All items in this column are provided to aid in navigation of our proposal and related sources.
Topic Headers: Use these to help establish where you are. These headers correspond to the items in the navigational list to the right. If you find yourself lost, click on any header to return to the top of the proposal.
Links to Sources: Under each topic header you will find a list of sources that were consulted, if any, in writing that section. If the source was located on the internet, you can go to it by clicking on "Retrieved on..." The roman numerals preceding each source correspond to equivalently numbered facts in that section that were derived from that source specifically.
   Below you will find our proposal. It is organized primarily into broad categories according to which categories we felt were most vital in planning for a tsunami strike.

   Each of these categories is then split into two time frames:
» (1) preparation, adjusting coastal communities to be able to deal with the aftermath of a tsunami; and
» (2) implementation, acting upon the proposed adjustments.

  These time frames are further subdivided into subcategories as necessary to present the material most clearly.
  The list below is provided as a navigational aid. To go back to the top after browsing a category, simply click on any header in the left column.

  »Incident Command System
        »The Operations Section
        »The Planning Section
        »The Logistics Section
        »The Finance/Administration Section

  »Evacuation Sites
                 »Geographic Considerations
                 »Design of Evacuee Camps
                 »Operation of Evacuee Camps
                 »Disaster Scenario Walkthrough

  »Medical Care
                 »Population Database
                 »Improvements to the Medical System
                 »Minimum Staffing Standards
                 »Immediate Preparations
                 »Locations of Emergency Health Units
                 »Handling the Dead
                 »Medical Waste Management
                 »Mobile Clinics

  »Food Storage and Distribution
                 »Food Distribution Infrastructure
                 »Food Preparation
                 »A Three Day Local Supply
                 »Cooking Fuel
                 »Immediate Food Distribution
                 »Assessing Damage
                 »Appeal for International Relief

  »Water Supplies
   The key to effective disaster response is preparation and knowing what to expect when a disaster occurs. There are many different people and organizations involved in disaster response-from firefighters to doctors and nurses to volunteer civilians-that all must be educated on how to act in case a tsunami strikes their area. There are also many different elements of disaster response that must be taken into consideration.

   This is why we plan to adopt an incident command system (ICS) similar to that used by the US Coast Guard and other emergency response teams. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, in its handbook on the National Incident Management System, has already detailed the structure and characteristics of an effective ICS. The established organization is a general description that can be implemented in Peru and Micronesia.

Incident Command System «    The ICS is divided into five major areas: command, operations, planning, logistics, and finance and administration.

   Since the ICS is designed to handle a broad range of emergencies, the complexity of the structure varies depending on the size and scope of the emergency. If needed, the five major areas can be subdivided into subordinate units tailored to the specific response requirements of an incident. Likewise, if one body can handle the entire response, no further subdivision is necessary.

   IC appoints one or more Section Chiefs to manage each of the major areas. These Section Chiefs are in charge of delegating responsibilities if needed. Section Chiefs can establish sub-branches and units in their area. Similarly, unit leaders are in charge of delegating responsibilities within their unit. However, functional units should only be created to match the necessary tasks at hand; organizational units that are no longer required should be deactivated. This established chain of command creates a clear hierarchy, so that there is no confusion as to who is in charge.

The Operations Section «    This sections objective is to manage operations at the site of the emergency in order to reduce the immediate hazard, save lives and property, establish control, and return the incident site to normal conditions. The operations section would include groups such as firefighters, law enforcement, public health, public works, and emergency services. Furthermore, private individuals, companies, and nongovernmental organizations would fall under this category.

The Planning Section «
   This sections responsibility is to collect, evaluate, and analyze tactical information relevant to emergency response. It records information on the current situation, predicts future problems and conditions, and keeps track of resources. Resources include personnel, teams, facilities, supplies, and major equipment available for disaster response. The Planning Section makes sure personnel are in the right locations with the necessary equipment. This unit should have a system of logging the location and status of all disaster response groups, and should keep a database of all available resources available for deployment.

