Interactive Early disaster warning system can save lives Retrieved
September 22,2005 from the ABS-CBN News Website:
This news web page reports
the about the future of the disaster alert systems in the Pacific.
The role of UNESCOs IOC, Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Commission, in coordinating and linking warning systems to create a
global network is discussed.
(1970) Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. Honolulu, HI: East West
at University of Hawaii has taken a very deep look into the warning
systems already in place in that region of the Pacific. The book also
addresses the regional warning systems and the possibility of
integrating systems to develop a global disaster warning system.
The Age Lack of Warning
System Cost Lives Retrieved September 22,2005 from The Age Website:
This web page relates the
importance of an early warning system in the effective
preparedness for a tsunami. This kind of a warning system, well
coordinated and organized will be able to alert the populace of the
coming of a tsunami in about 15 minutes.
- Anderson, William A. "Disaster Warning and Communication Processes in Two
Communities." Journal of Communication (pre-1986) 19.2 (1969): 92. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=608398701&Fmt=7&clientId=65345&RQT=309&VName=PQD.
This article compares and contrasts the responses in Crescent City, California
and in Hilo, Hawaii to a tsunami which occured on Marc27, 1964. Anderson
focuses on the specific responsibilities of local officials and on the
importance of clear and speedy information. For means of warning, he discusses
door-to-door visits, publc sirens, police force supervision of evacuation, and
use of local radio stations. He also addresses the problem of false alarms and
the need for the public to be accustomed to hearing emergency information on
- Bird, J. & Labkowski, Z. (2005, January 22-Jan 28, 2005). "Managing tsunami risk."The
Lancet, 365, 9456, pp 271-273.
This article first says that, if residents have enough
knowledge, feeling the ground shake in a coastal region or seeing the ocean
recede is enough warning to instigate an evacuation before a tsunami hits. It supports this statement with examples and
then goes on to say that established communication systems are necessary for
early warning systems. It also makes the
important point that these systems also have to be able to withstand string
- Buehner, T. "How does
the Tsunami Warning System work?" (2005,
September 20). National Oceanic and Atmospheric
This article first presents the challenges presented by the
short time it takes some tsunamis to hit land, and then goes on to describe the
operations of the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center. First, this center issues watches and
warnings and sends out tsunami information bulletins to the western coast of North America.
Next, the article tells how this warning is disseminated and people in
low-lying costal areas are evacuated. This source is unique in that it gives a good overview of how the
different organizational levels of the warning system work together.
- Carlberg, Ken, et al. Preferential Emergency Communications : From
Telecommunications to the Internet. Boston: Kluwer Acedemic Publishers, 2003.
This book focuses on communication methods used between emergency personnel. It
touches on the issues surrounding that area including security and ways to give
preferance to emergency communications.
- Communication when it's Needed most: How New Technology could Help in Sudden
Disasters. Washington D.C.: The Annenberg Washington Program in Communications
Policy Studies of Northwestern University, 1989.
This report is a compilation of articles on how to use communication to decrease
the loss of lives from sudden natural disasters. The report lists four goals for
improvements on the current situation. These include forging a closer bond
between emergency responders and the mass media, creating an international
center for disasters so that people from around the world can learn from the
disasters that have occured elsewhere and using remote-imaging satellite
systems to map worldwide disaster areas and plan for disaster prevention.
- Crawford, George L., et al. "Local Tsunami Warning in the Pacific Coastal United
States." Natural Hazards Volume 35, Number 1 (May 2005): 111 - 119.
The authors discuss various emergency warning systems including sirens,
telephones playing pre-recorded messages, weather radio, commercial radio,
commercial television, cable. The article emphasizes the need for redundancy of
- Crawford, George L. "NOAA Weather Radio (NWR) ? A Coastal Solution to Tsunami
Alert and Notification." Natural Hazards Volume 35, Number 1 (May 2005): 163 -
Crawford focuses on NOAA Weather Radio as an emergency warning system, providing
a chart showing the route of a warning message through various agencies. He also
suggests some outdoor warning systems including bright blue strobe lights and
360 degree speakers. He suggests wind, solar and commercial power for these
- Darienzo, M., Aya, A., Crawford, G.L., Gibbs, D., Whitmore,
P.M., Wilde, T. & Yanagi, B.S. (2005) Local Tsunami Warning in the
Pacific Coastal U.S. Natural Hazards 35(1) , 111-119.
