarton Oaks Distinguished Spring Lecture Series, Washington, DC; Conferencia Magistrial, Americanistas Conference Quito Ecuador; Conferencia Magistral, International Conference on Ancient Mining, San Luis Potosi, Mexico; the Lecture Series at SUNY Albany, NY; the Distinguished Lecturer of Banco del Oro, Bogota Colombia; the MIT Knight Fellows, and the Harvard University Archaeology Department. She will return to MIT in the fall of 1999.
Professor Klavs Jensen, joint appointee in the Department of Materials Science and the Department of Chemical Engineering was elected Chair of the Materials Science and Engineering Division of the AIChE. Professor Lionel C. Kimerling received the 1997 Humboldt Senior Scientist Research Award, and The Minerals, Metals, Materials Society (TMS) 1999 John Bardeen Award. In addition, he was appointed President and Member-at-Large of the TMS Foundation Board of Trustees. The Board of Trustees of the American Ceramic Society approved a new Society Award in honor of Dr. W. David Kingery, a former professor in the department who is widely acknowledged as the most influential figure in the development of ceramics education, research, and technology in the 20th century. The W. David Kingery Prize will be awarded annually to recognize "distinguished lifelong achievements involving multidisciplinary and cross-cultural contributions to ceramic technology, science, education and art." The new award was presented at the Centennial Meeting of the Society in May, 1998, and the first recipient was W. David Kingery. The award was conceived to honor Kingery's outstanding contributions to the development of ceramics curricula, research and technology. Dr. Kingery, who received his Sc.D. degree in 1950 from MIT, served on the MIT faculty from 1951 to 1988. In the early 1950s he established at MIT the first graduate education and research program in what has become physical ceramics. In 1960 Dr. Kingery wrote the first edition of the field's seminal textbook Introduction to Ceramics, now in print for over 35 years and translated into several languages. His more than 200 scientific papers have had enormous impact on the course of ceramic science and technology through pioneering work in such areas as thermal properties, liquid phase sintering, oxygen ion conductors, defects and transport, and grain boundary phenomena. Dr. Kingery joined the faculty of the University of Arizona in 1988, where he is the Regents' Professor of Materials Science and Anthropology.
Professor Ronald M. Latanision gave the Keynote Lecture at the McFarland Award Golden Anniversary Symposium at The Pennsylvania State University. Professor James D. Livingston will present the Strant Memorial Lecture at the Rare-Earth Magnets Conference in Dresden in August, 1998. Professor Anne M. Mayes received the 1998 Materials Research Society's (MRS) Outstanding Young Investigator Award at the April 13, 1998 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco where she gave a talk titled, "Tailoring Polymer Surfaces for Controlled Cell Behavior." The award recognizes exceptional, interdisciplinary scientific work in materials research by a young scientist or engineer who also displays leadership in the materials area. Professor Mayes was cited for "incisive theoretical and experimental investigations of macromolecules at and near surfaces and interfaces leading to tailorable surface properties, especially novel biocompatible substrates." In addition, the department was pleased to honor Professor Mayes with the distinction of being the first awardee of the inaugural Joseph Lane Award for Excellence in Teaching in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. This biennial prize was established thanks to a gift from Dr. Joseph R. Lane (ScD '50) who, prior to his retirement, was a senior staff metallurgist with the National Materials Advisory Board of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems.
Professor Michael F. Rubner and student Yot Boontongkong of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Professor Mary Boyce of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Sarah Clark of the Department of Chemical Engineering, shared in a $15,000 GenCorp Foundation research grant given in April, 1998. GenCorp's Signature Program provides technology partnership grants and student achievement awards to universities "renowned for their exceptional polymer science and engineering programs." Professor Subra Suresh was awarded the 1997 Distinguished Alumnus Award by the Alumni Association of the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras. This award honors alumni "who have distinguished themselves in their careers," and recipients are selected from among 10,000 alumni of the Indian Institute of Technology, many of whom occupy leading positions in academia and industry around the world. Professor Suresh received a Bachelor of Technology degree from the Institute in 1977. Professor Edwin L. Thomas participated in many distinguished outside activities during academic year 1997-1998. He was selected as the Centennial Lecturer for the American Physical Society and as the National Science Foundation (NSF) Distinguished Lecturer in Mathematical and Physical Sciences. In addition, he Chaired the Gordon Conference on Polymer Physics and he was the Symposium Organizer at the spring, 1997 Materials Research Society Symposium in San Francisco called "Metastability and Critical Phenomena in Polymer Science."