The Logistics Section «    This section is responsible for obtaining and providing for the needs of disaster relief. These may include facilities, transportation, supplies, equipment maintenance and fueling, food service, communications, and medical services for incident personnel. Logistics can be divided into six subunits:

This unit orders, stores, and distributes all resources (including personnel) and supply orders.

This unit sets up, maintains, and demobilizes facilities required for disaster relief. Facilities include the Incident Command Post (ICP), incident base, camps, and trailers or other kinds of shelter around the disaster area. Shelter for victims, however, is usually provided by nongovernmental organizations. The Facilities Unit also meets the needs of incident-response personnel, including food and water service, sleeping, and sanitation and showers.

This units primary function is to maintain and repair vehicles and mobile equipment used in incident response. It also provides vehicles for transporting personnel.

This units responsibility is planning and implementing effective communications for the ICS. This is especially crucial in large-scale, multiagency response, as the Communications Unit must coordinate radio nets, frequency assignments, and communications technology between the agencies involved. The Communications Unit Leader should attend all planning meetings to make sure that available communications can support response plans.

This unit is in charge of providing food and water to all incident command locations. This includes determining food and water requirements, planning menus, ordering food, providing cooking facilities, maintaining food service areas, and managing food security and safety concerns. Providing food and water for victims, however, usually falls upon nongovernmental organizations.

The main responsibilities of the medical unit are to provide incident response personnel with medical care. This includes handling any major medical emergency, providing vaccinations and mental services, and transporting injured personnel.

The Finance/Administration Section «
A more detailed explanation of the ICS can be found here in Appendix A.
  This section is established when there is a need for financial, reimbursement, and/or administrative services. The Finance/Administration Section is in charge of monitoring sources of funds and tracking the financial burn rate, which allows incident command to forecast expenses and obtain more funds if necessary.

  It is impossible for a single headquarters to monitor and direct all the disaster response that needs to take place in a timely manner. An incident command system is a much more efficient approach to emergency response, as it allows for the cooperation of many different organizations and teams under a common command. There is a clear chain of command, yet each body still has a certain amount of autonomy to complete its job. This minimizes the delaying effects of a complicated bureaucracy. Another asset of the incident command system is the flexibility of its structure. Depending on the scale of the disaster, more or fewer people can be called upon to help.

  The people and organizations working under the incident command system must understand the importance of communication. One of the goals of Team 8 is to develop a standard means of communication that can be used by the disaster response teams; we learned from the response to Hurricane Katrina that this should not be overlooked. This plan will fall under the Communications Unit of the Logistics Section of the ICS. Furthermore, Team 8 will design an inventory management system for the response teams to share resources, so as to avoid the so many gloves and I cant find one problemas Professor Richard C. Larson phrased it in his lecture on recurring problems with disaster response systems. This inventory management system will be used by the Planning Section to track resources.

  Our team is also eager to see volunteer resources used effectively. We plan to design systems by which doctors and nurses certified to perform triage can register beforehand to be contacted in case of an emergency (M. Rideout, personal communication, September 30, 2005). Larson also suggested that emergency response create a system whereby civilians can register their vehicles in advance to aid in transportation or evacuation. This information will be available to the Resources Unit of the Planning Section of Incident Command. However, it is important that these volunteers are educated on what it means to be on callthat is, the must know beforehand exactly what is expected of them when a disaster strikes.

  Police and military forces also need to be specially trained for disaster response. They are accustomed to enforcing the peace, but emergency response requires a different approach that must be taught (M. Rideout, personal communication, September 30, 2005). Once the response teams are educated on what to expect, it is imperative that they perform regular drills. It is an easy mistake to fall into complacency when a disaster is not imminent. Regular drills ensure that there are no glitches in the response plans, and that disaster response teams are well prepared.