This article provides details of structure of the tsunami alert system
in Washington state and its effectiveness. The man-made structure was
designed to alert people to tsunamis caused by distant earthquakes, but
relies on the populace to notice symptoms of a local tsunami such as
earthquake shaking or unusual ocean behavior.
- de Diaz-Limaco, J.H. (1998). Peru: A Guide to the People, Politics and Culture. New York: Interlink Books.
This is basically a guide book to the country of Peru. But, it contains
more than the usual information for tourists, including both Peru's
colonial and recent history along with sections on Peru's economy.
- Direccion de Hidrografia y Navigacion (30 October 2005). "SISTEMA INTERNACIONAL DE ALERTA DE TSUNAMIS EN EL PACIFICO." http://www.dhn.mil.pe/index.asp?pag=sistemaalerta.
This site contains a description of Peru's existing tsunami warning system. It also features information about the last detected earthquake in Peru and whether a tsunami was caused. It is maintained by the Peruvian navy, in Spanish.
Prediction and Public Policy (1975) Washington, D.C: National Academy
report published by the national academy of sciences, looks at the
disaster warning system in a different angle: socially and
politically. The importance of a warning system is addressed,
focusing on the development of systems that are specific to the
characteristicspolitical, social, and economicalof the region.
- Emergencies &
Disasters. (2005, September 19). Department of Homeland Security. http://www.dhs.gov/interweb/assetlibrary/katrina.htm.
This site describes the various US agencies, including the Federal
Emergency Management Agency, involved in emergency response. The descriptions are given mainly in the
context of Hurricane Katrina.
L., Wallendorf, L. (2002). Solutions to Coastal Disasters 02.
series of papers presented in this anthology deals with the causes of
coastal disasters, response strategies, engineering and design to
minimize the effect of the catastrophes and coastal area management.
It addresses through detailed studies the possibility of having
coordinated warning systems as well as response systems through out a
small nation as well as around the globe.
Congressional Testimony. (2005) Tsunami Warning System Expansion Dr
statement given by Dr Groat came as a response to the December 2004
tsunami in the Pacific Ocean. In his address he evaluates the
destruction caused by the lack of an effective warning system and
proposes the creation of new warning systems that could supplement
efficiently and effectively with the ones already in place.
- Federal Communications Commission (2003). "Part II: Emergency Alert System." Publisher: Federal Communications Commission. http://www.fcc.gov/eb/eas/47part11.pdf .
This is a detailed description of the United States' Emergency Alert System, and explains exactly how weather and other alerts are conveyed in the U.S.
- Federal Communications Commission Fact Sheet, the Emergency alert system (EAS). (2005, September 20). http://www.fcc.gov/eb/easfact.html.
This site describes the way the ’s emergency Alert system
sends out messages. It also mentions
some reasons that this system is important and why it was established. This information will be useful as a basis
for designing our own alert system.
- Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. (1993). Peru: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress.
This book includes information about nearly every facet of the country
of Peru. Particularly of interest are the chapters on Peru's
government, economy, and national security/armed services.
- Federal Signal informer. (October 2005) http://www.pwservice.com/informer.htm.
- FSM Telecommunications Corporation (2005). The homepage of
Micronesia's cell phone service provider. Retrieved Sept. 21, 2005 from
World Wide Web: http://www.telecom.fm/index.htm.
This site contains information about the prevalence and cost of
cellular phones, cable television and internet access in Micronesia and
the areas where these services are available. More information can
probably be gathered by contacting the company.
Gray, D. (2000, April 7)
Monster Wave Alert. Current Science 85, 14,10
article discusses the cutting edge technology of underwater monitors
in aiding the tsunami warning process. The most outstanding feature
of this technology is the coordination and the integrated response
that it enables in the event of a tsunami.
- "Guide for the Selection of Communication Equipment for Emergency First
Responders." (2002) . 9/21/2005. Publisher: U.S. Dept of Justice, Office of
Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
This is a guide meant to help emergency aid providers choose appropriate
communication equipment. The guide deals in depth with radio systems,
differentiating between the many options.
