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Nobel Prizes

There have been a relatively large number of Nobel Prizes awarded in spectroscopy. These Prizes exemplify both experimental and theoretical contributions to the growth of spectroscopic investigations as well as the development and discoveries related to spectroscopy. Although the following list of Nobel Prize winner is certainly not inclusive, it provides a starting point to learn more about the historical development of spectroscopy through the contributions of individual researchers.

Experimental Contributions to Spectroscopy
H.A. Lorentz and P. Zeeman (1902) discovery of the splitting of spectral lines in magnetic
J. Stark (1919) discovery of the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields
C.V. Raman (1930), the first to demonstrate spectral line shifts due to inelastic light scattering (Raman effect)
W.E. Lamb, Jr. (1955), who discovered the fine structure splitting in the first excited state of atomic hydrogen (this work was actually done with microwaves, but its origin and impact have been central to studies of atomic spectra)
R.S. Mulliken (1966) and G. Herzberg (1971), for their contributions to molecular spectroscopy
A.L. Schawlow (1981), for work in the field of laser spectroscopy
A. Zewail (1999), for studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy

Theoretical Contributions to Spectroscopy
M. Planck (1918), who discovered the elemental quantum of action
N. Bohr (1922), the first to link the regularities of spectral lines to the quantum structure of atoms
P.A.M. Dirac and E. Schrodinger (1933), for their contributions to the quantum theory of atoms
W. Pauli (1945), who discovered the quantum exclusion principle

Inventions and Discoveries Related to Spectroscopy
A.A. Michelson (1907) invention of the interferometer, a hallmark in spectroscopic instrumentation
C.H. Townes , N.G. Basov and A.M. Prokhorov (1964) development of the maser, a source of coherent microwave radiation, which led to development of the laser and opened the field of modern spectroscopy
A. Kastler (1966) for the development of optical pumping of atoms
N. Bloembergen (1981) for his contributions to nonlinear optics
H.G. Dehmelt and W. Paul (1989) received this award for invention of the ion trap, an important tool in current spectroscopic research