Preparation «    To lay out plans to successfully operate and maintain emergency evacuee camps in case of a tsunami strike.

Geographic Considerations «

i. CIA (2005 30 August) CIA The World Factbook: Federated States of Micronesia. Retrieved September 22, 2005.
ii. Mara, D. Duncan, and Technology Advising Group (1984). The Design of Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines. United Nations Interregional Development Program Project.
iii. National Biodiesel Board (2005). Biodiesel Basics. Retrieved October 29, 2005.
Designated evacuation clearings around the island will be marked and made known to the people who will utilize the site in case of an emergency. The familiarity of the village with their evacuation site will lessen the psychological trauma of the tsunami. The local officials from the village or town that will use the clearing will maintain the clearings monthly. Each evacuation clearing will be a permanent fully equipped workstation where the Evacuation Site Coordinator. Furthermore, the site will be accessible by heavy trucks from an all-weather road for loading of camp supplies. This is very important because Micronesia is subjected to tropical rainfalls year-round.i Furthermore, the site should have two ventilated improved pit latrines built according to the book: The Design of Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine written by the United Nations development program.ii

Evacuation sites farther inland will be designated for each part of the cities that would be affected by the tsunami. People will be made known of their designated evacuation sites. Evacuation sites in Peru will be urban sites like university campuses, stadiums, and hotels.

Each evacuation site will be equipped with diesel-powered generator, satellite phones, and a computer workstation with satellite uplink. Some diesel fuel will be safely stored on-site in a flameproof lockbox because it may be difficult to obtain during the emergency. The reason diesel-powered generators are optimal is they are relatively low-tech and easily maintained and fixed if broken. Special personnel will use the computer workstation for various purposes that will help run the evacuation camps. Furthermore, petroleum diesel engines can be fueled with biodiesel, which is cleaner and may be cheaper and easier to obtain than petroleum diesel in the future.iii

Design of Evacuee Camps «

i. WHO (2002) Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disaster: A Practical Guide. World Health Organization 2002, Geneva, Switzerland.
  In Micronesia evacuation sites will be in a clearing large enough for the occupation of 100-150 people and facilities. As for Peru the evacuation camps is in an urban environment. The field sites will vary in size from the size of soccer stadiums, to smaller sites like a public park. There will communal area designated for food distribution and preparation. This will also be the place where evacuees are debriefed about the operations of the camps and their status. There will also be an area used solely for shelters. The shelters will be arranged in rows or clusters of 10-12 along each side of a 10-meter wide road.i The wide road will allow easy access for vehicles such as ambulances or fire trucks. Refuse bin will be available throughout the campsite and emptied regularly. This will lessen the likelihood of human exposure to disease vectors (rats, mice).i It is very important that the latrines are at least 20 meters away from the kitchen, water supply and stores. These will decreases possible spread of diseases.i Finally the site shall have a designated area for the bathing, laundry and disinfection facility to promote cleanliness and hygiene.i

Operation of Evacuee Camps «

i. Sphere Project (2004) Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Sphere Project 2004, Geneva, Switzerland.
ii. WHO (2002) Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disaster: A Practical Guide. World Health Organization 2002, Geneva, Switzerland.
  A trained local authority will be the Evacuation Camp Coordinator (ECC) in charge of running of the evacuation sites. The ECC will be in charged of coordinating efforts of workers and provide clear and comprehensive assessment of the relief efforts in the campsite4. This information will be sent via the satellite uplink to Incidence Command. Information from different camps will allow Incidence Command to allocate resources to the areas that most needed. Local authorities and able-bodied volunteers from the community will form the staff evacuation camps. At least one female staff will be present in each camp to ensure the needs of female evacuees are met.i The staff will ensure that all the needs are addressed. Furthermore, a qualified medical professional will be onsite to ensure the wellbeing of evacuees and attend to any minor health complaints. He or she will also be in charged of on-site personal hygiene and health education of evacuees. Evacuees will be responsible for keeping the evacuation camps clean and notifying staff of any environmental or social problems.ii