During the past year Professor Allen has worked to apply the The Three-Dimensional PrintingTM version of the rapid prototyping process to the manufacture of hardenable metal tools for injection molding of plastic parts, directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. The approach involves three-dimensional printing of binder into metal powders and subsequent infiltration with a lower melting-temperature alloy. Recent developments include new heat treatable powder/infiltrant alloy systems with improved as-infiltrated machinability, development of a materials system with the potential for high-temperature applications such as metal die casting, and exploration of reactive binder materials systems for use with metal powders, as well as continuing development of an extensive thermochemical database for materials selection and process design for production of hard tooling by three-dimensional printing. Professor Allen is actively developing alloys based on the Fe-Ni-Co system that show promise for improved processability at reasonable cost.
A new class of alloys for actuator applications is under development at MIT in collaboration with Dr. Robert C. O'Handley. These alloys undergo large axial strains (in excess of 1%) through their interaction with a magnetic field. The mechanism of the shape change is being investigated experimentally and such materials' capacity for performing mechanical work is being characterized. The strain mechanism involves reorientation of different crystallographic variants in martensites, due to magnetostatic interaction. This new class of materials is becoming known as magnetic shape-memory alloys.
Professor Sandra L. Burkett has been busy this year overseeing the renovation of her new laboratory. She will investigate the interaction of proteins and small organic molecules with ceramic surfaces. The ability to control protein adsorption through engineering of ceramic surfaces should be relevant to the development of ceramics for vaccine and drug delivery. In addition, since surface-adsorbed proteins provide the critical intervening layer through which cells interact with an implanted biomaterial, results of these studies should have implications for the development of biocompatible ceramics and ceramic coatings for orthopedic use. In Professor Gerbrand Ceder's research on Lithium-Metal-Oxide cathodes he developed the first-ever "quantum engineered" new material. Using first-principles computational methods he predicted Li(Co,Al)O2 materials to have a substantially higher lithium intercalation potential than LiCoO2. This material has then been synthesized by Professor Yet-Ming Chiang and tested in battery configuration by Professor Donald R. Sadoway. Using similar techniques the researchers have also been able to shed light on the possible failure modes of intercalation cathodes in Li batteries. In more fundamental research, Professor Ceder presented the first detailed calculation of the effect of lattice vibrations on configurational disorder (in Ni3Al), an effect which was previously neglected in ab-initio phase stability calculations.
During 1997, Professor Yet-Ming Chiang initiated a new research program under ONR sponsorship on the Growth and Characterization of High Strain Single Crystal Piezoelectrics. In his research on advanced lithium battery materials, new cathode materials based on aluminum-doping of lithium transition metal oxides have been developed and licensed for commercialization. His research on the chemistry and structure of interfaces identified conditions under which nanometer-thick intergranular and surface films are stable, and explained for the first time the mechanism of activated sintering in the solid state in ceramic systems.
Professor Michael J. Cima began two major new research programs, the first with sponsorship from American Superconductor Corporation to develop the MIT TFA process for coated conductors, and the second with sponsorship from TDK Corporation to develop 3DP for manufacture of ceramic RF filters. During the past year Professor Cima was the first to describe gel plating in several public meetings. This sparked widespread interest in gel plating as a method to replace large plating baths required for electrodeless plating. Professor Joel P. Clark developed a research program with the University of Stuttgart, and ETH Zurich, in Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of automotive materials and products, working with most of the automotive assemblers in the US. and Europe. This LCA framework is being used to analyze the costs and highlights of: new light weight designs (e.g., aluminum, steel and polymer composite designs); electric vehicles vs. low emissions IC vehicles; and recycling technologies and policies. Professor Thomas W. Eagar, working with his graduate student Patricio Mendez, developed a new method of scaling dimensional parameters in large complex thermofluid mechanical systems. This technique has the capability of quantitatively defining the principle parameters of interest in a wide range of complex systems.
This year has seen advancement and key discoveries in two critical areas in Professor Eugene A. Fitzgerald's research, which also are the underpinnings of two PhD theses in his group. First, in order to integrate 1.3 micron optical devices on GaAs, high-quality relaxed InGaAs layers must be produced on GaAs. Through experiments growing InGaAs in the MOCVD reactor, and analysis using the NSF MRSEC Center characterization equipment, he was able to determine that spinodal decomposition, induced by the dislocations which are introduced to relieve the lattice mismatch, was occurring in the InGaAs gradedlayer. The second advance in his research will lead to the ultimate achievement in this field: high quality, monolithically integrated GaAs on Si. A key step in his methodology is to create relaxed graded SiGe layers in between the Si and Ge (or GaAs, same lattice constant) to mitigate the lattice-mismatch and thermal expansion issues. The completely miscible SiGe alloy system allows him to deposit a graded structure that minimizes dislocation nucleation and encourages dislocation propagation, leading to low threading dislocation densities in relaxed SiGe alloys on Si. During the past academic year Professor Merton C. Flemings successfully completed a solidification experiment in space on nucleation and growth of stainless steels under micro-gravity conditions. He continued observations of flow and solidification behavior at rapid rates with a high speed (40,000 frames per second) video camera.
