Course 12.000 - Mission 2010
Team 3 - Wetlands
Samantha Fox's Annotated Bibliography

Team 3 Website


Bearden, David M. "National Estuary Program: a Collaborative Approach to Protecting Coastal Water Quality." National Wetlands. Ed. Samuel T. Prescott. Hauppauge: Nova Science, Inc., 2004. 69-86. 
A majority of the information useful to me in this article involves general coastal environmental problems.  Bearden mentions some of the common problems as eutrophication, toxic substances, pathogens, habitat loss, and more specifically for wetlands, runoff control. He discusses programs implemented in other areas of the country to help restore wetlands. 

Brown, Matthew. "Environmentalists Urge Building Wetland Buffer." The Times-Picayune 29 Aug. 2006. 20 Sept. 2006 <>. 
This news article compares the money President Bush promised to Katrina clean up with the amount that will be used for wetland repairs, billions for general repair, and only in the millions range for wetlands.  This amount is far less than what officials have estimated will be needed to repair wetland loss since 1930, which was estimate to be in the billions.

Callaway, John C. "Restoring Our National Wetlands." Wetlands. Ed. Sharon L. Spray and Karen L. McGlothlin. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc., 2004. 55-83. 
Callaway give statistics on how much of the United States' land area in wetlands has changed, and how it is still changing.  The Natural development of wetlands takes a very long time, and scientists are trying to speed this rate, to lead to some restoration.  He gives examples of where, how, and what kind of wetlands are being considered for restoration.  Specifically the Mississippi River Delta wetlands are possible candidates for restoration of either freshwater tidal wetlands or salt marshes.  Factors that need to be considered before restoration include water depth, plant and animal life, soil type, and position with reference to neighboring ecosystems.

Colten, Craig E. "Reintroducing Nature to the City: Wetlands in New Orleands." Environmental History 7 (2002): 226-247. ProQuest. MIT Libraries. 9 Nov. 2006. Colten summarizes the history of the wetlands very, very well. He discusses the influences people had on the area, as well as the reasons for filling and draining, including for urbanization and sanitation.

CS-19 West Hackberry Plantings and Sediment Enhancement Demo Project. Department of Natural Resources. 2002. 10 Oct. 2006 <>. This report summarizes the attempt to plant Schoenoplectus californicus in order to reduce the erosion of the soil in the area. Hay bales were used to increase sedimentation. The plants covered about 12,000 feet of shoreline. The hay bales disintegrated and where judged to be unsuitable for their intended purpose of increasing sedmient deposition. While the plants were initially successful, an increase in the salinity of the water cause a large portion of the vegetation of die. This is important for us because it shows one singular method of planting will not work unless the plants are suitable for a wide range of salinity. Thus, if planting in a fresh water area, we have to guarantee that the water will remain relatively fresh.

Dean, Robert G. "New Orleans and the Wetlands of Southern Louisiana." The Bridge 36 (2006). 20 Sept. 2006 <>. 
Robert Dean discusses the natural life of the wetlands and how it has changed do to human interaction.  He also compares this change with the rising sea levels and the choices New Orleans has to deal with such changes.  Some of these include abadoning the area, doing nothing and waiting for another disaster, or building new levees.

Ditton, Robert B., John L. Seymour,  and Gerald C. Swanson. Coastal Resources Management. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1977. 
The authors of this book discuss how men developing the land have destroyed natural barriers, such as wetlands and dunes.  They go further to explain how wetlands affect the environment around them as nutrient providers and water cleansers.  The market value of wetlands, or rather filling them, was believed to be greater than their environmental purpose.  Previous preservation plans are made known in the text, as well as what could be done in the future.

Farris, Gaye S. "USGS Reports New Wetland Loss From Hurricane Katrina in Southeastern Louisiana." USGS. 31 May 2006. 14 Sept. 2006 <>.
The Press Release from U.S. Geological Survey discusses the numerical aspect of wetland damage post Hurricane Katrina. They believe that the storm altered about a fourth of a 133-square mile area of marsh. The wetland outside of New Orleans has lost sixteen percent of the land in a forty-eight year period. USGS claims that the shape of the land at the coast could have contributed to the odd strength behind a storm surge from the northwest. They conclude by saying some of the damage done to the wetlands could be irreversible.