Implementation «   Each evacuation camps will be equipped with an electronic workstation. As people enter the camp they will be entered into the database. Each family group designates a Head of the Household (HH) that will be responsible for the procurement of food and other materials for their family. A picture of the HH will be taken with an inexpensive digital camera on the workstation and a special wristband will be issued. The wristband will contain the names of the people in the family group and will be used for authentication of the recipients when receiving aid. The picture provides a secondary line of security. This system ensures that resources are being properly distributed and decrease the likelihood of exploitation of emergency aid.

Disaster Scenario Walthrough «

i. WHO (2002) Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disaster: A Practical Guide. World Health Organization 2002, Geneva, Switzerland.
ii. Sphere Project (2004) Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Sphere Project 2004, Geneva, Switzerland.
Large barrack tents will be set up as temporary shelters for the evacuated community. Each person will have a 3.5 square meters of floor space for sleeping or at least 10 meters squared of airspace and supplies distributed as soon as available.i Because each village will have their designated locations, mass temporary shelters should not cause any large social problems. In the case of Peru the evacuees will be sheltered in stadiums, hotels and college campuses. In stadiums large barrack tents will be set up to provide temporary shelter for evacuees. On university campuses, evacuees will occupy areas designed to hold many people like stadiums, courts, fields, and dorms. Hotels and willing households will also provide shelter for evacuees.

All evacuees are to remain in evacuation sites until all danger of a tsunami has passed. The evacuation camp official will be notified of areas that are safe to return. This information will be announced to the evacuees. Those whose homes were not affected by the tsunami are encouraged to return to their homes.ii If the home community is deemed unsafe and uninhabitable, citizens are to continue living in the evacuation sites.

In both Micronesia and Peru, if further habitation of evacuation sites is required, a tent will be distributed to individual family units as well as a settlement kit. Evacuees in Peru staying in hotel rooms, dorms, or other indoor facilities, will be provided with just the settlement kit. For Micronesia tents used will have sloping large overhang and made out of materials with low thermal capacity to be suitable for the warm humid climate of the islands. Settlement kits will also include personal hygiene items such as soap and toothbrushes and food preparation units.

Preparation «    To realize an effective emergency medical response, a more capable infrastructure must be built and maintained.

Population Database «
  For the purpose of tracking individuals in the event of a tsunami, an electronic database of the population must be kept and maintained regularly along with each census of the population. The information will include the legal name, birth date, residence, and family unit affiliation of each person. This information would be used for example to reunite family members in case of involuntary separation.

  For the tracking of non-residents inside the country, customs and immigration will be in charge of maintaining a database of people entering and leaving the country. The database will include the individuals name, birth date, country of citizenship, and address of places he or she will be staying. Information about citizens leaving the country will also be available on the database.

  In case of a natural disaster like the tsunami, the databases will be made accessible to only to appropriate personnel dealing with the tracking of survivors. A government official who is in charge of assessing disaster risk will determine the release of the databases to appropriate officials. In addition to officials in charged of tracking survivors, the databases would be made available to authorities of each evacuation sites for administrative purposes.

Improvements to the Medical System «

i. Hospital for Tropical Diseases (2005, August 9). Micronesia. Retrieved September 23, 2005.
ii. Hospital for Tropical Diseases (2005, August 9). Peru. Retrieved September 23, 2005.
iii. U.S Department of State (July 19, 2005) Consular Information Sheet: Micronesia, Federated States of. Retrieved October 29, 2005.
iv. Sphere Project (2004) Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Sphere Project 2004, Geneva, Switzerland.
v. Smith, Keith (2001). Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. London, England: Routledge.
  The medical infrastructures of Peru and Micronesia are very underdeveloped.i & ii Hospitals can are only found in large cities and even these hospitals usually are much below the necessary standards. Micronesia, for example, has only four hospitals distributed among the four major islands.iii In order to effectively deal with a health crisis involved with a tsunami these countries need to improve their existing healthcare system in general. It is more efficient and cost effective for existing hospitals to react in a disaster than to set up field hospitals.iv