In Professor Lorna J. Gibson's project on mechanical behavior of aluminum foams she has been measuring a variety of mechanical phenomena, including uniaxial stress-strain behavior, multiaxial stress-strain behavior and creep. Work is in progress on microstructural characterization and modelling, and preliminary testing has begun of some structural components such as sandwich beams. Professor Gibson has continued her work on progressive damage in trabecular bone, demonstrating that the creep of fully dense cortical bone could be described by existing models for metal matrix composites and that the creep of trabecular bone could be described by combining that model with one for cellular solids. She is now working on higher temperature fatigue testing and on finite element modelling of both fatigue and creep in trabecular bone. Over the past year, Professor Gibson has developed a method of digitizing the images of strained cracks to quantify the amount of damage in the bone. She completed a project on interpenetrating composites and is currently writing several papers on this work. She measured the uniaxial properties of several types of such composites including a stainless steel/bronze alloy used in MIT's work on 3D printing of tooling components. The finite element models gave a good description of the mechanical behavior of the composites. In new work on tissue engineering begun in collaboration with Professor Yannas, studies on the mechanical interaction of the porous matrix with fibroblasts are being done to improve the understanding of the mechanism by which the matrix reduces scar formation. In work with Professor Griffith, measurements of the mechanical properties of porous matrices are being taken for use in cartilage and bone regeneration.
Professor Linn W. Hobbs has made substantial progress in optimizing the computational codes for local-rules based modeling of glass structure and radiation-induced reordering and amorphization in network structures, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). This approach has been applied to silica (all crystalline polymophs and silica glass), SiC (both major crystalline polymorphs) and Si3N4 (both polymorphs), and represents a topologically-based alternative to molecular dynamics (MD) approaches. This work has attracted considerable attention and has been the subject of five invited presentations at major meetings in 1997. Professor Dorothy Hosler's research involves studies of rubber production in an Ancient Mesoamerica Collection of latex samples, and the observation of native methods of coagulation, and sampling for elemental analysis of ancient Mexican rubber balls at the Peabody Museum at Harvard University. In addition, she is involved in three collaborative research programs. The first is in collaboration with the Instituto de Geologia y Instituto de Geofisica and involves collection of ore samples to expand lead isotope work. The second is with the government of Colombia to investigate prehispanic copper processing and production in that country, and the third is with the Instituto Mexicense de Arqueologia to carry out surveys of ancient mining sites in the Balsas river region in Mexico.
Professor Kimerling developed new processes for high yield and performance in silicon processing. Transition metal gettering from silicon wafers is a key to integrated circuit process yield. Professor Kimerling incorporated models for the process which he developed into a process simulator that allows design of the wafer consistent with process flow. Last year he developed models for point defect reactions based on experimental data from his radiation effects studies. This year he created a simulator from these models and applied it to Reactive Ion Etching. The simulator accurately predicts the dependence of defect introduction on wafer specifications. It is the first defect/diffusion simulator to be based entirely on experimental data. The development of supercritical water as a vehicle for chemical waste destruction continues to attract attention. The selection of the materials of construction for large scale systems is the central focus of the work done by Professor Ronald M. Latanision. In particular, he has identified thermodynamic conditions in potential-pH-temperature space which allow materials such as nickel-based and titanium-based alloys to be protected while not compromising the waste destruction efficiency.
Professor Heather N. Lechtman continues a long-term research program on the development of bronze alloys in the Andean culture area during prehistory. This year was devoted to determining the phase diagram and some physical properties of a ternary Cu-As-Ni bronze alloy that was in common use in the southern Andes (Bolivia) during the Middle Horizon (ca. A.D. 600-1,000). This kind of bronze was discovered by Professor Lechtman during her 1995 field research in Bolivia. It was used in the architectural I-cramps that clamp together sandstone blocks in the monumental buildings at Tiwanaku, capital of the great South Andean Middle Horizon state. Professor James D. Livingston submitted a manuscript to Wiley Publishers for a textbook to be used in subject, 3.10, "Chemical Physics of Materials."
