Objective I: International Preserve :: Objective II: Sensor Network :: Objective III: Ideal Village :: Appendices

Current Situation:
In the Galapagos, the current enforcement body for preventing invasive species is SICGAL, which stands for the System of Inspection and Quarantine for the Galapagos.(SICGAL, 2004) SICGAL was formed in 2000, its goal being to diminish contamination of the islands. Currently, SICGAL cannot perform up to its proposition because of lack of funds. (Galapagos Conservation Trust, 2004)
Enforcement bodies exist through the various Galapagos authorities, Galapagos National Park and INGALA, try to uphold regulation laws, including topics fishing and immigration, for the local population. However, like SICGAL, these bodies cannot enforce as well as they want because of lack of resources. (Galapagos Conservation Trust, 2004)

We want to add the enforcers from our plans of tourism and energy to these enforcement bodies. They will not go into greater debt because we plan to have ORGALA put funds into this area. The funds will help for appropriate education and training of all employees as well as management and technologies for current needs of SICGAL, INGALA, and the GNP. With the knowledge and enforcement position, enforcers will have the incentive to carry out their duties. (Motu, 2004)

We strongly suggest the enforcement regulations include a standard for sterilization of boats, especially for imports and exports. This will help minimize contamination and invasive species.
Although ORGALA will give funds to the enforcement bodies and ensure that the funds are reaching their specific targets, the change resulting enforcement will depend highly on the people. We want to encourage this change from education.

Galapagos Conservation Trust Nov. 28, 2004). "Issues in the Galapagos". URL http://www.gct.org/issues.html (visited 11/22/2004)
Motu Economic and Public Policy Research (2004). Migration and Environment in the Galapagos

Concerns on Enforcement and Policy Changes in the Galapagos

Enactment of Plans:

In order to make the Galapagos a more environmentally sound city structure, the methods of energy consumption, energy source, waste and water management and general opinion of being eco friendly must be changed. In order to make the village structure more favorable to maintaining the natural laboratory, here is a proposal:

1. Set up a time cushion for people to make changes and adapt to new standards and criteria of living in the Galapagos.
    - For example, allow everyone 5* years to make the transition in his or her homes and businesses.

2. Determine the Criteria
     - Water Usage allotments
     - Type of Energy needed for powering the residence, business, or public location and limits of consumption. Solar Panels will be provided by the government, and rental-type system will generate funds for payment of them and upkeep.
     - Waste Disposal methods -- No dumping allowed, all waste must be separated into organic and inorganic wastes for proper disposal.
     - Building standards -- insulation if necessary, etc.
     - Method of Renovation -- Most restructuring of buildings must be approved by INGALA, so a strategy for this would need to be determined as well.

3. Require certification from hotels and other businesses
     - Determine course of best environmental action for a hotel (keeping in mind its size and capacity for visitors) to establish limits for the hotel's consumption and harm of island resources.
     - For example: Each hotel has 5 years to switch to solar and wind power, replace existing vehicles with hybrid or low-pollutant vehicles, set up system and practice in-hotel recycling for waste, etc. Inspections of the hotel to make sure these guidelines are in place or in progress will determine who is in violation of the transition efforts. Businesses that are quick on the uptake can advertise "Eco-Friendly" or something during the 5 years so it would be sort of a competitive edge, encouraging others to quickly follow suit in order to impress customers.
     - Individual living quarters would also have 5 years to make the transition of power methods, waste disposal method, etc.
     - Grants could be available or subsidies to help people pay for changes

4. All buildings built after enactment of the regulations must build according to specified practices to make entirely eco-friendly buildings.

5. Enforcement

*5 Years may be unrealistic. This figure was used throughout the section, but it may be a more likely estimate of 10 years for everything to be implemented. This timeline would of course depend highly on funding and worker supply.

Immigration and Tourism -- Galapagos Population Standardization:
Although only 20,000 people live in Galapagos, this is almost more than the islands can sustain without leaving severe ecological "footprints" on the environment. Wherever people live there is some interaction with the environment and people are part of the ecosystem, therefore the parameter of "severe" was specified. To define what this means, it is necessary to know what the goal is for the Galapagos. If the goal where to exploit the Galapagos as a tourist mega-plex to increase the national income, it would be in the Galapagos' best interest to build more hotels and attractions and urbanize its villages for increased population. Obviously, this is not our goal for the Galapagos. The preservation of the pristine natural environment and the opportunity to study it is in the best interest of the Galapagos in our opinion. If it were to be completely environmentally ideal, no people would live on the Galapagos and only small scale temporary camps would be set up for scientists to study the archipelago in its most natural form, if scientists were even allowed on the islands at all. This seems an unrealistic design as well. Thus, establishment of a compromise between the primary goal of environmental protection and the secondary goal of maintaining the well-being and best interest of the citizens is essential. In order to make the smallest mark on the ecology of the islands, we have tried to find reliable yet "green" methods for city operations. For this reason, it is our intent to minimize the population growth of the Galapagos by reinforcing the laws established by INGALA in the Special Law regarding tourism and immigration. Currently residents are divided into three groups and tourists are only allowed to stay in the Galapagos for a total of 90 days per year (Title II, Art. 24-31). If this portion of the Special Law could be clarified and the revisions enforced, the current 6% yearly population inflation could be reduced and controlled. It could be reasonable to assume the reason many of these ordinances are not carried out, though specified as law, is shortage of monetary means for the project. Provided funding could be found or a body of enforcement established that would not threaten Ecuadorian sovereignty, these matters could be dealt with. In addition to this, clarifications of the Special Law may limit the inflating population. For example, the 90 day limit would seem reasonable for those who may be stuck in the Galapagos or for those studying on the islands, but it also invites those without jobs to come survive in the Galapagos unchallenged for 90 days of the year, consuming more and contributing little. More on this to come...

Fishing Regulation Concerns:
The United States Department of Agriculture offers services to US farmers in response to the depression of the 1930's. This is sort of a summary of how it works.

1. Market Stability Measures: In order to prevent over planting one year and under-planting the next, the government allows a certain number of acres of each crop to be planted nation-wide each year. These acres are monitored through Insurance practices -- the USDA only insures a certain number of acres of each crop each year dependant on foreseeable market size (International and Domestic Markets).
2. Crops are insured for bad weather and other damages -- If a specified yield is not achieved in the harvest of the crop, the farmer is paid reparations for insured acres and then small subsidies for the overall farm.
3. Price Supports: To prevent drastic rises and falls in the market, levels are put in place as the minimum and maximum cost per bushel when selling to a Co-op, which is where most of the grain is sold. The Co-op then sells it to foreign markets or domestic producers through the government. If a crop is overproduced, the Farmer will be paid to keep some of his yield or possibly not to harvest at all. When a crop is in high demand, farmers will be rewarded for contributions, but levels are set so as not to encourage monopolies.

If modified and added to the Quotas system discussed in the section about the economy, these together could help to prevent black-market activity and economic instability for fisherman when fishing levels are reduced in the Galapagos.

Ideal Village
:: Village Introduction
:: Water Management
:: Energy Solutions
:: Waste Management
:: Transportation
:: Cities of Galapagos
:: Education
:: Economy of Galapagos
:: Tourist Industry
:: Regulations and Enforcement
:: Agriculture and Aquaculture
:: Village Conclusion