  Furthermore, medical personnel must be well informed and trained for large-scale emergency response. This will allow for immediate and effective local response to the disaster which will be crucial in providing primary services before international aide are able to mobilize and respond. International aide should not be relied upon because they may be slow and lack appropriate relief items.v

Minimum Staffing Standards for Central Health Facilities during the Tsunami «   Hospitals will be the Central Health Facility during the tsunami and serve a community of approximately 50,000 people. It should at least consist of five qualified health workers (physicians, nurses, clinical officer, or medical assistant). It should also have a staff of at least, one doctor, one qualified health worker per 20-30 beds for in-patient care, one qualified health worker per 50 consultations per day, and one non-qualified health work for administering oral rehydration therapy. This standard is according to the Sphere Project handbook on "Minimum Standards in Heath Services" in disaster response and should be met for areas with at least 50,000 people.

Immediate Preparations «

i. Sphere Project (2004) Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Sphere Project 2004, Geneva, Switzerland.
ii. WHO (-) The New Emergency Health Kit. Retrived October 29, 2005.
  The change of the medical infrastructure takes time and large amounts of funding.i In the meantime, Peru and Micronesia need to be ready in case of a tsunami. Therefore, hospitals and clinics should be prepared with the New Emergency Medical Kit outlined by the World Health Association.i Each hospital will be stocked with an Emergency Medical Kit and the Supplementary Unit. The medical kits are designed for aid of 10,000 people for 3 months. This kit is the product of years of research by the WHO of essential drugs and medical supplies for disaster response and has been adopted by many organizations for its effectiveness in emergency situations.ii This will eliminate the situation of relying on donated resources, which may not be up to standards (e.g. poorly labeled or expired drugs). Some essential contents of the kit include gauze and bandage to dress wounds and general antibiotics and analgesics.ii

Implementation «   In Micronesia the Secretary of Health will assume the responsibility of the Health Relief Coordinator (LRC) in coordinating medical relief efforts, over seeing the Health Relief Committee and that the responding health agencies support and strengthen the capacity of local health systems. The Minister of Health will assume this role in Peru. Examples of responding health agencies include the WHO, UNHCR, and UNICEF.

Locations of Emergency Health Units «

i. WHO (2002) Environmental Health in Emergencies and Disaster: A Practical Guide. World Health Organization 2002, Geneva, Switzerland.
ii. WHO (-) The New Emergency Health Kit. Retrieved October 29, 2005.
  Medical treatment centers must be at an accessible distance from the evacuation sites.i However, medical centers should not occupy the same area as the evacuation camp because witnessing medical operations may cause psychological distress among evacuees. The primary medical treatment centers will consist of existing hospitals and clinics. If such establishments are not at an accessible distance, field medical unit will have to be deployed to immediately treat traumatic injuries in the first 48 hours.ii

Handling the Dead «

i. Pan-American Health Organization and World Health Organization (2004). Management of Dead Bodies in Disaster Situations.
ii. Sphere Project (2004) Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Sphere Project 2004, Geneva, Switzerland.
  The Health Relief Cordinator or an experienced medical professional appointed by the LRC should be in charged of the coordination efforts for handling the dead. Contrary to common beliefs, dead bodies do not pose a serious health risk, especially in the case of a tsunami, where most deaths result from drowning and physical injuries sustained during the rapid displacement of water.i The dead should be transported to hospital morgues or field morgues for identification and temporary storage. If morgues are over capacity, refrigerated trucks may need to be used for temporary storage of bodies.i In Peru, the Legal Medicine Institute of Peru should hold primary responsibility for identifying bodies of victims.i However, international aid may be necessary depending on the magnitude of the situation. All efforts must be taken to identify bodies. Accordingly, families should be allowed to conduct appropriate mortuary customs. If bodies cannot be identified, they should interred into individual graves. Mass graves and cremations are not to be allowed for they go against basic human rights.ii

Autopsies «   An autopsy should be conducted when deemed appropriate according to health officials for the purpose of identification of corpse or in case of questionable circumstances surrounding the death.