Faulkner, Stephen. "Soils and Sediment." Wetlands. Ed. Sharon L. Spray and Karen L. McGlothlin. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc., 2004. 30-54. 
Faulkner reviews the role the soil has in wetlands.  He covers everything from the plant life to the changes in the climate.  Plants in this area must be adapted to the low amount of oxygen in the soil, due to it being so saturated with water.  He also discusses the significance of nutrients in the wetlands and the cycles in which they travel.

Fraser, L H., and P A. Keddy. "The Future of Large Wetlands: a Global Perspective." The World's Largest Wetlands. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2005. 446-468. 
In conclusion to the compilation, covers the amount of wetlands in each continent and the direct threats to loss of area.  It also covers the changing climate and how that will affect wetlands.  This includes change in salinity and level of the water, and thus change in plant environment and survival rate.

Gelinas, Nicole. "Katrina's Real Lesson." America's Wetland. 29 Aug. 2006. 14 Sept. 2006 <>. 
Gelinas' article has quite a few references to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  In reference to the system before the hurricane, the Corps claim it was built as was designed, but the article goes on to say it was built to fail.  One point made is that the ground on which New Orleans is located naturally erodes away, but had always been replaced by the flood waters of the Mississippi, that levees now control.  This natural sinking of the ground lowered the levees approximately three feet from their original height.  The Corps are planning to protect for a one hundred year hurricane, and it has been suggested that when designing, the engineers look at what the Dutch have done to keep themselves out of the water.

Godschalk, David R., David J. Brower,  and Timothy Beatley. Catastrophic Coastal Storms. Durham: Duke UP, 1989. 8-100. 
Catastrophic Coastal Storms discusses the loss of coastal resources, such as dunes, beaches, and wetlands, due to major storms.  Causes of destruction including wind and water damages are discusses in relation to how they affect the habitat.  It looks at the history of storms that have hit the United States and discusses the statistics, such as wind speed, height of storm surge, and amount of damage.  The US Army Corps of Engineers is also discussed, including what they had done and what they could do in regards to coastal protection.

Grunwald, Michael, and Susan B. Glasser. "The Slow Drowning of New Orleans." Washington Post 9 Oct. 2005. 16 Sept. 2006 <>. 
Grunwald and Glasser's article provides an excellent history of the area dating back to 1718, including major floods, such as the 1927 flood which left the poorer areas destroyed, as well as figures associated with the 1965 Hurricane Betsy, including the seventy people killed and 30,000 trapped residents.  There is a large amount of information regarding the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and how they took care of situations.  The Corps had plans to protect the city from the Gulf waters with shorter levees than the river had used.  Protecting from hurricanes was surprisingly not one of the priorities for the Corps.

Keddy, P A., and L H. Fraser. "Introduction: Big is Beautiful." The World's Largest Wetlands. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2005. 1-10. 
This chapter discusses the functions of wetlands, such as regulation, protection, and production, as well as why the size is important for storm protection.  The more area the wetlands cover, the greater value they have for protecting an area from storm surges.  Also, a greater area of wetlands can filter a large amount of water, therefore improving water quality.

Lubick, Naomi. "Louisiana's Marshland Mess." Geotimes Nov. 2005: 8. ProQuest. MIT Libraries. 20 Sept. 2006. 
Lubick's article describes the ways in which controlling the Mississippi river has diminished the wetlands.  These include decreased sediment deposits as well as decrease in nutrients and fresh water brought to the wetlands, all of which promote growth.  She also discusses the advantages of wetlands in terms of storm protection.

Meyer, William B. "From Past to Present." Wetlands. Ed. Sharon L. Spray and Karen L. McGlothlin. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc., 2004. 84-100. 
Meyer discusses the aboriginal history of wetlands, and how they played more of a helpful role in society than a hindrance.  They were used for hunting and fishing, as well as a protection from rivals.  With the arrival of European settlers, the wetlands earned a reputation as disgusting places where diseases thrived in mosquitoes.  Meyer goes on to explain how and why the wetlands began to be destroyed by humans.

