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So far, all revisions shown in this manual have been on the main trunk of the revision tree, i.e., all revision numbers have been of the form x.y. One useful feature, especially when maintaining several releases of a software product at once, is the ability to make branches on the revision tree. Tags, symbolic names for revisions, will also be introduced in this chapter.
The revision numbers live a life of their own. They need not have anything at all to do with the release numbers of your software product. Depending on how you use CVS the revision numbers might change several times between two releases. As an example, some of the source files that make up RCS 5.6 have the following revision numbers:
ci.c 5.21 co.c 5.9 ident.c 5.3 rcs.c 5.12 rcsbase.h 5.11 rcsdiff.c 5.10 rcsedit.c 5.11 rcsfcmp.c 5.9 rcsgen.c 5.10 rcslex.c 5.11 rcsmap.c 5.2 rcsutil.c 5.10
You can use the
tag command to give a symbolic name to a
certain revision of a file. You can use the `-v' flag to the
status command to see all tags that a file has, and
which revision numbers they represent. Tag names can
contain uppercase and lowercase letters, digits,
`-', and `_'. The two tag names
HEAD are reserved for use by CVS. It
is expected that future names which are special to
CVS will contain characters such as `%' or
`=', rather than being named analogously to
HEAD, to avoid conflicts with
actual tag names.
The following example shows how you can add a tag to a file. The commands must be issued inside your working copy of the module. That is, you should issue the command in the directory where `backend.c' resides.
$ cvs tag release-0-4 backend.c T backend.c $ cvs status -v backend.c =================================================================== File: backend.c Status: Up-to-date Version: 1.4 Tue Dec 1 14:39:01 1992 RCS Version: 1.4 /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/backend.c,v Sticky Tag: (none) Sticky Date: (none) Sticky Options: (none) Existing Tags: release-0-4 (revision: 1.4)
There is seldom reason to tag a file in isolation. A more common use is to tag all the files that constitute a module with the same tag at strategic points in the development life-cycle, such as when a release is made.
$ cvs tag release-1-0 . cvs tag: Tagging . T Makefile T backend.c T driver.c T frontend.c T parser.c
(When you give CVS a directory as argument, it generally applies the operation to all the files in that directory, and (recursively), to any subdirectories that it may contain. See section Recursive behavior.)
checkout command has a flag, `-r', that lets you check out
a certain revision of a module. This flag makes it easy to
retrieve the sources that make up release 1.0 of the module `tc' at
any time in the future:
$ cvs checkout -r release-1-0 tc
This is useful, for instance, if someone claims that there is a bug in that release, but you cannot find the bug in the current working copy.
You can also check out a module as it was at any given date. See section checkout options.
When you tag more than one file with the same tag you can think about the tag as "a curve drawn through a matrix of filename vs. revision number." Say we have 5 files with the following revisions:
file1 file2 file3 file4 file5 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 /--1.1* <-*- TAG 1.2*- 1.2 1.2 -1.2*- 1.3 \- 1.3*- 1.3 / 1.3 1.4 \ 1.4 / 1.4 \-1.5*- 1.5 1.6
At some time in the past, the
* versions were tagged.
You can think of the tag as a handle attached to the curve
drawn through the tagged revisions. When you pull on
the handle, you get all the tagged revisions. Another
way to look at it is that you "sight" through a set of
revisions that is "flat" along the tagged revisions,
file1 file2 file3 file4 file5 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.3 _ 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.1 / 1.2*----1.3*----1.5*----1.2*----1.1 (--- <--- Look here 1.3 1.6 1.3 \_ 1.4 1.4 1.5
Suppose that release 1.0 of tc has been made. You are continuing to develop tc, planning to create release 1.1 in a couple of months. After a while your customers start to complain about a fatal bug. You check out release 1.0 (see section Tags--Symbolic revisions) and find the bug (which turns out to have a trivial fix). However, the current revision of the sources are in a state of flux and are not expected to be stable for at least another month. There is no way to make a bugfix release based on the newest sources.
The thing to do in a situation like this is to create a branch on the revision trees for all the files that make up release 1.0 of tc. You can then make modifications to the branch without disturbing the main trunk. When the modifications are finished you can select to either incorporate them on the main trunk, or leave them on the branch.
rtag command can be used to create a branch.
rtag command is much like
tag, but it
does not require that you have a working copy of the
module. See section rtag--Add a symbolic tag to a module. (You can also use the
command; see section tag--Add a symbolic tag to checked out versions of files).
