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Authors, Acknowledgments, Contributing, and Licensing

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Applications and Extensions of music21

Music21 has been used in numerous research tasks already, and will continue to offer researchers many tools with which to explore new domains.

Papers, Presentations, and Publications

The following papers and publications make extensive use of Music21. When links become available for download, they will be added.

Ariza, C. and M. S. Cuthbert. 2011. “The music21 Stream: A New Object Model for Representing, Filtering, and Transforming Symbolic Musical Structures.” In Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: International Computer Music Association, pp. 61-68. Available online at http://www.flexatone.org/static/docs/music21Stream.pdf

Ariza, C. and M. S. Cuthbert. 2011. “Analytical and Compositional Applications of a Network-Based Scale Model in music21.” In Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: International Computer Music Association, pp. 701-708. Available online at http://www.flexatone.org/static/docs/scaleNetwork.pdf

Ariza, C. and M. S. Cuthbert. 2010. “Modeling Beats, Accents, Beams, and Time Signatures Hierarchically with music21 Meter Objects.” In Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference. San Francisco: International Computer Music Association. 216-223. Available online at http://mit.edu/music21/papers/2010MeterObjects.pdf

Cuthbert, M. S. and C. Ariza. 2010. “music21: A Toolkit for Computer-Aided Musicology and Symbolic Music Data.” In Proceedings of the International Society for Music Information Retrieval.

Ariza, C. and M. S. Cuthbert. 2010. “Modeling Musical Structures as Objects in music21.”

Future Goals and Potential Applications

There are numerous applications for music21 that we anticipate, yet simply have not had time to implement. Consider taking on one of these projects, or write us with new and interesting suggestions. To contact the authors, visit Authors, Acknowledgments, Contributing, and Licensing.

  • Piano-key-visualization
  • Braille music notation conversion
  • Slonimsky scale types
  • Automatic clarinet fingering generation via ClarFinger font (link: www.trecento.com/fonts/)
  • Automatic string fingerings.
  • Indian Raga encoding: including ascending, descending, and typical presentations, microtonal inflections, common associations, historical context.
  • Conversion of mensural notation to common-music-notation.
  • Multiple-simultaneous-tempi to a single tempo conversion (via tuplets).
  • Palestrina counterpoint generation (via algorithms of Mary Farbood and others.).
  • GIS integration (after the work by Bret Aarden).
  • Beneventan chant similarity indices (thanks to the work of Thomas Forrest Kelly and the Exultet encodings made available in **kern by Elsa De Luca).
  • Humdrum export (we don’t want our interaction with Humdrum to be a one-way street! We just haven’t had time to put this in yet).
  • Identify staff line of a note given its Clef-context.
  • Identify potential clefs for fragmentary Renaissance and Medieval pieces that are missing their clefs. (Use their staff-lines and minimizing number of melodic and harmonic tritones).