Molecules 2D simulates the interaction of charged
particles in a two dimensional plane. The particles
interact via the classical Coulomb force, as well as
the repulsive quantum-mechanical Pauli force, which
acts at close distances (accounting for the "collisions"
between them). Additionally, the motion of the particles
is damped by a term proportional to their velocity,
allowing them to "settle down" into stable
(or meta-stable) states.
Moving in response to these forces, the particles will
eventually end up in a configuration of minimum potential,
where the net force on any given particle is essentially
zero. Generally, individual particles will first pair
off into dipoles and then slowly combine into larger
structures. Rings and straight lines are the most common
configurations, but by clicking and dragging particles
around, they can be coaxed into more complex meta-stable
formations. Pressing "m" while the simulation
is paused will generate a two-dimensional map of the
potential field generated by the particles, where red
represents a strong positive potential and black represents
a strong negative potential. This process may take a
few seconds when a large number of particles are involved.