$ cvs rtag -b -r release-1-0 release-1-0-patches tc
The `-b' flag makes
rtag create a branch
(rather than just a symbolic revision name). `-r
release-1-0' says that this branch should be rooted at the node (in
the revision tree) that corresponds to the tag
`release-1-0'. Note that the numeric revision number that matches
`release-1-0' will probably be different from file to file. The
name of the new branch is `release-1-0-patches', and the
module affected is `tc'.
To fix the problem in release 1.0, you need a working copy of the branch you just created.
$ cvs checkout -r release-1-0-patches tc $ cvs status -v driver.c backend.c =================================================================== File: driver.c Status: Up-to-date Version: 1.7 Sat Dec 5 18:25:54 1992 RCS Version: 1.7 /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/driver.c,v Sticky Tag: release-1-0-patches (branch: 1.7.2) Sticky Date: (none) Sticky Options: (none) Existing Tags: release-1-0-patches (branch: 1.7.2) release-1-0 (revision: 1.7) =================================================================== File: backend.c Status: Up-to-date Version: 1.4 Tue Dec 1 14:39:01 1992 RCS Version: 1.4 /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/backend.c,v Sticky Tag: release-1-0-patches (branch: 1.4.2) Sticky Date: (none) Sticky Options: (none) Existing Tags: release-1-0-patches (branch: 1.4.2) release-1-0 (revision: 1.4) release-0-4 (revision: 1.4)
As the output from the
status command shows the branch
number is created by adding a digit at the tail of the revision number
it is based on. (If `release-1-0' corresponds to revision 1.4, the
branch's revision number will be 1.4.2. For obscure reasons CVS always
gives branches even numbers, starting at 2.
See section Revision numbers).
The `-r release-1-0-patches' flag that was given
checkout in the previous example
is sticky, that is, it will apply to subsequent commands
in this directory. If you commit any modifications, they are
committed on the branch. You can later merge the modifications into
the main trunk. See section Merging.
You can use the
status command to see what
sticky tags or dates are set:
$ vi driver.c # Fix the bugs $ cvs commit -m "Fixed initialization bug" driver.c Checking in driver.c; /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/driver.c,v <-- driver.c new revision: 18.104.22.168; previous revision: 1.7 done $ cvs status -v driver.c =================================================================== File: driver.c Status: Up-to-date Version: 22.214.171.124 Sat Dec 5 19:35:03 1992 RCS Version: 126.96.36.199 /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/driver.c,v Sticky Tag: release-1-0-patches (branch: 1.7.2) Sticky Date: (none) Sticky Options: (none) Existing Tags: release-1-0-patches (branch: 1.7.2) release-1-0 (revision: 1.7)
The sticky tags will remain on your working files until you delete them with `cvs update -A'. The `-A' option retrieves the version of the file from the head of the trunk, and forgets any sticky tags, dates, or options.
Sticky tags are not just for branches. For example,
suppose that you want to avoid updating your working
directory, to isolate yourself from possibly
destabilizing changes other people are making. You
can, of course, just refrain from running
update. But if you want to avoid updating only a
portion of a larger tree, then sticky tags can help.
If you check out a certain revision (such as 1.4) it
will become sticky. Subsequent
cvs update will
not retrieve the latest revision until you reset the
cvs update -A. Likewise, use of the
`-D' option to
sets a sticky date, which, similarly, causes that
date to be used for future retrievals.
Many times you will want to retrieve an old version of
a file without setting a sticky tag. The way to do
that is with the `-p' option to
update, which sends the contents of the file to
standard output. For example, suppose you have a file
named `file1' which existed as revision 1.1, and
you then removed it (thus adding a dead revision 1.2).
Now suppose you want to add it again, with the same
contents it had previously. Here is how to do it:
$ cvs update -p -r 1.1 file1 >file1 =================================================================== Checking out file1 RCS: /tmp/cvs-sanity/cvsroot/first-dir/Attic/file1,v VERS: 1.1 *************** $ cvs add file1 cvs add: re-adding file file1 (in place of dead revision 1.2) cvs add: use 'cvs commit' to add this file permanently $ cvs commit -m test Checking in file1; /tmp/cvs-sanity/cvsroot/first-dir/file1,v <-- file1 new revision: 1.3; previous revision: 1.2 done $
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