music21.articulations

Classes for representing and processing articulations. Specific articulations are modeled as Articulation subclasses.

A Note object has a articulations attribute. This list can be used to store one or more music21.articulation.Articulation subclasses.

As much as possible, MusicXML names are used for Articulation classes, with xxx-yyy changed to XxxYyy. For instance, “strong-accent” in MusicXML is “StrongAccent” here.

Fingering and other playing marks are found here. Fermatas, trills, etc. are found in music21.expressions.

>>> n1 = note.Note('D#4')
>>> n1.articulations.append(articulations.Tenuto())
>>> n1.show()
>>> c1 = chord.Chord(['C3', 'G4', 'E-5'])
>>> c1.articulations = [articulations.OrganHeel(), articulations.Accent()]
>>> c1.show()

A longer test showing the utility of the module:

>>> s = stream.Stream()
>>> n1 = note.Note('c#5')
>>> n1.articulations = [articulations.Accent()]
>>> n1.quarterLength = 1.25
>>> s.append(n1)
>>> n2 = note.Note('d5')
>>> n2.articulations = [articulations.StrongAccent()]
>>> n2.quarterLength = 0.75
>>> s.append(n2)
>>> n3 = note.Note('b4')
>>> n3.articulations = [articulations.Staccato()]
>>> n3.quarterLength = 1.25
>>> n3.tie = tie.Tie('start')
>>> s.append(n3)
>>> n4 = note.Note('b4')
>>> n4.articulations = [articulations.Staccatissimo()]
>>> n4.quarterLength = 0.75
>>> s.append(n4)
>>> n5 = note.Note('a4')
>>> n5.articulations = [articulations.Tenuto()]
>>> n5.quarterLength = 4/3
>>> s.append(n5)
>>> n6 = note.Note('b-4')
>>> n6.articulations = [articulations.Staccatissimo(), articulations.Tenuto()]
>>> n6.quarterLength = 2/3
>>> s.append(n6)
>>> s.metadata = metadata.Metadata()
>>> s.metadata.title = 'Prova articolazioni'  # ital: 'Articulation Test'
>>> s.metadata.composer = 'Giuliano Lancioni'
>>> s.show()
../_images/prova_articolazioni.png

Articulation

class music21.articulations.Articulation

Base class for all Articulation sub-classes.

>>> x = articulations.Articulation()
>>> x.placement = 'below'
>>> x.style.absoluteY = 20
>>> x.displayText = '>'

Articulation bases

Articulation read-only properties

Articulation.name

returns the name of the articulation, which is generally the class name without the leading letter lowercase.

Subclasses can override this as necessary.

>>> st = articulations.Staccato()
>>> st.name
'staccato'
>>> sp = articulations.SnapPizzicato()
>>> sp.name
'snap pizzicato'

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Articulation read/write properties

Articulation.volumeShift

Get or set the volumeShift of this Articulation. This value, between -1 and 1, that is used to shift the final Volume of the object it is attached to.

>>> at1 = articulations.StrongAccent()
>>> at1.volumeShift > 0.1
True

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Articulation methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Articulation instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Bowing

class music21.articulations.Bowing

Indication that bowing is being affected.

>>> a = articulations.Bowing()

Bowing bases

Bowing read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Bowing read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Bowing methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Bowing instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

BreathMark

class music21.articulations.BreathMark

Can have as a symbol ‘comma’ or ‘tick’ or None

>>> a = articulations.BreathMark()
>>> a.symbol = 'comma'

BreathMark bases

BreathMark read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

BreathMark read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

BreathMark methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

BreathMark instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Doit

class music21.articulations.Doit

An indeterminateSlide coming after the main note and going up.

>>> a = articulations.Doit()

Doit bases

Doit read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Doit read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Doit methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Doit instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

DynamicArticulation

class music21.articulations.DynamicArticulation

Superclass for all articulations that change the dynamic of a note.

