David M. "National Estuary Program: a Collaborative Approach to
Coastal Water Quality." National Wetlands. Ed. Samuel T.
Hauppauge: Nova Science, Inc., 2004. 69-86.
A majority of the information useful to me in this article
general coastal environmental problems. Bearden
mentions some of the common problems as
substances, pathogens, habitat loss, and more specifically for
control. He discusses programs implemented in other areas of the
help restore wetlands.
Wetland Buffer." The Times-Picayune 29 Aug. 2006. 20 Sept. 2006
This news article
the money President Bush promised to Katrina clean up with the amount
be used for wetland repairs, billions for general repair, and only in
the millions range for wetlands. This
is far less than what officials have estimated will be needed to repair
loss since 1930, which was estimate to be in the billions.
John C. "Restoring Our National Wetlands." Wetlands. Ed.
Sharon L. Spray and Karen L. McGlothlin. Lanham: Rowman and
Callaway give statistics on
how much of the United
States' land area in wetlands has
and how it is still changing. The
Natural development of wetlands takes a very long time, and scientists
trying to speed this rate, to lead to some restoration.
He gives examples of where, how, and what
kind of wetlands are being considered for restoration.
Specifically the Mississippi River Delta
wetlands are possible candidates for restoration of either freshwater
wetlands or salt marshes. Factors that
need to be considered before restoration include water depth, plant and
soil type, and position with reference to neighboring ecosystems.
Craig E. "Reintroducing Nature to the City: Wetlands in New Orleands." Environmental
History 7 (2002): 226-247. ProQuest.
MIT Libraries. 9 Nov. 2006. Colten summarizes the history of the
wetlands very, very well. He discusses the influences people had on the
area, as well as the reasons for filling and draining, including for
urbanization and sanitation.
CS-19 West Hackberry Plantings and Sediment Enhancement
Department of Natural Resources. 2002. 10 Oct. 2006
<http://sonris.com/direct.asp>. This report summarizes the
attempt to plant Schoenoplectus californicus in order to reduce the
erosion of the soil in the area. Hay bales were used to increase
sedimentation. The plants covered about 12,000 feet of shoreline. The
hay bales disintegrated and where judged to be unsuitable for their
intended purpose of increasing sedmient deposition. While the plants
were initially successful, an increase in the salinity of the water
cause a large portion of the vegetation of die. This is important for
us because it shows one singular method of planting will not work
unless the plants are suitable for a wide range of salinity. Thus, if
planting in a fresh water area, we have to guarantee that the water
will remain relatively fresh.
Robert G. "New Orleans and the Wetlands
of Southern Louisiana." The Bridge
36 (2006). 20
Robert Dean discusses the natural life of the
wetlands and how it has changed do to human interaction.
He also compares this change with the rising
sea levels and the choices New Orleans has to deal with such
changes. Some of these include abadoning the area, doing nothing
and waiting for another disaster, or building new levees.
Robert B., John L. Seymour, and Gerald
C. Swanson. Coastal Resources Management. Lexington:
The authors of this book
discuss how men developing the land have destroyed natural barriers,
wetlands and dunes. They go further to
explain how wetlands affect the environment around them as nutrient
and water cleansers. The market value of
wetlands, or rather filling them, was believed to be greater than their
environmental purpose. Previous
preservation plans are made known in the text, as well as what could be
Gaye S. "USGS Reports New Wetland Loss From Hurricane Katrina in Southeastern Louisiana." USGS. 31 May 2006. 14
from U.S. Geological Survey discusses the numerical aspect of wetland
post Hurricane Katrina. They believe that the storm altered about a
fourth of a
133-square mile area of marsh. The wetland outside of New Orleans has
lost sixteen percent of the
land in a forty-eight year period. USGS claims that the shape of the
the coast could have contributed to the odd strength behind a storm
the northwest. They conclude by saying some of the damage done to the
could be irreversible.
Stephen. "Soils and Sediment." Wetlands. Ed. Sharon L. Spray
and Karen L. McGlothlin. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc., 2004.
Faulkner reviews the role the
soil has in wetlands. He covers
everything from the plant life to the changes in the climate. Plants in this area must be adapted to the
low amount of oxygen in the soil, due to it being so saturated with
water. He also discusses the significance
nutrients in the wetlands and the cycles in which they travel.
L H., and P A. Keddy. "The Future of Large Wetlands: a Global
Perspective." The World's Largest Wetlands. Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge UP,
In conclusion to the
compilation, covers the
amount of wetlands in each continent and the direct threats to loss of
area. It also covers the changing climate
and how that will affect wetlands. This includes change in
salinity and level of the water, and thus change in plant environment
and survival rate.
Nicole. "Katrina's Real Lesson." America's Wetland.
Aug. 2006. 14 Sept. 2006
Gelinas' article has quite a few references
to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In
reference to the system before the hurricane, the Corps claim it was
was designed, but the article goes on to say it was built to fail. One point made is that the ground on which New Orleans is located naturally erodes away, but
always been replaced by the flood waters of the Mississippi, that levees now control. This natural sinking of the ground lowered
the levees approximately three feet from their original height. The Corps are planning to protect for a one
hundred year hurricane, and it has been suggested that when designing,
engineers look at what the Dutch have done to keep themselves out of
David R., David J. Brower, and Timothy
Beatley. Catastrophic Coastal Storms. Durham: Duke UP, 1989. 8-100.
Catastrophic Coastal Storms discusses the
loss of coastal resources, such as dunes, beaches, and wetlands, due to
storms. Causes of destruction including
wind and water damages are discusses in relation to how they affect the
habitat. It looks at the history of
storms that have hit the United States and discusses
the statistics, such as
wind speed, height of storm surge, and amount of damage.
The US Army Corps of Engineers is also
discussed, including what they had done and what they could do in
Michael, and Susan B. Glasser. "The Slow Drowning of New Orleans." Washington
Post 9 Oct. 2005.
16 Sept. 2006
Grunwald and Glasser's article provides an
excellent history of the area dating back to 1718, including major
as the 1927 flood which left the poorer areas destroyed, as well as
associated with the 1965 Hurricane Betsy, including the seventy people
and 30,000 trapped residents. There is a
large amount of information regarding the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
they took care of situations. The Corps
had plans to protect the city from the Gulf waters with shorter levees
river had used. Protecting from
hurricanes was surprisingly not one of the priorities for the Corps.
P A., and L H. Fraser. "Introduction: Big is Beautiful." The
World's Largest Wetlands. Cambridge,
UP, 2005. 1-10.
This chapter discusses
the functions of wetlands, such as regulation, protection, and
well as why the size is important for storm protection. The more
area the wetlands cover, the greater value they have for protecting an
area from storm surges. Also, a greater area of wetlands can
filter a large amount of water, therefore improving water quality.
Marshland Mess." Geotimes Nov. 2005: 8. ProQuest. MIT
Libraries. 20 Sept. 2006.
article describes the ways in which controlling the Mississippi river has diminished the
wetlands. These include decreased sediment deposits as well as
decrease in nutrients and fresh water brought to the wetlands, all of
which promote growth. She also discusses
the advantages of wetlands in terms of
William B. "From Past to Present." Wetlands. Ed. Sharon L.
Spray and Karen L. McGlothlin. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc.,
Meyer discusses the aboriginal
history of wetlands, and how they played more of a helpful role in
a hindrance. They were used for hunting
and fishing, as well as a protection from rivals. With
the arrival of European settlers, the
wetlands earned a reputation as disgusting places where diseases
mosquitoes. Meyer goes on to explain how
and why the wetlands began to be destroyed by humans.