Medical Waste Management «

i. CDC (2005, January 14) Disposing of Liquid Waste from Autopsies in Tsunami-Affected Areas: Interim Guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved September 23, 2005.
  All medical wastes must be collected and kept in secure stainless steel bins until proper disposal procedures can be followed. Field hospitals in disaster areas tend to generate human wastes (i.e. blood, bodily fluids) and chemical wastes (i.e. formalin, formaldehyde, phenol).i These wastes pose some environmental and health risks and need to be properly disposed. Disposal Methods outlined by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) shall be met.

Mobile Clinics «

i. Sphere Project (2004) Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response. Sphere Project 2004, Geneva, Switzerland.
  Mobile clinics shall be deployed to isolated areas in Micronesia and along the Peruvian coasts that are not able to seek medical assistance. The Health Relief Coordinator will determine the appropriateness of the deployment of such aid.i
Preparation «

i. Peru: Earthquake Fact Sheet #3 - OFDA-03 (2001). US Agency for International Development Bureau for Humanitarian Response Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance Peru. Retrieved October 1, 2005.
ii. Meesook, K. (1995). IMF economic reviews: Marshall islands and federated states of micronesia. Washington, D.C., U.S.: International Monetary Fund Publication Services.
  Proper storage and pre-planned distribution infrastructure for food distribution is essential for adequate and timely emergency rations. Historically, Peru has counted on relief from the UN, Chile, and USAID among others for emergency food.i However, to ensure more rapid distribution and to be prepared for a tsunami of greater magnitude, Peru needs local food storage, better coordination, and more national food depots. Since Micronesia has traditionally relied on US aid,ii Micronesia lacks a plan for emergency food. Both Peru and Micronesia need better planning for emergency food rations.

Food Distribution Infrastructure «

i. Masefield, G. B. (1967). Food and nutrition procedures in times of disaster. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  A solid distribution infrastructure is critical. If this planning is left for after the tsunami hits, at the very least, a temporary chaos will precede any relief. In each country, a relief commissioner should be appointed.i This official would evaluate food needs after the disaster and coordinate the different governmental and private agencies in charge of food distribution. A deputy should also be appointed. This deputy must have full authority while the commissioner is traveling or is incapacitated. It is critical that before a disaster, the commissioners staff designates people who would take on special duties after a tsunami. In each region, a group of government workers must be selected to perform administrative duties in the event of a tsunami. School workers and civil servants should be assigned to the administrative work for food distributioni since their everyday duties are of a similar nature and since the government normally employs them. Finally, hotel, club,i and restaurant workers must be assigned to help in initial mass-feeding centers since their everyday jobs deal with serving large groups of people.

Preparing Food «

i. Eade, D., & Williams, S. (1995). Oxfam handbook of development and relief: Volume 2. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
ii. High-energy, nutrient-dense emergency relief food product (2002). In Subcommittee on Technical Specifications for a High-Energy Relief Ration, Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. (Ed.), Washington, D.C.
   There are three main possibilities for food after a disaster. Food can be served hot and prepared to those affected. However, we recommend mass feeding only in the first few days, since historically, victims prefer to have their own food and prepare it in their own style.i Many people are so devastated that the added stress of a mass-feeding center results in these people not eating at all. The second possibility is high-energy bars similar to Power bars. However, since these people are not in starvation stage, these unfamiliar, foreign bars will not be well received. Thus, although they have the advantage of a 3-year shelf life,ii we do not suggest using energy bars as a primary food source. Most optimal seems the distribution of dry grains and foods already familiar to the recipients. They will feel comfortable eating the food and will also require no education about preparation methods.