DynamicArticulation bases

DynamicArticulation read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

DynamicArticulation read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

DynamicArticulation methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

DynamicArticulation instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Falloff

class music21.articulations.Falloff

An indeterminateSlide coming after the main note and going down.

>>> a = articulations.Falloff()

Falloff bases

Falloff read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Falloff read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Falloff methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Falloff instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Fingering

class music21.articulations.Fingering(fingerNumber=None)

Fingering is a technical indication that covers the fingering of a note (in a guitar/fret context, this covers the fret finger, see FrettedPluck for that).

Converts the MusicXML – <fingering> object

>>> f = articulations.Fingering(5)
>>> f
<music21.articulations.Fingering 5>
>>> f.fingerNumber
5

.substitution indicates that this fingering indicates a substitute fingering:

>>> f.substitution = True

MusicXML distinguishes between a substitution and an alternate fingering:

>>> f.alternate = True

Fingerings are the only articulations that apply per note in a chord. Other articulations, e.g., accents, apply to the whole chord and will, therefore, only be associated with the first note of a chord when serializing. Since chords store all articulations in an ordered list, Fingerings are mapped implicitly to the notes of a chord in order. Superfluous Fingerings will be ignored and may be discarded when serializing.

Fingering bases

Fingering read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Fingering read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Fingering methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Fingering instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

FretIndication

class music21.articulations.FretIndication(number=0)

FretIndication indicates which fret of a string a note is played on.

A FretIndication can be constructed as

>>> fi = articulations.FretIndication(3)
>>> fi
<music21.articulations.FretIndication 3>
>>> fi.number
3

If no argument to the constructor is specified, number defaults to 0.

FretIndication bases

FretIndication read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

FretIndication read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

FretIndication methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

FretIndication instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

FrettedPluck

class music21.articulations.FrettedPluck(number=0)

specifies plucking fingering for fretted instruments

pluck in musicxml

FrettedPluck bases

FrettedPluck read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

FrettedPluck read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

FrettedPluck methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

FrettedPluck instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

HandbellIndication

class music21.articulations.HandbellIndication

displayText is used to store any of the techniques in handbell music.

Values are damp, echo, gyro, hand martellato, mallet lift, mallet table, martellato, martellato lift, muted martellato, pluck lift, and swing

HandbellIndication bases

HandbellIndication read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

HandbellIndication read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

HandbellIndication methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

HandbellIndication instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Harmonic

class music21.articulations.Harmonic

A general harmonic indicator – StringHarmonic is probably what you want…

Harmonic bases

Harmonic read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Harmonic read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Harmonic methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Harmonic instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

IndeterminateSlide

class music21.articulations.IndeterminateSlide

Represents a whole class of slides that are of an indeterminate pitch amount (scoops, plops, etc.)

All these have style information of .style.lineShape .style.lineType, .style.dashLength, and .style.spaceLength

IndeterminateSlide bases

IndeterminateSlide read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

IndeterminateSlide read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

IndeterminateSlide methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

IndeterminateSlide instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

LengthArticulation

class music21.articulations.LengthArticulation

Superclass for all articulations that change the length of a note.

LengthArticulation bases

LengthArticulation read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

LengthArticulation read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

LengthArticulation methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

LengthArticulation instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

OrganIndication

class music21.articulations.OrganIndication

Indicates whether a pitch should be played with heel or toe.

Has one attribute, “substitution” default to False, which indicates whether the mark is a substitution mark

OrganIndication bases

OrganIndication read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

OrganIndication read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

OrganIndication methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

OrganIndication instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

PitchArticulation

class music21.articulations.PitchArticulation

Superclass for all articulations that change the pitch of a note.

PitchArticulation bases

PitchArticulation read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

PitchArticulation read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

PitchArticulation methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

PitchArticulation instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Pizzicato

class music21.articulations.Pizzicato

in MusicXML, Pizzicato is an element of every note. Here we represent pizzicatos along with all bowing marks.

For pluck, see FrettedPluck.