(2005, January 24) Preventing Disaster. US News and World Report,
Hayden analyzes the lack of a coordinated emergency warning system in
the Indian ocean that led to the most devastating tsunami in recent
history. The article also addresses the role of the ITSU, the United
Nations body for coordinating the warning systems in the pacific.
G. (2001) Tsunami Research at the End of a Critical Decade
This collection of Tsunami research subjects delves into the details
of the causes of the tsunami including landslide and debris as well
as the velocity and the characteristics of the propagation of the
wave. The efficiency of warning systems can be related to the
propagation of the wave, its velocity and its behavior.
(1997) Regions of Risk A Geographical Introduction to Disasters.
Essex, England: Addison, Wesley, Longman Limited.
depth analysis of events happening right after a disaster occurs is
presented. The anthology goes beyond the technology of a warning
system to the social and cultural aspects of a region that affect the
efficiency of the warning system.
- Hezel, Francis X. SJ. "Micronesian Government: A view from the Outside".
Micronesia Counselor #55 (April 2005).
This site, prepared by jesuit missionaries, examines the social and political
structure of Micronesia. Articles on this website examine the history of
social change in FSM and the different levels of organization on the islands.
- Hughes, D.T. & Lingenfelter, S.G. (Eds.). (1974) Political Development in Micronesia. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
This book discusses the political structure and climate of Micronesia.
Specifically, large sections are dedicated to the regional and local
governments on Micronesia's four main islands and the mixing of
traditional government structures and modern, western government
ITIC Welcome to Valparaiso
Retrieved September 22, 2005 from the UNESCO Website:
The International Tsunami
Information Centre addresses the new challenges it faces as it
attempts to monitor and warn the Pacific. The ITIC has to accommodate
and coordinate the emerging regional tsunami warning and mitigation
- International Disaster Communications: Harnessing the Power of Communications to
Avert Disasters and Save Lives. Ed. Fred H. Cate. Washington, D.C.: The
Annenberg Washington Program in Communications Policy Studies of Northwestern
This is a compilation of articles. dealing with emergency communication systems.
One article addresses ways to build a stronger relationship between the media
and disatster mitigation agencies. Another article goes through disasters step
by steps and points out ways that communication is needed along the way.
- International Tsunami Information Center (2000). Tsunami Newsletter 1998-1999. Honolulu: ITIC.
The Tsunami Newsletter is published every two years and includes
reports on tsunami disasters and warning systems from all countries
connected to the International Tsunami Information Center. This
particular newsletter includes a report from Peru outlining
improvements in its tsunami preparedness.
- ITSU Master
Plan.[Electronic version]. Sistema Nacional de Alarma de Maremotos (SNAM). UNESCO/ICO. http://www.crid.or.cr/crid/CD_Alerta_Temprana/pdf/eng/doc14524-3e.pdf.
This document gives some useful information about the
existing Chilean and Nicaraguan tsunami warning systems and the ones Australia and Colombia
are developing. It talks about the shortcomings of the
systems that are in place and briefly about how warnings are given out to the
public by the existing systems.
- Johnston, D., Paton, D., Crawford, G.L., Ronan, K., Houghton, B.,
& Burgelt, P. (2005). Measuring Tsunami Preparedness in Coastal
Washington, U.S. Natural Hazards 35(1) , 173-184.
The authors surveyed the residents of coastal Washington and found that
the respondents were highly unprepared for a tsunami disaster although
information on tsunami preparedness had been disseminated. The authors
include recommendations to increase the preparedness of the population.
- Joyce, C. (reporting), Montagne, Renee (host).(2005, June 9). Morning Edition. Washington,D.C.: National Public Radio Inc.
This article stresses the continuing risk posed by tsunamis
and the importance of creating a warning system in the Indian
Ocean. It mentioned the US ’s involvement in an effort to put
submerged buoys throughout the Indian Ocean
and create faster e-mail and phone links between western scientists and
countries at risk.
- Kusky<, T.(2005, March). Are we ready for Tsunamis? Planning. 71, 3, pp. 28-29.