In Professor Anne M. Mayes' work several schemes for developing nanotechnologies hinge upon the ability to create patterns of discrete chemically homogeneous domains on the scale of nanometers. Given this paradigm for device production, the possible utility of block copolymers, which spontaneously order into nanoscale domains of uniform size and spacing, has been amply noted. In practice, however, the use of block copolymers for device production has seemingly been limited by the fact that the patterns one might produce are restricted to the domain morphologies these systems display in nature. Professor Mayes has developed a novel simple scheme for more general nanoscale chemical patterning of block copolymer films that exploits the dependence of block copolymer morphology on film thickness. By controlling local film thickness, she demonstrated that topographical information, provided it has an appropriate amplitude, can be transformed to chemical patterns on the sub-micron scale utilizing block copolymer thin films. The observed phenomena is consistent with self-consistent mean field predictions of film morphology for symmetric diblock copolymer films of sub-lamellar thickness. Professor Frederick J. McGarry developed and patented several ways to toughen rigid silicone resins, and in other research is working toward an understanding of the causes of brittleness in silicon metal.
MIT's worldwide reputation as a center of expertise in magnetic sensors and magnetoelasticity has spawned newly funded programs (Finland, DARPA and Lord Corporation) in novel actuator materials, and three in magnetic thin film devices (Applied Magnetics) for Dr. Robert C. O'Handley's group. The actuator work has quickly attracted attention from ONR, ARO, GM and EG&G. This year he demonstrated field induced strain in these materials under loads up to 120 Mpa. Further, he demonstrated for the first time that they can be operated above their austenite finish temperature. His pioneering work of imaging and understanding of domain structure in ultrathin Cu/Ni/Cu/Si (001) films continued to receive wide acclaim. This year he was the first to show that variations in magnetoelastic coupling with film thickness are not a surface effect but rather a second-order effect due to the misfit strain in thin epitaxial films.
Former department head, and now retired, Professor W. Owen has collaborated with Professor Mica Grujicic (Clemson University) to develop the theory of interstitial strengthening of austenite, which they published a few years ago, in order to explain quantitatively the remarkable solution strengthening, work hardening, and strain aging phenomena in Fe-12Mn-1.3C (Hadfield steel). The model, using pair exchange energies deduced from the ThermoCalc database, has been extended to compare carbon and nitrogen strengthening of highly alloyed Fe-Ni-Cr and Fe-Mn-Cr quaternary alloys. The results are in good agreement with the limited available experimental data. One of their objectives is to combine the model with phase equilibrium data to design high-nitrogen steels and other advanced austenitic alloys. Some progress in that direction has already been achieved.
The determination of the magnetization distribution throughout the thickness of a thin film is of importance both from a fundamental point of view and in industrial applications including magnetic recording. In Dr. David I. Paul's previous work he centered on single surface semi-infinite media. In his current work he studies the magnetization orientation in a thin film with two surfaces, thus containing the film thickness as a parameter. Graphs are given of nucleation fields as a function of the surface anisotropy for various film thickness for various orientations of the applied field. Remanent state magnetization distributions throughout the film thickness are given. It is shown that when the film thickness is small compared with the exchange length, the magnetization remains approximately constant throughout the film thickness, its value depending on the magnitude of the surface anisotropy. As the film thickness increases, the region of rotation becomes more localized to the film surface, reducing for thick films to about the size of the exchange length.
In work on Humanitarian Demining Research begun in 1998, Professor Robert M. Rose designed a system for differentiating dielectric materials in high explosives, casings and detonator materials by complex susceptibility signatures. In other research on Microtechnology, he worked on molecular dynamic modelling of the behavior of liquid water in high electric fields. Working with Professor H. I. Smith of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Professor Caroline A. Ross has manufactured templates for electrodeposition for arrays of magnetic particles with a 200 nm period. She has also deposited chromium and cobalt alloy films on silicon and hard disk substrates while determining conditions necessary to obtain the proper texture in the chromium film. These advances have the potential to continue the growth in magnetic recording storage data density for a number of years to come. Professor David K. Roylance's research has centered on process-structure-property investigations of polymers and composite materials, dealing especially with mechanical properties. Among these topics have been the durability of filled elastomers subjected to large cyclic loads, the role of chain extension versus crosslinking in high-temperature polymer matrix resins, the role of processing variables on the morphology and properties of toughened polyamide resins, the modeling of flow and heat transfer during infiltration processing of composites, and the response of ultraoriented fiber to high-speed impact.