Pizzicato bases

Pizzicato read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Pizzicato read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Pizzicato methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Pizzicato instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Plop

class music21.articulations.Plop

An indeterminateSlide coming before the main note and going down.

>>> a = articulations.Plop()

Plop bases

Plop read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Plop read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Plop methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Plop instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Scoop

class music21.articulations.Scoop

An indeterminateSlide coming before the main note and going up

>>> a = articulations.Scoop()

Scoop bases

Scoop read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Scoop read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Scoop methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Scoop instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Spiccato

class music21.articulations.Spiccato

A staccato note + accent in one

>>> spiccato = articulations.Spiccato()
>>> staccato = articulations.Staccato()
>>> accent = articulations.Accent()
>>> spiccato.lengthShift == staccato.lengthShift
True
>>> spiccato.volumeShift == accent.volumeShift
True

Spiccato bases

Spiccato read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Spiccato read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Spiccato methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Spiccato instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Staccatissimo

class music21.articulations.Staccatissimo

A very short note (derived from staccato), usually represented as a wedge.

>>> a = articulations.Staccatissimo()

Staccatissimo bases

Staccatissimo read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Staccatissimo read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Staccatissimo methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Staccatissimo instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Stress

class music21.articulations.Stress

An articulation indicating stress. Played a little longer and louder.

>>> a = articulations.Stress()

Stress bases

Stress read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Stress read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Stress methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Stress instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

StringHarmonic

class music21.articulations.StringHarmonic

Indicates that a note is a harmonic, and can also specify whether it is the base pitch, the sounding pitch, or the touching pitch.

>>> h = articulations.StringHarmonic()
>>> h.harmonicType
'natural'
>>> h.harmonicType = 'artificial'

pitchType can be ‘base’, ‘sounding’, or ‘touching’ or None

>>> h.pitchType = 'base'

StringHarmonic bases

StringHarmonic read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

StringHarmonic read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

StringHarmonic methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

StringHarmonic instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

StringIndication

class music21.articulations.StringIndication(number=0)

StringIndication indicates which string a note is played on.

A StringIndication can be constructed as

>>> si = articulations.StringIndication(2)
>>> si
<music21.articulations.StringIndication 2>
>>> si.number
2

If no argument to the constructor is specified, number defaults to 0.

StringIndication bases

StringIndication read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

StringIndication read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

StringIndication methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

StringIndication instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

StrongAccent

class music21.articulations.StrongAccent

Like an accent but even stronger. Has an extra attribute of pointDirection

>>> a = articulations.StrongAccent()
>>> a.pointDirection
'up'
>>> a.pointDirection = 'down'
>>> a.pointDirection
'down'

StrongAccent bases

StrongAccent read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

StrongAccent read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

StrongAccent methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

StrongAccent instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

TechnicalIndication

class music21.articulations.TechnicalIndication

TechnicalIndications (MusicXML: technical) give performance indications specific to different instrument types, such as harmonics or bowing.

TechnicalIndications can include an optional content.

TechnicalIndication bases

TechnicalIndication read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

TechnicalIndication read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

TechnicalIndication methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

TechnicalIndication instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

TimbreArticulation

class music21.articulations.TimbreArticulation

Superclass for all articulations that change the timbre of a note.

TimbreArticulation bases

TimbreArticulation read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

TimbreArticulation read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

TimbreArticulation methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

TimbreArticulation instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object:

Unstress

class music21.articulations.Unstress

An articulation indicating lack of stress. Played a little quieter.

>>> a = articulations.Unstress()

Unstress bases

Unstress read-only properties

Read-only properties inherited from Articulation:

Read-only properties inherited from Music21Object:

Read-only properties inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Unstress read/write properties

Read/write properties inherited from Articulation:

Read/write properties inherited from Music21Object:

Unstress methods

Methods inherited from Music21Object:

Methods inherited from ProtoM21Object:

Unstress instance variables

Instance variables inherited from Music21Object: