20 - XIXth Century Religious Architecture


The Turkish Baroque Style: The name given to the Ottoman architectural and decorative production from the mid eighteenth century until the third quarter of the nineteenth century. The style was concomitant with the gradual Westernization of the Ottoman elite's lifestyle and tastes is characterized by a profusion of curved, undulating motifs, imported European patterns, and unrestrained, extroverted plans.

Neo-Islamic Styles: The nineteenth century started with the first European military interventions in the Orient and ended with most of it under direct colonial rule. Architecture was affected by these new political realities and by the disciplinary developments in Europe where architecture had become an academic field with its rules and parameters. European styles began shaping the outlook of "Oriental" cities and the tastes of their inhabitants. Also European and European-trained designers became the masters of the building trades everywhere. These same professionals acted as the interpreters of the architectural heritage of the countries in which they worked. They documented, analyzed, and classified the structures they encountered, which permitted the introduction of these formerly-unexplored styles. Consequently, hybrid styles of building and decoration were produced in both East and West that borrowed freely and sometimes indiscriminately from the varied repertoires of non-western architectures, and blended them with various European structural, constructional, functional, and stylistic modes. The end results came to be known collectively as Oriental styles and individually we encounter various epithets such as the Neo-Moorish, Neo-Saracen, Neo-Mamluk, Neo-Mughal and so on.

The Nuruosmaniye Mosque, Istanbul

The Nusretiye Mosque, Istanbul

The Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha, Cairo Citadel




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