A Three Day Local Supply «

i. Judson, Brad. "Re: food rations." Email to Retrieved October 2, 2005.
ii. Masefield, G. B. (1967). Food and nutrition procedures in times of disaster. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  Each locality should store a 3-day supply of goodsi that would be used before the disaster response routes would be cleared for national and international relief. Each locality will build a food storage depot near the planned evacuation sites. Money for construction should come from the local budget if possible, but with national or international funds if necessary. National storage depots will store enough food for those below the level of inundation. These supplies would be tapped after the initial 3 days and supplement international aid from the World Food Programme, Red Cross, USAID and neighboring countries. Both coastal Peruvian and Micronesian diets contain fish, so dried fish should be stored since this is an easily stored protein source. The depots should also store parboiled rice, small-seeded millet, and bulgurii since these foods are widely eaten and also store the best in warm climates. In addition, taro and yam should be stored in Micronesia, since these easily stored foods are prevalent in the Micronesian diet. Likewise, potatoes should be stored in Peru. To ensure the food does not spoil, an annual turnover is required. At this time, the government should auction off the food or otherwise try to raise some money to help offset the cost of buying the next years store. Each storage center (both national and regional) will have sacks,ii wire, and non-electronic machine to seal bags, since it will not be feasible to acquire these security devices in an emergency situation. Finally, some NGO's such as the Red Cross have their own private stores. The relief commissioner should have a database of private stores so that the quantity and location of this food is known and could be requested in the event of a tsunami.

Cooking Fuel «
  The supply depots must also store some type of fuel source. Options such as oil, kerosene, and wood are poor, because of the cost and inherent danger of storage. Both Micronesia and Peru enjoy many hours of sunlight, and thus, solar cookers would be an easy and long-lasting solution to the fuel problem. We suggest that high schools in both countries teach stove usage.

Implementation «   Once the tsunami warning is activated, emergency personnel such as administrators, cooks, security officials, and other workers (see section in Preparation) should report to the evacuation centers to be prepared for the evacuees. These workers should be financially compensated in the case of false alarms, so that they will report for the real disaster. In Micronesia, the locally stored food will already be at the evacuation centers, but in Peru where the centers are in pre-existing complexes, trucks will take the locally stored food to the centers. Another option here would have been by train, but due to the mountainous terrain, Perus rail network is poor compared to the road infrastructure.

Immediate Food Distribution «

i. Masefield, G. B. (1967). Food and nutrition procedures in times of disaster. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
   The evacuation centers must immediately start distributing food. They could serve prepared food, or hand out dry rations. Prepared food is preferable since the evacuees will not have any cooking implements, and for this very initial stage, serving food is cleaner and more efficient than trying to distribute stoves and rations. Thus, each evacuation location will set up one mass-feeding center for every 1000 people. The center can serve 1000 people every hour with 2 supervisors, 4 cooks, 8 assistant cooks, 24 helpers, 12 servers, and 4 to 6 garbage collectors.i

Aseesssing Damage «   The Relief Commissioner will tour the affected areas by helicopter to assess damage. A helicopter will ensure the Relief Commissioner can quickly access the various regions in which debris might be obstructing the roads. To determine how many people are within each affected area, the Commissioner will have census data available. It is essential that the main storage depots immediately ship food to those regions deemed needy by the Relief Commissioner, since the local areas will have food for three days.