Over the past year, Professor Michael F. Rubner has successfully fabricated new red-light emitting electroluminescent devices that exhibit external quantum efficiencies as high as 3% and luminance levels as high as 500 cd/m2 (five time the brightness of a computer screen). In addition, he has continued development of techniques suitable for modifying the wettability of surfaces including contact lenses. Professor K. Russell further developed his theory for the unusual nucleation processes which occur in such non-equilibrium materials as thin films undergoing ion mixing and light water reactor pressure vessels undergoing irradiation. Promising agreement has been found between the theory and existing experimental data. A joint program with Northrop-Grumman under the Office of Naval Research sponsorship is in progress. Earlier theoretical and experimental work on controlled porosity in cast metals by the Naval Research Laboratory, the Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute in Ukraine, will be reduced to practice. The Civilian Research and Development Foundation is supporting a joint program with Professor Russell and the University of Kiev, Ukraine, on self-organizing systems. Professor Donald R. Sadoway's work in collaboration with Professors Ceder, Chiang, and Mayes has resulted in several major discoveries related to solid-state rechargeable lithium polymer batteries. Electrochemical testing has demonstrated that the group has identified (Ceder) and synthesized (Chiang) new cathode active materials that are far cheaper than those used in today's commercial product.
In Professor C. Scott's research the lattice-Boltzmann method has been used to simulate breakup and coalescence of phase domains in three-dimensional flows. Flow phenomena which have been investigated include capillary wave instability, droplet deformation in simple shear, droplet breakup in simple shear, end-pinching of an elongated domain, and coalescence of a doublet. Quantitative comparisons have been made with experimental and theoretical results in the literature. The agreement with experiments in simple shear flow is excellent. The lattice-Boltzmann method accurately predicts the shape and orientation of a droplet subject to simple shear flow. This method also correctly reproduces the dependence of the critical capillary number for droplet breakage on the viscosity ratio. His lattice-Boltzmann simulations also correctly predict the behavior of an elongated domain in terms of whether it end-pinches or retracts. The experimentally observed dependence of system behavior on viscosity ratio and aspect ratio has been successfully reproduced. In investigations of doublet coalescence he has demonstrated limitations of the lattice-Boltzmann method due to finite mesh size and he has suggested improvements to the simulation scheme. Simulation of domain size and shape at high concentrations of the dispersed phase has revealed new insights into the behavior of these systems which he is continuing to investigate. Professor Scott's understanding of the phase inversion mechanism during compounding of immiscible polymer blends has advanced rapidly. His work has clearly elucidated how the relative transition temperatures and relative viscosities of the two components along with the temperature history determine whether or not phase inversion will occur during processing. Morphological changes near the phase inversion point have been identified and quantified.
Professor Subra Suresh has identified a new gradient profile for coatings and surfaces which suppresses tribological damage. In addition, he has developed a new method for the characterization of the dielectric and piezoelectric constants for sensors and actuators. This year Professor Edwin L. Thomas published a long review/future potential article in Science. This article describes the recent advances and research opportunities in liquid crystals, block copolymers and hydrogen-bonded complexes. Key to the development of new devices will be the manipulation of complementary and antagonistic interactions to create order in materials over many length scales.
Professor Carl V. Thompson developed a grain-structure-sensitive (and therefore process-history-dependent) simulator for prediction of integrated circuit interconnect reliability, MIT/EmSim. A version of this simulator has been made available for use over the web, and is in use by scientists and engineers by a number of IC manufacturers (including Motorola, DEC, AMD, and IBM) as well as researchers of other universities. He modified his grain growth simulation for simulation of grain structure evolution in interconnects with complex shapes, and developed this tool (GGSim) for use with IC layout tools as well as with MIT/EmSim, for prediction of the reliability of design-specific and layout-specific interconnect configurations. He also developed a new hierarchical reliability assessment methodology for assessing the reliability of the networked interconnect of specific integrated circuits. A tool based on the use of algorithm, ERNI, is under development in collaboration with Professor D. E. Troxel of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department. In addition, he designed and fabricated microelectromechanical sensors for in situ monitoring of the stress in thin films which develops during deposition and post-deposition processing. This will provide an important new tool for experimental and theoretical studies of the co-evolution of stress and microstructure in polycrystalline thin films. Finally, he demonstrated the use of ion-induced chemical vapor deposition for the deposition of polycrystalline thin films with unique nanocellular structures which have potential interest for applications in magnetic or microelectromechanical devices.