As the title suggests, this article explores the question of
whether the US is prepared for a tsunami. It describes
the warning system on Hawaii ’s beaches
and talks about measures the US
and other countries have taken to be able to detect and react to tsunamis. The description of Hawaii’s
warning system may be
- Lander, J.F., Whiteside, L.S. & Lockridge, P.A. (2002). "Two Decades of Global Tsunamis: 1982 - 2002." Science of Tsunami Hazards 21, 1, 3.
This article contains data on every tsunami recorded in the world between 1982 and 2002, including run-up heights in the areas hit worst, magnitude of causal earthquake, and damage caused. There were a few tsunamis caused by underwater landslides or other non-earthquake events, and one tsunami with no known cause.
- Lemon, D.M. (2004). A Methodology for the Identification of Critical Locations in Infrastructures. Cambridge: DSpace at MIT.
This is a Master's thesis outlining how critical and/or weak points in
any infrastructure can be identified and protected in case of an
- Long, J. T.
(2005, January 31). Storm brewing over
Tsunami Warning System Proposals.ENR. 254, 4, p. 12.
This article states that the largest problem in designing a
better tsunami warning system at this point is not putting in new sensors for
monitoring, but, rather, communication. This, according to the author, is “the weakest link.”
The author establishes the importance of
concentrating on the communication aspect of a warning system which.
- Macan-Markar, M. (2005, April 7). Tsunami
Impact: Thailand's developing disaster
warning system. Global Information Network.
This article describes the new early warning system that was
set up on Patong Beach in Thailand after the December 26
tsunami that killed many people there. The system comprises loudspeakers that broadcast news reports daily and
automated towers with sirens which are a part of Thailand’s National Disaster
Warning Centre (NDWC). Similar systems
will soon be put up on other beaches. This site differs from the others in that it concentrates on describing the
actual set up of the warning device.
- Macan-Markar, M. (2005, March 29). Tsunami Impact: Communities can play a vital role in
disasters.Global Information Network. p. 1.
This article states
that community involvement, in addition to high-tech monitoring and detection
systems and a communication network to transmit alarms about impending
tsunamis, is essential to an effective tsunami warning system. It gives an example of how civilians, police,
and military in southern Thailand were able to
evacuate the residents of a vulnerable area in the middle of the night in an
orderly manner and within 30 minutes by simply knocking on doors. It then cites a similar example of how the
combined efforts of religious leaders, village leaders, and police successfully
evacuated a village in Sri
Lanka. This article gives a clear idea of how warning and evacuation could take
place in a place with little communication infrastructure.
K (2005, July 1) A quake reveals the sad story of the West Coast
Warning System. Macleans 118, 27, 20.
article focuses mainly on the warning systems on the west coast of
the United States and Canada. The article claims that despite the
presence of warning systems instituted along the coast, they can only
be efficient enough if they are well coordinated and integrated to
allow for the smooth progression of the warning from one region to
- Martinez, A., Villarroel, V., Seoane, J., del Pozo, F. (2005).
Analysis of Information and Communication Needs in Rural Primary Health
Care in Developing Countries. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 9(1), 66-73.
This article summarizes several studies involving the communication
needs of rural health care facilities in Peru and Nicaragua. Overall,
the authors found that the available communications infrastructure is
neither adequate nor efficient, and present several recommendations for
alternative communcation technology for developing countries.
R., Jakeways, J. (2002) Instability: Planning and Management
book addresses the planning and management aspects of natural
disasters focused around the ground instability problems on the Isle
of Wight. It also factors in research on unstable coastal areas as
well while emphasizing the importance of coordinated warning systems
that complement the research and monitoring.
- Micronesia, Federated States of. (2005, October 20) The World Fact Book. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/fm.html.
- Mileti, Dennis S., and John H. Sorensen. Communication of Emergency Public
Warnings: A Social Science Perspective and State-of-the Art Assessment., August
1990. http://emc.ornl.gov/EMCWeb/EMC/PDF/CommunicationFinal.pdf. 9/20/2005.
Prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. Prepared
by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak ridge, Tennessee 37831-6285
This report outlines warning procedures for all types of emergencies. It
includes a discussion of the current warning systems used in the US, the
structure of a good warning system, and guidelines for building new warning
- Mumm, A. J. (2001,
May). Sounding the alarm on tornado
sirens. Geospatial Solutions. 11, 5, p. 22.
This article gives a detailed description and map of Polk County, Iowa’s
tornado warning system which consists of a network of sirens. It explains how the Emergency Management
Agency is attempting to maximize the sirens’ coverage area with minimal
overlap. Similar systems are often used
for tsunami warning.
Emergency Response Plan. (2004,
December).[Electronic version]. US Department of Homeland Security.
This document details the workings of the US’s plan for responding to and
preparing for emergencies, including natural disasters. It gives in-depth information on how local
agencies involved in emergency response should interact with Federal
Weather Service (1987) Disaster Preparedness Report. 21-30.
report compiled by the national weather service records the disaster
warning systems in placed around the United States. It addresses
disaster preparedness based on the efficiency of alert and
communication systems throughout the United States.
- Neto, I. (2004). Wireless Networks for the Developing World: The Regulation and Use of License-Exempt Radio Bands in Africa. Cambridge: DSpace at MIT.
This thesis discusses the concept of license-exempt radio bands (ie
frequencies reserved for low-cost telecommunications and not sold to
broadcasting companies). Although it focuses on Africa, the idea could
easily be transferred to Peru or Micronesia where the license-exempt
radio band might be reserved for emergency communications.
- Nott, H. (2005, August 5).
Tsunami Warnings a reality for Indian Ocean
countries in 1 yr.AAP General News Wire.
This article briefly describes the progress being made by
UNESCO in the design of a tsunami detection/warning system being created in the
Indian Ocean. It noted that the sensors that will be used in the detection system can
relay information to the warning centers almost instantaneously. Also progress is being made on models that
will help this system distinguish between an earthquake that has caused a
Tsunami and one that has not.
- Nott, H. (2005, August 3).Tsunami warning must be backed by good
response – experts.AAP General News Wire.
Executive Secretary of UNESCO’s ICO stresses the
importance of not only having a good detection system, but also a good plan for
communicating to and evacuating populations, as well as alerting authorities
and coordinating the logistics of moving people.
- Nufer, H.F. (1978). Micronesia under American Rule: an evaluation of the strategic trusteeship (1947-77). Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press.
From 1947 to 1986, Micronesia was controlled by the U.S. under a
so-called Strategic Trusteeship. Nufer examines the effectiveness of
this relationship in promoting the economy, welfare, political
development and modernization of Micronesia. The Strategic Trusteeship
was ended in 1986 in favor of a Compact of Free Association, under
which the U.S. still provides defence and economic assistance.
- Oliver, D.O. (1971). Planning Micronesia's Future. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
This is a summary of an economic report on Micronesia prepared by the
U.S. Commercial Company. It describes in great detail the workings of
the Micronesian economy and makes recommendations for its improvement.
Included with the recommendations are discussions of the difficulties
involved in meeting those goals and what attempts have been made in the
One News Call to Extend
Tsunami Warning System Retrieved September 22, 2005 from the One News
The news website details
the plan to extend the warning systems already in place, in New
Zealand. Adding more warning systems will add to the efficiency of
the tsunami response, the reports says, as all the warning systems
will be coordinated and respond in unison to an alert from the
agencies monitoring the Pacific.
- Orlove, B.S. (1977). Alpacas, Sheep, and Men: The Wool Export Economy and Regional Society in Southern Peru. New York: Academic Press, Inc.
Alpacas, Sheep and Men is an in depth, anthropological analysis
of the indigenous Peruvian economy and society. It provides a very
clear picture of what technologies and customs are present in rural
areas of Peru.
- Ortega, C. & Romero, C. (1977). Communication Policies in Peru: A Study. Paris: Unesco.
This is a scientific study on the Peruvian communications
infrastructure. It includes information on mass communication, the
reliability/durability of the systems in place at the time (1977), the
quality of the broadcast services available and recommendations for
improvements to the infrastructure.
- Outdoor Warning Systems Guide. Vol. FEMA CPG 1-17. Federal Emergency Management
Agency, 1980. 9/19/2005.