Morris, James T., P V. Sundareshwar, Christopher T. Nietch, Bjorn Kjerfve, and D R. Cahoon. "Responses of Coastal Wetlands to Rising Sea Level." Ecology 83 (2002): 2869-2877. ProQuest. MIT Libraries. 10 Oct. 2006. The article gives more specific information about the damaging effects of salt water. It discusses how evapotransportation increases the salinity of the soil. Also, in addition to the changes resultant of an increase in salinity, the article covers how the annual changes in water level can affect the productivity of Spartina alterniflora. This plants happens to be a more dominant species in coastal marshes in the gulf. If grown in a deeper environment, the plant will most likely become subject to hypoxia, or lack of oxygen. If it is grown in shallower ocnditions, the surviving plants are typically a stunted version. There are graphs specific to the case described that show sea level increase as well as the the depths of maximum productivity.

Neubauer, Scott C., Kim Givler, Sarah Valentine, Keith Valentine, and J. P. Megonigal. "Seasonal Patterns and Plant-Mediated Controls of Subsurface Wetland Biogeochemistry." Ecology 86 (2005): 3334-3344. ProQuest. MIT Libraries. 22 Oct. 2006. This journal article is the summary of an experiment involving functions of the cycling in wetlands with relation to the amount of oxygen in the soil. It claims that plants must introduce the oxygen into the soil, so that they can interact with ions such as nitrate and sulfate, as well as Fe(III). It talks about the interactions of the cycles with the bacteria population, and the roles they play in oxidizing and reducing iron.

"One Year After Katrina, Government Gets D-Plus Grade for Efforts to Restore Louisiana's Natural Hurricane Buffer: Wetlands." U.S. Newswire 28 Aug. 2006. LexisNexis Academic. MIT Libraries. 20 Sept. 2006. 
This article informs the reader that after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, it was much more apparent what role the wetlands play in storm dissipation.  It gives an overview on the grades given to certain governmental agencies in reference to how they have helped restore wetlands.

"Redirecting Mouth of Mississippi River is Proposed as Way to Save the Louisiana Coast." Health Insurance Law Weekly 11 June 2006: 95. ProQuest. MIT Libraries. 20 Sept. 2006. 
This article discusses the subsiding of the wetlands due to loss of sedimentation.  It also covers that letting the Mississippi River flow natural would cause flooding that would leave major shipping ports out of service. 

A Report on a Coneptual Approach for Investigation the Feasibility of Maximizing the Deposition of Mississippi River Sediment in the Louisiana Deltaic Plain (Mississippi River Delta Management Project). Department of Natural Resources. 2005. 10 Oct. 2006 <>. This report offers many suggestions for the management of the Mississippi River in order to promote sedimentation. IT claims that a major diversion of the MIssissippi is needed if there is to be hope for the restoration of sediments in the delta. If the state wants to have the best hurricane protection plan for the area, it must restore the wetlands surrounding the area. It suggests that a healthy relationship between the goverment and the Corps of Engineers in needed to complete the project correctly. The report goes into further detail about the order in which general tasks should be accomplished, such as issue identification, necessary studies, formulating a plan, and recommending a course of action. Later in our project we may want to reference this in order to better organize our plan strategy.

Shaffer, G P., J G. Gosselink,  and S S. Hoeppner. "The Mississippi River Alluvial Plain." The World's Largest Wetlands. Ed. Lauchlan H. Fraser and Paul A. Keddy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2005. 272-315. 
This section of the book discusses the plant and wildlife of Louisiana and aspects that threaten the wetlands vegetation.  It shows the previous locations of the Mississippi River delta, as well as the land masses created by such changes.

Shallat, Todd. "Holding Louisiana." Technology and Culture Jan. 2006: 102-108. ProQuest. MIT Libraries. 20 Sept. 2006. 
Todd Shallat covers the reasons why New Orleans should be preserved, such as an exceptional fishing and tourist industries and the many residents.  With the numerous reasons, he then discusses the option of diverting the Mississippi River to promote wetland growth with the nutrients, sediments, and freshwater.