Dr. Gerardo Trapaga conducted two successful experimental campaigns during the NASA space shuttle missions STS-83 (one week duration due to problems with the orbiter) and STS-94 (full reflight mission in July, 1997). A very significant amount of experimental data was collected on viscosity and surface tension measurements of metallic and glass-forming materials. The preliminary analysis of the data demonstrated the containerless technique to perform these kinds of measurements. The experiments allowed measurements of these properties to very high degrees of undercooling, and it is expected that viscosity measurements will also provide insight on the corresponding free flow regimes in the electromagnetic levitation system. It is hoped that this will determine the critical Reynolds number for levitated droplets. Other research during the year focused on the development of mathematical models and process analysis in different areas of interest in the materials field (PVD, plasma spraying, electric arcs, electromagnetic levitation and electromagnetic stirring and separation). In addition, he made significant progress in a project on industrial ecology in steelmaking.
Professor Tuller's work achieved breakthroughs in the micromachining of the wide band gap semiconductor SiC. This will have important implications for the processing of high temperature-high power electronics and MEMS for aggressive environments. In work on ZnO grain boundaries, Professor Tuller conducted oxygen and cobalt diffusion measurements in single crystal and polycrystalline ZnO as a function of temperature, Po2 and crystal orientation. Grain boundary diffusivities were typically 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than the bulk diffusivities. A defect/transport model is in development capable of predicting cation and anion diffusivities over wide experimental conditions. His collaborative research with Professor Chiang examined oxygen nonstoichiometry in nanocrystalline ceria, x in CeO2-x, directly by solid state coulometric titration revealing values of x on the order of 10-3 - 10-4 at 400-450[ring]C and Po2= 0.21-10-5 atm compared to a 10-9 for coarsened material. Apparent discrepancies with their earlier electrical measurements were resolved by considering the formation of neutral oxygen vacancies.
Professor John B. Vander Sande continues his research work processing superconducting oxides under high magnetic fields (up to 10T) at elevated temperatures to produce highly textured, high performance wires. On the materials science front he developed an understanding of the fundamental influence of this thermomagnetic process on both the nucleation and growth of superconducting grains and, thereby, on texture. On the practical front, he is aggressively pursuing the formation of thick film (10-100 m) on substrate wires for superconducting applications. These wires must exhibit superior superconducting properties as well as excellent mechanical properties.
In Professor Bernhardt J. Wuensch's research establishment of a connection between a structure determined at ambient temperature and a property measured at elevated temperature can lead to spurious conclusions if the structure at elevated temperature is not preserved upon cooling. In studies of pyrochlore oxides, A2B2O7, in fuel cells, Professor Wuensch showed that the increase in anion disorder induced by substitution of a larger ZR4+ ion for Ti4+ in Y2(ZryTi1-y)2O7 could account for an increase in oxygen conductivity by three orders of magnitude to levels attractive for application in fuel cells. Mixing between occupation of the cation sites proceeded at a very different rate with increasing y than did disordering of the anion arrangement. Three order parameters rather than one proved necessary to specify the state of disorder. He subsequently determined the structures of Y2Sn2O7 and Y2 (Zr0.6Ti0.4)2O7 as a function of temperature (20 to 1500[ring]C) and oxygen partial pressure. Yttrium stannate is a fully-ordered pyrochlore whereas the zirconium-titanium solid solution has approximately 50% disorder in the anion array but only slight mixing of the occupancies of the cation sites. The objective of these recent analyses was to determine whether the state of disorder in situ at temperature--especially that of the highly-mobile oxygen ions--is preserved as the sample is quenched and also to observe the progress of anion and cation disorder as a function of temperature. Scattering data obtained in the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory showed that the structure of Y2Sn2O7 remained fully ordered at temperatures up to 1500[ring]C. An unexpected result, however, was that the oxygen ion array became progressively more distorted at elevated temperatures. This result could be successfully interpreted in terms of different rates of thermal expansion of the Y3+ -O2- bonds. The partially-disordered yttrium titanium zirconate displayed the onset of additional thermally-induced disorder at 1200[ring]C. The structure and fast-ion conducting properties of this solid electrolyte should thus be expected to be a function of thermal history and/or processing conditions.
The initiates during the 1997-1998 academic year into the MA Beta Chapter of Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society were: Anita J. Chung, Carla E. Heitzman, Jessica S. Lai, Andrew W. Sparks, Andrew R. Takahashi, Christine H. Tsau, and Evangeline M. E. Yeo.
