In the attempt to effectively and realistically implement a preservation strategy, one must recognize the policy mechanism used by ORGALA. Money is either given directly to an already existing organization, who then implements the requests of ORGALA, or a team is created by ORGALA to carry out the request, or Ecuador/INGALA is lobbied to have the request adopted as law. Finally, the most drastic measure of a "Finanacial Veto" is employed to prevent Ecuador from taking drastic actions detrimental to the Galapagos.
ORGALA holds no direct political power due to the apolitical structure of the organization. Hence all regulations and changes in environmental law, such as that regarding implementation of ITQs, must be achieved through lobbying. Lobbyists are not included in a formalized office of ORGALA; however, lobbyists will be employed only through ORGALA in order to ensure that the interests of ORGALA are promoted fairly. This precaution is primarily to prevent member organizations that employ representatives to lawmakers from furthering their personal agendas under the name of ORGALA. Funds necessary for the employment of lobbyists shall be included as part of the administrative budget of ORGALA.
Both "inside" and "outside" forms of lobbying shall be utilized in achieving the targeted legislation. "Inside" lobbying, which constitutes of direct persuasion of lawmakers, will be essential to shaping the specifics of such regulations and laws that are created. "Outside" lobbying consists primarily of generating popular support from constituents in order to exert pressure upon lawmakers. Based on previous experience, such pressures have on occasion played a substantial role in changing legislation. "Outside" lobbying may be most effective if combined or conducted in a cooperative manner with the educational component of the initial preservation strategy committee. In short, the main points concerning ORGALA and lobbying are as follows:
- Lobbyists are not formally a part of ORGALA but will be utilized to achieve regulations or other formal political changes outside of ORGALA's control
- Lobbyists employed only by ORGALA to prevent member NGOs from furthering their own agendas under ORGALA's name
- Funding for lobbyists included as part of ORGALA's administrative budget
- Both "inside" and "outside" lobbying employed
- "Outside" lobbying conducted in cooperation with educational component to further outreach and efficiency.
The "Financial Veto" has precedent as an effective tool against drastic actions taken by Ecuador. When the Ecuadorian government commits some heinous act in regard to the Galapagos a vote for a financial veto can be called within ORGALA. If the veto is agreed upon, then all funding to Ecuador is placed on a standstill. As was noted earlier, when President Gutierrez attempted to install Cepeda as the new park director, "Several international scientific and environmental organizations [froze] funding to the park in anticipation of Naula's ouster" (MSNBC 2004). Because this action resulted in a delay in park rangers' salaries, paradoxically the park rangers intensified their protests against the President. Of course, Ecuador suffered from the cutoff in funds, and this caused President Gutierrez to come to the bargaining table in choosing the next park director. Thus, one can see that under ORGALA the financial veto would be a negative feedback system, forcing Ecuador to negotiate on whatever issue is at hand.
The following are examples and rough drafts of possible proposals that ORGALA could adopt as part of an initial preservation strategy. Although some efforts can be achieved directly, others will require the lobbying power of ORGALA as described above.
The purpose of the education program will be to promote environmentally friendly practices among the inhabitants of the Galapagos and to foster a sense of pride for this unique habitat that they live in through education about the environment and the issues that surround the Galapagos. The courses offered shall focus on environmental problems facing the islands and accentuate the magnitude of impact that local actions have on the environment of the Galapagos. Courses will be offered for all age groups; they will be offered free of charge at local universities and also be integrated into the curriculum of primary schools. It is important to encourage an appreciation for the environment at an early age so that in the future, the inhabitants of the Galapagos will be more aware of the threats facing the Galapagos.
Also, such courses can be used to spread awareness of specific environmental problems such as that of excessive fishing. Fishermen would be required to complete certain courses regarding the effects of excessive fishing in order to obtain the individual transferable quotas needed to legally fish. In this way, the source of the problem may be addressed.
The current common quota system promotes gold rush fishing in which fishermen compete with each other to catch fish the fastest. This results in much more destructive fishing, as fishermen have no time for environmentally friendly methods. Also, the fish they capture will have less market value because huge quantities will be fished and sold at the start of the season, meaning the price will be much lower. ITQs would dissolve the need to rush for fish, as each fisherman would be allotted part of the stock, and they will be able to sell the fish at a greater profit. ITQs also have been found to promote a much greater sense of ownership of the fishery resource in the fishermen, which often results in an increased motivation to conserve and care for the well-being of the marine ecosystem.