This report outlines the major outdoor alert mechanisms. These include sirens,
loudspeakers, horns and whistles. The report rates warning methods by the sound
levels produced. It also includes specific advice for setting up an outdoor
warning system that utilizes sound.
- Pacific Islands Trading and Investment Commission.
(2002).Information for companies interested in doing business in/with
Pacific Islands. Retrieved Sept. 22, 2005 from World Wide Web: http://www.sptc.gov.au/home.htm
This website contains geographic information as well as a look into the business environment of Micronesia.
- Papadopoulos, G.A. & Imamura, F. (2001). A proposal for a new tsunami intensity scale. International Tsunami Symposium Proceedings , Seattle, WA 7 - 10 August 2001.
This site outlines a scale for measuring the intensity of a tsunami. The scale is for the most part qualitative and corresponds to the Mercalli scale for earthquake intensity.
S. (2005, January 22) United States to deploy 32 more buoys for
sensing tsunamis. Science News, 167, 54
magazine article outlines the US response to the tsunami that struck
the Indian Ocean in 2004. It addresses the importance of a warning
system in the pacific coast and more importantly the integration of
such early warnings to facilitate a more complete, coordinated
- Perry, W. Ronald. "Incentives for Evacuation in Natural Disaster." American
Planning Association.Journal of the American Planning Association 45.4 (1979):
Perry suggests incentives that will encourage a population to evacuate an area.
These include providing safe destinations, plausible routes, and advance
information of the above mentioned. Perry also discusses the need for warning
confirmation centers so that citizens can verify a warning for themselves.
- Peru: A Telecoms Market Access Study (2002). A profile
of the Peruvian telecom market. Retrieved Sept. 23 from World Wide Web:
This report was
financed by the European Commission and explains every side of the
telecommunication market in Peru, including phone service, radio,
broadcasting, and internet service. The availability, price and quality
of these services is rated and compared.
- Platform for the Promotion of Early Warning. (2005). "Tsunami Warning Systems." Publisher: United Nations/International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.
This site details warning systems that exist in various parts of the world including Japan, Hawaii and the U.S.
Quad cities. (2005, October) National Weather Service Forecast Office. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/dvn/wxradio/nwrrcvr.htm
- Ramirez, F. Jorge, and P. Carlos Perez. "The Local Tsunami Alert System
('SLAT'): A Computational Tool for the Integral Management of a Tsunami
Emergency " Natural Hazards Volume 31, Number 1 (January 2004): pp 129 - 142.
This article describes the "Local Tsunami Alert System" (SLAT). SLAT uses
information about earthquakes to predict the magnitude, direction, speed and
point of contact of the tsunamis that may be produced. It then takes or
recommends actions based on the predictions. SLAT was designed for the pacific
coast of South America and is prepared in Spanish.
- Richards, P. (2005, January 24). Tsunami Impact:Caribbean Nations to Expand Warning Systems.Global Information
This article talks about what parts of a tsunami early
warning system in the are needed as
well as describing what is already in place. It mentions the importance of making sure the public knows how to
respond to warnings.
T. Earthquake Forecasting and Warning (1982) Tokyo, Japan: Center for
volume looks at the historic warning measures that were taken at the
time of actual earthquakes and analyzes the flaws in such warning
measures. Furthermore, it outlines a step by step procedure for
increasing the efficiency and accountability of a warning system.
- Sandlake Recreation Area. (2005, August 2) Siuslaw National Forest. http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/siuslaw/recreation/tripplanning/sandlake/index.shtm
- Sheble, N. (2005, February). Tsunami sensing refined. In Tech.
52, 2, pp. 55-56.
This article describes the failure of officials to warn
people of a possible tsunami after the December 26th, 2004
earthquake was detected. An emphasis is
put on new sensor technology that is being developed to allow warnings to be
given out more quickly.
- State new
release. (2004, December 29). Washington State Emergency
Management Division. http://access.wa.gov/news/2004/Dec/n20041129_7907.aspx.