Maisha Grey, a DMSE junior, was named The Tech's Athlete of the Week for the week of March 17, 1998. Maisha was recently selected as a New England Women's 8 Conference all-star, and helped lead the Engineers to a 17-7 record, the best in MIT women's basketball team history. DMSE senior Melody Kuroda was named the 1998 recipient of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society's (TMS) Presidential Scholarship, the society's most prestigious student award. The award is presented annually to an undergraduate student majoring in metallurgical engineering, materials science and engineering, or minerals processing/extraction who has demonstrated outstanding academic and leadership performance. Melody was presented with the award at the 1998 TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition in San Antonio, Texas in February, 1998. Melody has earned numerous honors and awards throughout her undergraduate years in the department. These include: the 1997 Barry M. Goldwater National Scholar; 1997 Caterpillar Scholar Award; the 1996 Myrtle and Earl Walker Scholarship-SME; 1996 George A. Roberts Scholarship-ASM International; 1996 Pell Scholarship-COHEAO; and the 1996 TMS/SMD Scholarship. Melody is a member of Tau Beta Pi National Engineering Honor Society; Alpha Sigma Mu National Honor Society, and the Cum Laude Society.
Matthew Lozow, a DMSE junior, was one of 26 MIT sophomores and juniors selected as Burchard Scholars in the School of Humanities and Social Science for 1998. The awards, named after the School's first dean, John Ely Burchard, are given to students who demonstrate unusual abilities and academic excellence in the areas embraced by the School. The Burchard Scholars and a rotating group of faculty will be invited to a series of dinners at which an MIT faculty member or visiting scholar will present work in progress, followed by a discussion. This will allow students and faculty members to mix and will give students, especially, an opportunity to engage in the kind of intellectual exchange that characterizes scholarship in the humanities, arts and social sciences. The emphasis throughout the program is interdisciplinary.
In May, 1998 six seniors were accepted as associate members in the Society of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society of North America: Sharon Chang, Kim Marie Levis, Hsin-Chiao Luan, Jennifer Ann Pinson, Justin Sanchez, and Patrick Trapa. Matt Farinelli, a graduate student in Dr. O'Handley's group, was awarded full financial support to attend a week long workshop in August, 1998, on "Spintronics" the new class of electronic devices based on the spin of ferromagnetic thin films.
In June, 1998 senior Patrick LeClair won the award for Best DMSE Senior Thesis. His thesis titled, "Titanium Nitride Thin Films by the Electron Shower Process," was written under the supervision of Professor Caroline A. Ross. Nicole D. Gerrish received the award for Best III-B Internship Report for her internship at Draper Laboratories. Her report was titled, "Metal-Si Interfaces in MEMS Devices: Mechanisms of Formation and Electronic Characteristics." Meredith A. Rising received Honorable Mention for her III-B Internship Report for her internship at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Her report was titled, "Microbial Corrosion of Aluminum Composites." The award for Outstanding Student: DMSE Class of 1998 was given to Benjamin P. Nunes, who was honored for both his outstanding academic record and the strong leadership role he holds within the department student body. Certificates of Honor for a Perfect 5.0 Cum were given to Nicole D. Gerrish, Wendy L. Mao, Benjamin P. Nunes and Sara L. Ransom. The department was pleased to present awards for Outstanding Service to William Danny Perez and Ryan J. Kershner. Danny Perez received the award for Outstanding Service to the MIT Community for his leadership in the Society for Hispanic Professional Engineers. Ryan Kershner received the award for Outstanding Service to the Department for his participation in and support of many of DMSE's academic and social activities during academic year 1997-1998.
Of the 37 students who graduated in June, 1998 with the SB degree, nine are staying on for graduate school here. Of those nine students, four received NSF Graduate Fellowships: Jeri'Ann King, Melody Kuroda, Benjamin Nunes and Patrick Trapa, and two enrolled in the III-B Internship Master's program: Kim-Marie Levis and Nicole Gerrish.
In May, 1998 four graduate students were accepted as associate members of the Society of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society of North America: Bruno Cheron, Minha Hwang, Matthew Rosenthal, and Christopher Vineis. Two graduate students were accepted as full members of the Society of Sigma Xi: Patricio Mendez and Song Zhao.
Benita J. Dair, a graduate student in Professor Thomas' group, was awarded the 1998 MRS Student Award. Graduate student, Michael J. Fasolka received the "Technical Creativity" award at the Amoco/PPST Poster Competition on November 5, 1997. In addition, The Materials Research Society (MRS) honored Michael with a 1997 MRS Graduate Student Award. Luis Ortiz, a graduate student in Professor Sadoway's group, received the William L. Stewart Award at MIT's 1998 Awards Convocation. The award is presented to students who have made outstanding contributions to co-curricular activities and events during the preceding year. The award is funded under a grant from the W. L. Stewart Jr. Memorial Foundation in memory of Mr. Stewart, a member of the MIT Corporation from 1952 until his death in 1963. Luis was honored for being a leading force behind the Student Advisory Committee to the Task Force on Student Life and Learning.
