Electrochemical Energy Systems
Nonlinear Electrokinetics
Fluid Mechanics
Applied Mathematics
My research is at the intersection of engineering, physics, and mathematics,
motivated by societal needs in energy, the environment and sustainability. Meeting these needs will require scientific advances that, I believe, will not
be achieved by experiment or simulations alone,
but by a close integration of the two with
mathematical theories and approximations.
My group combines theory and experiment
with members from
chemical engineering, as well as applied mathematics,
mechanical engineering, physics, and materials science.
Our research spans
electrochemistry, transport phenomena, energy storage, water purification, and nanotechnology.
Press

Novel bromine battery: Smallscale demo, largescale promise, Energy Futures 4, Spring 2014.
 How electrodes charge and discharge, MIT News, April 2014.

Researchers resolve misunderstanding bout how some lithium batteries function, ClimateWire, April 2014.
 Interview videos at Ser
ious Science

Spurring storage, Energy Next, Nov. 2013.
Power surge for flow batteries,
Nature 500, 504505 (29 August 2013).

New rechargeable flow battery enables cheaper, largescale energy storage, MIT News, Aug. 2013

Rethinking Battery Design, NSF Award Highlight, 2013.
 Revealing how a battery material works, MIT News, Feb. 8, 2012.
 Fill 'er up with... lithium SIAM News, Mar. 1, 2010.

MIT Energy Fellow's model may power up the batteries of the future, MIT Energy Initiative, June 17, 2009.

`Twofaced' particles act like tiny submarines, Science News,
Mar. 3, 2008.

Big lab on a tiny chip, Scientific American,
October
2007, pp. 100103.

Theoretical plumber, Popular Science, October
2007.(some followup articles: USA
Today, MIT News
Office)

Fast Moving Front: "Inducedcharge electrokinetic
phenomena", Thompson Scientific, Sept. 2007.

MIT's "Dream Team" wins SIAM Award for MCM 07, SIAM News, June
12, 2007.

Batterypowered labonachip could be near, EE Times
, Nov. 27, 2006.

Portable 'lab on a chip' could speed blood tests, MIT News,
Oct. 16, 2006.

Micropumps
create a "fluid conveyor belt"
, ISN News, Sept. 9, 2006.

Fractal tendrils, Tech Talk, Feb. 4, 2004.

Team combines
modeling and experimentation to improve microfluidics, ISN News,
Feb. 2, 2004.
I. Electrochemical Energy Systems
PUBLICATIONS

Rechargeable batteries
We have a longterm focus on mathematical modeling of batteries, aiming to connect nanoscale materials physics and electrochemistry with macroscopic battery engineering. Our
unique approach to theoretical electrochemistry is based on
nonequilibrium thermodynamics and
captures the dynamics of complex active materials undergoing phase transformations.
Most of our work has been on Liion batteries, especially LiFePO4, focusing on
phase separation dynamics in nanoparticles,
mosaic instability and
macroscopic phase transformations in porous electrodes,
elastic coherency strain effects, impedance spectroscopy,
double layer effects,
capacity fade, accelerated aging, and lifetime statistics.
We also do experiments to support our modeling work and recently
demonstrated a striking validation of the MarcusHushChidsey theory of
electrochemical kinetics for the first time in a solid/solid interface.
This finding has broad implications for electrochemical engineering,
where the empirical
ButlerVolmer equation is always assumed.
This work has been supported by
NSF
(Focused Research Group), Samsung/SAIT, Bosch, Lincoln Laboratory.

Fuel cells and flow batteries
The membrane is often the most expensive part of a fuel cell or battery and the least reliable over time.
We are developing "membraneless" flow batteries that take advantage of laminar coflowing streams of reactants and electrolytes to prevent fuel crossover
and exploit halogen electrochemistry to achieve high power density (~1 W/cm2)
and low cost (~$100/kWh) for scalable, stationary energy storage .
Our initial
hydrogenbromine membraneless flow battery
prototype with Cullen Buie broke records for flow batteries in power, efficiency, and cost, and we are developing
novel flow architectures for long cycle life,
a first for membraneless cells. We are also developing
lithiumbromineoxygen dual mode flow batteries for
autonomous underwater vehicles and landbased transformation.

Electrochemical capacitors
Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and Faradaic reactions in porous electrodes, impedance, cyclic voltammetry,
doublelayer structure and reactions in room temperature ionic liquids and molten salts,
application to energy storage in electric double layer supercapacitors
and hybrid "pseudocapacitors" (which also include Faradaic reactions).

Solid oxide fuel cells
We are developing mathematical models of transport and reations
to analyze electrochemical signals and improved the design of solid oxide fuel cells,
supported by Saint Gobain Ceramics and Plastics.
II. Nonlinear Electrokinetics
PUBLICATIONS

Shock electrodialysis
Overlimiting current to membranes and electrodes,
"deionization shocks"
(sharp, propagating salt concentration gradients)
in microstructures, concentration polarization
and electroosmotic convection
in micro/nanochannels and in micro/nanoporous media, homogenization (volume averaging) for ion transport in microstructures,
applications to water purification and desalination by "shock electrodialysis". This work involves both theory and experiments
and is supported by
Weatherford International, through the MIT Energy Initiative.

Capacitive desalination
Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive desalination, mixing energy harvesting and selective
ion adsorption by porous electrodes; transport phenomena, effects of Faradaic reactions. (Collaboration with P. M. Biesheuvel, Netherlands.)

Electrodeposition in porous media
We are developing mathematical models and experimental systems to understand and control the dynamics of metal deposition and dissolution in porous templates, including ceramic or carbonbased materials with chemically modified surfaces,
with applications in nanotechnology (fabrication of nanoparticles,
nanostructured materials) and energy storage (battery electrodes and separators).
We are also studying ion transport and dendritic growth in nanoscale oxides,
leading to interconnect breakdown in integrated circuits.
Related to our work on desalination, we are exploring "shock electrodeposition" at high currents, exceeding diffusion limitation due to surface conduction and electroosmotic flow in the porous medium.
Supported by IBM, Saint Gobain.

Inducedcharge electroosmosis
Fundamental theory of "ICEO" flow at large voltages,
microfluidic applications,
AC electroosmotic micropumps and mixers,
inducedcharge electrophoresis and electrodiffusiophoresis of polarizable particles, ICEO flows around biological membranes, ionic liquid jet emitters.
See also Nonlinear Electrokinetics @ MIT
III. Fluid Mechanics
PUBLICATIONS
 Dyanamics of condensing/evaporating fluids in porous media.
Sorption/desorption hysteresis in nanoporous media (e.g. hydration of cement paste). Statistical effects of microsructure. Coupling to mechanical deformation.
This work is supported by the MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub
 Hydrodynamic and electroosmotic slip at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces.
 Granular flow, dynamics of glaciers
 Exact solutions of the NavierStokes equations
IV. Applied Mathematics
PUBLICATIONS: These mathematical themes permeate all of my work.
bazant@mit.edu
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