Stokstad, Erik. "Louisiana's Wetlands Struggle for Survival." Science 310 (2005): 1264-1267. ProQuest. MIT Libraries, Washington. 10 Oct. 2006. Stokstad discusses many aspects of the Louisiana marshlands, including the history of their degradation from erosion, construction, and even the rodent called te nutria. This led to the disappearance of more than 4000 square kilometers since 1950. It covers possible methods to increase sedimentation. One of which is diverting the river to the marshlands, but releasing it in pulses so the fishing industry is not harmed. It more specifically reviews a plan to divert the river about 100 km upstream of New Orleans into the wetlands to the south of Louisiana. The article claims that this could lead to the creation or preservation or 28 to 56 square kilometers of wetlands each year.

Stuckey, Mike. "Army Corps Proposes Easing Gulf Wetlands Rule." MSNBC. 19 Oct. 2006. 3 Nov. 2006 <>.  This article reveals that the US Army Corp of Engineers are not concerned with the health of the wetlands.  It discusses how they would like to sell off parcels of land about 5 acres at a time for development purposes.  The land they are planning on selling is currently wetlands; therefore it is cheaper and more appealing for developers.

"Successful Projects Reclaim Wetlands Vegetative Plantings Take Hold." LaCoast. Apr. 2005. 3 Nov. 2006 <>.  This article provides details on the wetlands loss in Louisiana.  Kenneth Bahlinger is quoted in the article as saying that natural succession may occur under perfect circumstances, but with erosion from boat waves, storms and tides, succession just isn't likely to occur on its own.  Plantings can "jump-start" the vegetation growth and provide a more stable environment.  It discusses projects in wetlands as well ass along the coast, including descriptions of successes.  

Tibbetts, John. "Louisiana's Wetlands." Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (2006): a40-a43. JSTOR. MIT Libraries. 9 Nov. 2006. John Tibbetts' article can be found in several different locations, implying that it is a well known piece. It gives a detailed history of the area and includes an outlook for the future. It decribes the original settlers interaction with the wetlands, the current state of the wetlands, and what could be done to fix this. A lot of what is said in this article overlaps with information we've already found (ie techniques for restoration), but it still gives an excellent summarization of historical events.

    Titus, James G. "Does Shoreline Armoring Violate the Clean Water Act?" America's Changing Coasts. Ed. Diane M. Whitelaw and Gearld R. Visgilio. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2005. 50-68. 
Titus describes the complications with the rising sea level in association with the destruction of wetlands.  There is a table of projected sea level increases over a two hundred year span.  He claims there are two general solutions to such a challenge, to either adjust the changing shore with technology to accommodate the new sea level, or to let nature take its course.

"Wetlands: History and Restoration." CSA. Sept. 2003. 10 Nov. 2006 <>. CSA's overview of Louisiana's wetlands provides a lot of government related history. It includes a brief description of several acts and programs that were installed to promote growth of healthier wetlands and provide protection for the current wetlands.

Zinn, Jeffrey A., and Claudia Copeland. "Wetlands Issues." National Wetlands. Ed. Samuel T. Prescott. Hauppauge: Nova Science, Inc., 2004. 1-21. 
The introduction to this compilation of essays covers the reason and amount of wetlands depletion.  The authors discuss the disappearance in terms of European settlers.  There is believed to have been approximately 220 square miles of wetlands when the settlers first came to America, but as of 1997, that number has decreased to about 105 square miles.  They discuss the agricultural aspect behind wetland degeneration or the need for more farmland.

Zinn, Jeffrey. "Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm Bill." National Wetlands. Ed. Samuel T. Prescott. Hauppauge: Nova Science, Inc., 2004. 175-182. 
This article covers a more legal aspect of draining wetlands for farms.  Farmers doing such activities could potentially lose a portion of their profit due to the damage they cause with their farm's location.  It covers other issues with wetlands, such as whether or not they should be protected equally, or if each case should be considered before a decision is made about filling or dredging the land.

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