In December, 1997, Patrick Pallot, who performed his Master's degree research under the direction of Professor Subra Suresh, was awarded the best research award by the Ecole Polytechnique in France. Patrick was one of several students from the Ecole Polytechnique who carried out their final year research projects at European and American universities during 1997. Patrick's research at MIT led to a report entitled, "Two-Dimensional Contacts Between Graded Elastic Materials." A panel of professors at Ecole Polytechnique elected Patrick for this prestigious award based on the quality of his work. Patrick was honored at a special ceremony at the Ecole Polytechnique. Philip Soo, a graduate student working with Professor Anne Mayes' group received the 1997 Electrochemistry Society I.E.E.E. Division H. H. Dow Memorial Student Award.
DMSE graduate student, Jian Luo along with postdoctoral associate Haifeng Wang, who are both in Professor Yet-Ming Chiang's research group, won first prize in the Graduate Student Poster Contest at the meeting of the New England Section of the American Ceramic Society in June, 1998. The John Wulff Award for Excellence in Teaching during academic year 1997-1998 was awarded to David E. Wooley.
Fellowship awards for one or more semesters were held during academic year 1997-1998 by 55 students:
Institute fellowship were held by two students: Valarie I. Benezra, Henry Bromfield Rogers Fellowship (Office of the Dean of Graduate Education); Samuel A. Newell, MIT Environmental Fellow. Department Fellowships were held by 11 students: Thomas Bessom, Allegheny-Ludlum MPMI Fellowship; Sara H. Buta, Lord Foundation Fellowship; Min-ha Hwang, Loeb Foundation Fellowship; Miguel A. Marioni, Roberto Rocca Fellowship; Jonas D. Mendelsohn, Starr Foundation Fellowship; Jeffrey D. Nystrom, Ronald A. Kurtz Graduate Fellowship in MS&E; Rodrigo J. Quintero, Lord Foundation Fellowship; Michael J. Read, Lord Foundation Fellowship; Douglas J. Twisselmann, Loeb Foundation Fellowship; Augustine M. Urbas, Starr Foundation Fellowship; James A. Yurko, Nicholas J. Grant Graduate Fellowship. DOD NDSEG Fellowships were held by 12 students: Benjamin Hellweg, Neil T. Jenkins, Lisa M. McGill, Thomas J. Nugent, Wynn S. Sanders, Kevin M. Chen, Matthew J. Farinelli, Michael E. Groenert, Jason R. Heine, Andrew Y. Kim, Samuel A. Newell, and Stephen C. Britten. NSF Fellowships were held by 13 students: Jiang-Ti Kong, Sara L. Ransom, Amy C. Richards, Eric J. Wu, Paul R. Birch, Christine S. Hau, Thomas A. Langdo, Debra J. Lightly, Michael J. Fasolka, Darrell J. Irvine, Erin B. Lavik, Sanjeev Makan, and Martin L. Panchula. A variety of other Fellowships were held by 17 students: Emiliano Cecchetti, 1997 Italian Trade Commission Scholarship; Vanessa Z.-H. Chan, IBM/Almaden Cooperative Fellowship; Michael F. Durstock, Air Force Fellowship; Kevin M. Eberman, Argonne National Laboratory Graduate Participant Fellowship; Toby M. Freyman, NIH Training Grant; Laura M. Giovane, AT&T Fellowship; Peter Y. Hsieh, Draper Fellowship; Olivera E. Kesler, ONR Fellowship; Esther M. Ku, DOE Technical Leadership Development Program Fellowship; Alice M. Man, EPA Fellowship; James E. Neely III, DOE Fellowship; Anne-Valerie G. Ruzette, Belgian American Foundation Fellowship; Sajan Saini, Quebec, Canada, Government Fellowship; Amy L. Smith, DOE Fellowship; Gianni Taraschi, Quebec, Canada, Government Fellowship; Surekha Vajjhala, Beinecke Brothers Memorial Scholarship; Anton F. Van der Ven, DOE Fellowship.
The past year has been an important one for the department in that the faculty have developed a strong sense of community and have begun to establish a coherent long-range strategic plan. Morale has improved significantly as compared with the immediate prior years. Our challenges for the future are implementation of our three new strategic thrust areas and the hiring of new, young faculty. We are continuing to make progress in curriculum development at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, and we are beginning to see a modest expansion of our departmental research effort. The past year has been marked by a new sense of unity and increased participation by all members of the department. After several difficult and somewhat troubling years we have emerged with a new sense of purpose and greater strength and commitment than ever before.
More information about the Department of Materials Science and Engineering can be found on the World Wide Web at the following URL:http://tantalum.mit.edu/
Thomas W. Eagar
MIT Reports to the President 1997-98