This article describes the tsunami warning and evacuation
system for the US
west coast, concentrating on the role of AHAB (All-Hazard Alert Broadcasting
system). This system has flashing
lights, self-sufficient power, a high-volume siren, and lets authorities
broadcast public address announcements. It can give warning to relatively remote, outdoor locations where other
modes of warning (like television and radio) may not be available. This is particularly detailed information
about the warning device itself, unlike most other sources listed here.
- A Seismic Early
Warning System. Annenberg/CPB Resources
– Earth Revealed -25, Living With Earth, Part I. USGS
This brief article describes an early warning system that
has potential to give a little bit of warning to coastal areas even if they are
very close to the source of the tsunami. It may only give 10 – 20 extra seconds, but that is, at least
enough to stop transportation into the area and warn people to take cover. This kind of information will help define the
conditions under which a warning system should operate.
- Starn, O., Degregori, C.I., & Kirk, R. (Eds). (1995). The Peru Reader.Durham: Duke University Press.
The Peru Reader
is a series of short stories and first-person accounts of life in Peru.
Although much of the book deals with colonial Peru, there are a number
of pieces concerning modern Peruvian life.
- Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, American Society of Engineers. (2002). Atico, Peru MW 8.4 Earthquake of June 23, 2001. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress.
This is a report detailing the damage caused by the earthquake
mentioned in the title. It covers many aspects of the Peruvian
infrastructure, including communications systems. The Technical Council
also included their recommendations for improvements to these systems
to prevent damage in another such disaster.
- Tierney, K. J. Implementing a seismic computerized alert network (SCAN) for Southern California: Lessons and guidance from the literature on warning response and warning systems. (2000) University of Delaware Disaster Research Center. http://dspace.udel.edu:8080/dspace/bitstream/19716/1155/1/FPR45.pdf.
- Tsunami Education
a priority in Hawaii and West Coast States. (2001, June). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.
82, 6, pp 1207-1208.
This article is about how the issue of tsunami preparedness
is being dealt with in the US. It talks about the US’s two tsunami warning
centers and their partnership with state emergency managers, the US Geological
Survey, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It tells of how Scientists have created
inundation models and evacuation plans for the US’s
west coast, Alaska, and Hawaii and stresses the importance of
tsunami education due to the possibility of a deadly wave coming before
warnings can be sent out.
- Tsunami Inundation Preparedness in Coastal Communities " U.S. National Tsunami
Hazard Mitigation Program Review and International Tsunami Symposium. ITS 2001
Proceedings, NTHMP Review Session, Paper R-18. Seattle, Washington, 7-10 August
This article discusses NOAA radio being the primary emergency warning system in
the United States. It also emphasizes other warning systems including signs and
public service announcements.
Tsunami Warning System An International effort to save lives and
protect property Retrieved September 22, 2005 from University of
Washington Website: www.
website details the organization and the proceedings of the Tsunami
Warning System, an International Organization in charge of tsunami
monitoring in the pacific. The coordination and integration of the
efforts of the nations involved is emphasized, further suggesting an
a more expansive interconnected warning network throughout the
- Tsunami Warning Systems and Procedures: Guidance for Local Officials. (2001) Oregon Emergency Management and the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. pp 15 - 25. http://www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/pdf/or_sp35.pdf
- Work together for tsunami warning. (2005, February).Intermedia. 33, 1, p 5.
This brief article presents an argument for collaboration on
natural disaster warning systems. It
claims that collaboration ensures efficient use of funds and effectiveness. It also lists possible means of spreading
warning, including internet, television, and radio messages, sirens, and
highway signs. In short, it provides
useful information and interesting points to consider.
- Wu, Y. & Kanamori, H. (2005). Experiment on an Onsite Early Warning Method for the Taiwan Early Warning System. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 95(1) , 347-353.
This article details a new warning system in place in Taiwan that not
only alerts the populace in case of a tsunami, but also analyses
detected earthquakes to determine if they will produce tsunamis.
A., Pelinovsky E., Okal, E., Synolakis, E. (2003) Submarine
Landslides and Tsunamis
The editors have compiled wide ranging research done on the various
aspects of tsunamis including historical tsunamis, tsunami
generation, tsunami propagation, and mitigation. By analyzing the
numerical models of tsunami propagation, a scientific basis can be
laid to the efficient functioning of a warning system.