Appeal for International Relief «

i. Peru: Earthquake Fact Sheet #3 - OFDA-03 (2001). U.S. Agency for International Development Bureau for Humanitarian Response Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance Peru. Retrieved October 1, 2005.
ii. Eade, D., & Williams, S. (1995). Oxfam handbook of development and relief: Volume 2. Oxford, UK: Oxfam.
iii. Sklaver, B. (2003). Humanitarian daily rations: The need for evaluation and guidelines. Disasters, 27 (3), 259-271.
  Meanwhile, the Relief Commissioners deputy will appeal for international relief. The deputy will contact the World Food Programme , Euronaid , which goes between EU and NGOs, and USAID.i The deputy would also contact the US Military for high-protein bars for extra supplementation for at-risk groups such as the elderly and infirm, and the UN Children's Fundi for food for those 6 months through 3 years of age since this group has traditionally addressed the unique food needs of infants. The Peruvian deputy would also contact Chile, since they sent food after the 2001 tsunami.i

  Once the national or international food begins to arrive, the camp should switch to distributing dry rations, which evacuees receive much better than hot, prepared food.ii Each family, as chosen at arrival, should receive one solar cooker and a 13,650 kilocalorie ration per family member (1,950 kilocalories per day per personiii for one week).

Inventory «   Strict inventory must be taken to help prevent lost food. After the first three days of mass feeding, each head of household or unattached individual will come weekly to the food distribution area of each center with the card given at check-in. The distribution worker should crosscheck the name on the card with the database of evacuees pictures taken at check-in. A second worker should then give each head of household a weeks worth of dry goods for the number of family members designated in the database.

Preparation «

i. The Sphere Project. Electronic reference handbook. Retrieved October 23, 2005.
ii. BioSand Filter Water Treatment. (2005). Prepared by the Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology. Retrieved on October 22.
   Water, although absolutely necessary for survival, can also be the medium through which disease spreads. This is why we need to assess both availability and quality of the water supply provided to individuals in the emergency camps.

   The most important part of preparation in terms of water supply for the tsunami is to come up with a plan. Both Micronesia and Peru need to establish a committee that will prepare for the disaster. The chair of this committee should be in contact with the Food Commissioner of that country. The members of this committee should be well versed in hydrology and have a background dealing with the issues arising from the allocation of water supply and purification.

   An individual consumes about fifteen liters of water per day.i In the immediate days following the disaster, however, only the drinking water shall be addressed. A retail supplier shall be chosen ahead of time by each country and their water bottles should be stored in each depot (as described in the Food section) so that each person can receive three liters of this for at least three days in each of the emergency camp storage units.

   Moreover, concrete filters for the BioSand filterii need to be stored. Since it filters water with a rate of sixty liters per hour and individuals need about three liters per day, the required amount of filters needs to be calculated according to the number of people expected at a certain emergency shelter. Buckets (the amount should be proportional to the number of households/living groups expected) for the water also need to be stored. The water filtered from using BioSand filters should be used for drinking purposes only.

   Water needed for cooking and hygienic purposes will come from the prepared wells that will be created a couple of days after the disaster strikes (see Implementation). The filtration procedure for this water should include debris filtration and disinfectation. With the availability of safe drinking and cleaning water, we hope that disease from this source will be prevented.

Implementation «

i. Murcott, Susan. Talk delivered on February 22, 2005 at the Association for Indias Development. Slide 33 out of 77.
ii. The Sphere Project. Electronic reference handbook. Retrieved October 23, 2005
   The Chair of the Water Committee should assign each member to be responsible for at least 3 to 5 emergency response sites. This person will survey the area surrounding the camp and decide on the source of the water for the prepared well. This site should be at least 60 m away from any contaminating areas such as latrines and rubbish dumps.i Also, the well must have a 1.5 meter wall to prevent runoff water to enter the well. A water proof lid will serve as a cover to prevent contamination from the top of the well. A hand pump or a bucket should be placed of the top of the well for easy access.i

   The well must be accessible to all individuals of the shelter. Special accommodations will be made for those suffering from HIV/AIDS, the elderly, and children.ii Moreover, queues should be minimized by setting up different times of use.

   The BioSand filters will be distributed along with buckets after a water source has been selected. The public will be educated while distribution of these materials occurs. One of these filters can be shared for about 20 individuals.