Morris, James T., P V. Sundareshwar, Christopher T. Nietch,
Kjerfve, and D R. Cahoon. "Responses of Coastal Wetlands to Rising Sea
Level." Ecology 83 (2002): 2869-2877. ProQuest. MIT
Libraries. 10 Oct. 2006. The article gives more specific information
about the damaging effects of salt water. It discusses how
evapotransportation increases the salinity of the soil. Also, in
addition to the changes resultant of an increase in salinity, the
article covers how the annual changes in water level can affect the
productivity of Spartina alterniflora. This plants happens to be a more
dominant species in coastal marshes in the gulf. If grown in a deeper
environment, the plant will most likely become subject to hypoxia, or
lack of oxygen. If it is grown in shallower ocnditions, the surviving
plants are typically a stunted version. There are graphs specific to
the case described that show sea level increase as well as the the
depths of maximum productivity.
Scott C., Kim Givler, Sarah Valentine, Keith Valentine, and
J. P. Megonigal. "Seasonal Patterns and Plant-Mediated Controls of
Subsurface Wetland Biogeochemistry." Ecology 86 (2005):
MIT Libraries. 22 Oct. 2006. This journal article is the summary of an
experiment involving functions of the cycling in wetlands with relation
to the amount of oxygen in the soil. It claims that plants must
introduce the oxygen into the soil, so that they can interact with ions
such as nitrate and sulfate, as well as Fe(III). It talks about the
interactions of the cycles with the bacteria population, and the roles
they play in oxidizing and reducing iron.
Year After Katrina, Government Gets D-Plus Grade for Efforts to Restore
Buffer: Wetlands." U.S.
Newswire 28 Aug. 2006. LexisNexis Academic. MIT Libraries.
This article informs the reader
that after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, it was much more apparent what
wetlands play in storm dissipation. It
an overview on the grades given to certain governmental agencies in
how they have helped restore wetlands.
Mouth of Mississippi River is Proposed as Way to Save the Louisiana
Coast." Health Insurance Law Weekly 11 June 2006: 95. ProQuest.
MIT Libraries. 20 Sept. 2006.
article discusses the subsiding of the wetlands due to loss of
sedimentation. It also covers that
letting the Mississippi River flow
would cause flooding that would leave major shipping ports out of
Report on a Coneptual Approach for Investigation
of Maximizing the Deposition of Mississippi River Sediment in the
Louisiana Deltaic Plain (Mississippi River Delta Management Project).
Department of Natural Resources. 2005. 10 Oct. 2006
<http://sonris.com/direct.asp>. This report offers many
suggestions for the management of the Mississippi River in order to
promote sedimentation. IT claims that a major diversion of the
MIssissippi is needed if there is to be hope for the restoration of
sediments in the delta. If the state wants to have the best hurricane
protection plan for the area, it must restore the wetlands surrounding
the area. It suggests that a healthy relationship between the goverment
and the Corps of Engineers in needed to complete the project correctly.
The report goes into further detail about the order in which general
tasks should be accomplished, such as issue identification, necessary
studies, formulating a plan, and recommending a course of action. Later
in our project we may want to reference this in order to better
organize our plan strategy.
G P., J G. Gosselink, and S S. Hoeppner. "The Mississippi
River Alluvial Plain." The World's Largest Wetlands.
Ed. Lauchlan H. Fraser and Paul A. Keddy. Cambridge,
UK: Cambridge UP,
This section of the book
discusses the plant
and wildlife of Louisiana and aspects that threaten the wetlands
vegetation. It shows the previous locations of the Mississippi
River delta, as well as the land masses created by such changes.
Todd. "Holding Louisiana."
Technology and Culture Jan. 2006: 102-108. ProQuest.
Libraries. 20 Sept. 2006.
covers the reasons why New
should be preserved, such as an exceptional fishing and tourist
industries and the many residents. With
reasons, he then discusses the option of diverting the Mississippi River to promote wetland growth with
the nutrients, sediments, and freshwater.
