|Thermodynamics and Propulsion
All bodies radiate energy in the form of photons moving in a random direction, with random phase and frequency. When radiated photons reach another surface, they may either be absorbed, reflected or transmitted. The behavior of a surface with radiation incident upon it can be described by the following quantities:
From energy considerations the three coefficients must sum to unity
Reflective energy may be either diffuse or specular (mirror-like). Diffuse reflections are independent of the incident radiation angle. For specular reflections, the reflection angle equals the angle of incidence.