Individual Transferable Quota (ITQ) Management Plan for the Galapagos Fishery
All fishery catches in the Galapagos will be regulated by the distribution of individual quotas for each species by the Glaapagos National Park Service (GNPS)
- Nature of the ITQ
- Each ITQ will specify a certain indivisible amount of total landing for a species. The ITQ represents the privilege of the owner to fish that certain amount in a season. The quotas may be bought and sold.
- Allotment of the ITQs
- A total catch amount for a species will be determined based on environmental sustainability. Some fraction, perhaps _, of that total sustainable catch will be distributed to current fishing vessel operators and the rest will be available to be bought from the government. No single operator should be allowed to hold more than some fraction of the total allowable catch in ITQs, perhaps no more than 10% (this would depend on the species in question).
- The initial distribution of ITQs will go as follows:
- 50% of the total ITQs will be divided according to each operator's average annual catch over the past 5 years. Then 25% of the total ITQs will be given out by random drawing to operators who agree to certain provisions, such as unlimited open access of their vessels to GNPS rangers, the use of environmentally friendly fishing methods, etc.
- In order for any operator to maintain his ITQs, he must, by the end of the second season of fishing his ITQs have completed at least 30 hours at an accredited university in a course related to the marine environment.
- Restrictions and Revocation of ITQs
- The GNPS will reserve the right to revoke without compensation the ITQs held by any operator found to misrepresent of falsify his catch reporting, fish in restricted areas, engage in high-grading, or willfully violate any other regulation designed to protect the ecosystem. The operator in question must have a hearing before a panel produced by the GNPS with legal representation present before revocation is possible. If the panel finds the operator acted out of ignorance rather than willful neglect, they may order him to take a class in a marine ecology and prove his understanding of the regulations coupled with a temporary suspension of ITQs. If the ITQs are indeed revoked, the operator may re-purchase ITQs if any remain at the start of the next season.
- Any operator, who provides direct evidence of the violation of one of the aforementioned regulations that result in the revocation of an operator's ITQs will receive 50% of the violating operator's ITQs, provided he does not exceed the maximum limit on percent share of the total sustainable catch.
- In the event of an ecological crisis involving the species in question, the GNPS reserves the right to suspend any ITQs after 30 days notice to all holders of ITQs. If the suspension continues for more than one season, the GNPS must upon request either refund the suspended operators' ITQs for their original value or give them any available ITQs of equivalent value in another fishery.
- The GNPS is not responsible for buying operators' ITQs except during a suspension, but they must exchange ITQs upon request for ITQs in different fisheries, of course without exceeding the determined total sustainable catch.
- Annual reevaluation of total quota
- The total sustainable fishing quota out of which ITQs are divided must be reevaluated after each fishing season, and the quantity each ITQ represents can be altered to fit a larger or smaller quota allotment. In the case of an increased allotment, the GNPS may also opt to sell more ITQs rather then alter the value of each existing one.
There exists over the spread of the islands a population of over 500 species of alien flora, fauna, and micro fauna. In this document, ORGALA authorizes the allocation of funds for the following endeavors in ridding the Galápagos habitat of invasive species:br>
- Funds will be provided to hire a small team of scientists to aid the Charles Darwin Foundation and the National park service. Currently many projects of alien species control are being run by the CDF, and an increase in personnel is crucial as it provides for increased efficiency in the execution of these projects and allows for different perspectives which would hopefully lead to quicker and better methods of control.
- A set price of $x per head will be offered to any farmer or bounty hunter for cattle, pigs, or goats. Monies will also be set aside to provide for the transportation of these animals back to the mainland where they can be sold at no profit to ORGALA to farmers or corporate entities.
- A team of trained hunters will be hired to aid current efforts to eradicate the population of feral goats in northern Isabela. A requirement for being part of the team is completion of a course in hunter ethics. ORGALA will provide the equipment necessary, including rifles, telescopic sights, GPS transmitters, and any other equipment deemed necessary for the control of the operation and later disposal of goat cadavers so that it might eradicate the goats as quickly and humanely as possible.
- Funds will be allocated for "clean stations" on any island that requires one. The idea of a clean station is that it allows visitors to the islands the chance to wash their shoes before and after visiting the islands so as to kill any microscopic invaders on them. Money will be provided for the construction, maintenance, and supply of the clean stations, including the hiring of a micro fauna expert to determine what specific chemicals are needed in specific islands.
- Given that current efforts to destroy the little fire ant (wasmannia auropunctata) have been very successful, but somewhat limited in scope, funds will be provided to hire new personnel and buy the chemical agents necessary for the eradication of this extremely destructive species.