Erik. "Louisiana's Wetlands Struggle for Survival." Science 310
(2005): 1264-1267. ProQuest.
MIT Libraries, Washington. 10 Oct. 2006. Stokstad discusses many
aspects of the Louisiana marshlands, including the history of their
degradation from erosion, construction, and even the rodent called te
nutria. This led to the disappearance of more than 4000 square
kilometers since 1950. It covers possible methods to increase
sedimentation. One of which is diverting the river to the marshlands,
but releasing it in pulses so the fishing industry is not harmed. It
more specifically reviews a plan to divert the river about 100 km
upstream of New Orleans into the wetlands to the south of Louisiana.
The article claims that this could lead to the creation or preservation
or 28 to 56 square kilometers of wetlands each year.
"Army Corps Proposes Easing Gulf Wetlands Rule." MSNBC. 19 Oct. 2006.
3 Nov. 2006 <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15305378/>. This
reveals that the US Army Corp of Engineers are not concerned with the
the wetlands. It discusses how they would like to sell off
land about 5 acres at a time for development purposes. The land
planning on selling is currently wetlands; therefore it is cheaper and
appealing for developers.
"Successful Projects Reclaim
Wetlands Vegetative Plantings Take Hold." LaCoast. Apr. 2005. 3
<http://www.lacoast.gov/watermarks/2005-04/4successfulProjects/index.htm>. This article provides details on the wetlands
loss in Louisiana. Kenneth Bahlinger is
quoted in the article as saying that natural succession may occur under
circumstances, but with erosion from boat waves, storms and tides,
just isn't likely to occur on its own. Plantings
can "jump-start" the vegetation growth and
more stable environment. It discusses
projects in wetlands as well ass along the coast, including
Tibbetts, John. "Louisiana's
Wetlands." Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (2006):
MIT Libraries. 9 Nov. 2006. John Tibbetts' article can be found in
several different locations, implying that it is a well known piece. It
gives a detailed history of the area and includes an outlook for the
future. It decribes the original settlers interaction with the
wetlands, the current state of the wetlands, and what could be done to
fix this. A lot of what is said in this article overlaps with
information we've already found (ie techniques for restoration), but it
still gives an excellent summarization of historical events.
James G. "Does Shoreline Armoring Violate the Clean Water Act?" America's
Changing Coasts. Ed. Diane M. Whitelaw and Gearld R. Visgilio. Cheltenham, UK:
Edward Elgar, 2005. 50-68.
describes the complications with the rising sea level in association
destruction of wetlands. There is a
table of projected sea level increases over a two hundred year span. He claims there are two general solutions to
such a challenge, to either adjust the changing shore with technology
accommodate the new sea level, or to let nature take its course.
"Wetlands: History and Restoration." CSA. Sept.
2003. 10 Nov.
CSA's overview of Louisiana's wetlands provides a lot of government
related history. It includes a brief description of several acts and
programs that were installed to promote growth of healthier wetlands
and provide protection for the current wetlands.
Jeffrey A., and Claudia Copeland. "Wetlands Issues." National
Wetlands. Ed. Samuel T. Prescott. Hauppauge: Nova Science, Inc.,
The introduction to this
compilation of essays covers the reason and amount of wetlands
depletion. The authors discuss the
terms of European settlers. There is
believed to have been approximately 220 square miles of wetlands when
settlers first came to America,
but as of 1997, that number has decreased to about 105 square miles. They discuss the agricultural aspect behind
wetland degeneration or the need for more farmland.
Jeffrey. "Wetlands and Agriculture: Policy Issues in the 1995 Farm
Bill." National Wetlands. Ed. Samuel T. Prescott. Hauppauge:
Science, Inc., 2004. 175-182.
article covers a more legal aspect of draining wetlands for
Farmers doing such activities could
potentially lose a portion of their profit due to the damage they cause
their farm's location. It covers other
issues with wetlands, such as whether or not they should be protected
or if each case should be considered before a decision is made about
dredging the land.