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Easy Practice: One of the two kinds of practice distinguished by Nagarjuna, the other being Difficult Practice; this refers to recitation of the names of Buddhas and bodhisattvas with sincere faith; this is easier and more efficacious than self-power practices.
effortless spontaneity The ultimate state of Enlightenment in which everything occurs in accord with truth and reality without effort; the nirvanic state to be attained in the Pure Land.
eight abstinences The eight precepts which a lay Buddhist should observe on fixed days of the month: (1) not killing living beings, (2) not stealing, (3) not having sexual intercourse, (4) not telling lies, (5) not drinking intoxicants, (6) not wearing bodily decoration, not using perfumes, not singing and dancing, and not going to see dances or plays, (7) not sleeping in a raised bed, and (8) not eating after noon.
eight hells Refers to the eight scorching hells; cf. Larger Sutra Mandala.
eight levels of consciousnesses According to the doctrine of Consciousness-Only school, we have the following eight consciousnesses: (1st-5th) five consciousnesses corresponding to the five sense perceptions, (6th) mental consciousness, the function of which is to discriminate objects, (7th) ego-consciousness, and (8th) Alaya-consciousness, which is the fundamental consciousness of one's existence. 56.
eight excellent qualities (the water of) The water of the ponds in the Land of Utmost Bliss possesses the following eight qualities: pure, cool, sweet, smooth, moistening, comforting, thirst-quenching, and nourishing.
eight kinds of superhuman beings The eight kinds of superhuman beings believed to be protectors of Buddhism: devas, dragons, yaksas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kimnaras, and mahoragas.
eight qualities of tones The eight superior qualities of the Buddha's voice: (1) a pleasant voice, (2) a soft voice, (3) a harmonious voice, (4) a dignified and wise voice, (5) a masculine voice, (6) an unerring voice, (7) a deep and far-reaching voice, and (8) an inexhaustible voice
eight samadhis of emancipation The eight ways of meditation for removing various attachments: (1) removing passions by meditating on impurity of one's body, (2) strengthening emancipation from passions by meditating on impurity of external objects, (3) removing passions by meditating on pure aspects of external objects, (4) removing attachment to material objects by meditating on boundless void, (5) removing attachment to void by meditating on boundless consciousness, (6) removing attachment to consciousness by meditating on non-existence, (7) removing attachment to non-existence by meditating on the state of neither thought nor non-thought, and (8) extinguishing all thoughts and perceptions and dwelling in the state of total extinction.
Eightfold Noble Path The eight items of practice leading to Nirvana: right view, right thoughts, right speech, right acts, right living, right effort, right mindfulness, and right meditation.
Eighteenth Vow The most important of all the forty-eight vows of Amida, in which he presents salvation through Nembutsu-Faith; cf. Forty-eight Vows.
eighty secondary marks The eighty subordinate physical characteristics attending the 32 major marks of the Buddha: (1) copper-colored nails, (2) soft and glossy nails, (3) highly curved nails, (4) round fingers, (5) tapering fingers, (6) strong fingers, (7) hidden veins, (8) veins without knots, (9) unexposed ankles, (10) both feet identical, (11) steps like a lion's, (12) steps like an elephant's, (13) steps like a swan's, (14) steps like a bull's, (15) turning the head clockwise to look back, (16) beautiful manner of walking, (17) upright walking, (18) well-framed limbs, (19) immaculate limbs, (20) well-balanced limbs, (21) clean limbs, (22) soft limbs, (23) strong limbs, (24) complete male organ, (25) broad, elegant and round limbs, (26) walking with an even step, (27) delicate limbs, (28) unimpaired limbs, (29) symmetrical and majestic body, (30) well-joined limbs, (31) well-proportioned limbs and members, (32) pure and unobscured eye-sight, (33) rounded abdomen, (34) spotless abdomen, (35) unfurrowed abdomen, (36) convex abdomen, (37) deep-seated navel, (38) right-turning navel, (39) readiness to help others equally, (40) noble conduct, (41) body without freckles, (42) hands as soft as cotton, (43) brilliant lines on the hand, (44) deep lines on the hand, (45) unbroken lines on the hand, (46) face not too long, (47) lips red like the Bimba (=Coccina indica) fruit, (48) soft tongue, (49) thin tongue, (50) red tongue, (51) voice like an elephant's roar and like thunder, (52) sweet and pleasant voice, (53) perfect teeth, (54) sharp teeth, (55) white teeth, (56) even teeth, (57) tapering teeth, (58) high nose, (59) nose not too long, (60) pure eyes, (61) broad eyes, (62) beautiful eyebrows, (63) eyes like the petal of a blue Kuvalaya (=Nymphaea Lotus), (64) blue-black eyebrows, (65) soft eyebrows, (66) regular eyebrows, (67) lustrous eyebrows, (68) large ears, (69) both ears identical, (70) healthy ears, (71) forehead well fitted to the face, (72) broad forehead, (73) well-developed head, (74) blue-black hair, (75) closely growing hair, (76) soft hair, (77) undishevelled hair, (78) smooth and even hair, (79) fragrant hair, and (80) palms and soles marked with Svastika and other auspicious signs.
Eiku A great Tendai monk who lived on Mt. Hiei and one of Honen's teachers; he died in 1179.
eko 'Merit-transference'; Amida transfers his merit to us through the Name; in Shinran's system of salvation, Amida's merit-transference works in two directions: (1) for our birth in the Pure Land and attain Enlightenment (oso) and (2) for our returning to the world of Samsara to save other beings (genso).
Eleventh Vow The Vow of Unfailing Attainment of Nirvana; this vow promises that those born in the Pure Land dwell in the Stage of Right Assurance and unfailingly reach Nirvana; in Shinran's interpretation, those who attain Faith of the Other-Power dwell in the Stage of Right Assurance in this life and definitely reach Nirvana in the Pure Land; cf. Forty-eight Vows.
embryonic state The aspirants to the Pure Land who cultivate merits by doing good acts but fail to awake to the Buddha's wisdom are, metaphorically, born within lotus-flowers, where they stay for 500 years without being able to see or hear the true Buddha, Dharma and Sangha; opposed to 'born by transformation'.
Encircling Adamantine Mountains The outermost mountain-range made of iron which encircles a world-system; cf. Mount Sumeru.
Enlightened One Refers to a Buddha.
Enlightenment Bodhi in Skt.; the final goal of Buddhism; the state of fully developed wisdom.
Enryakuji Temple The head temple of the Tendai sect on Mt. Hiei; its origin dates back to 785, when Saicho built a hut there to study and practice Buddhism.
eranda A foul-smelling tree.
Essential Meanings of the Contemplation Sutra The first fascicle of the four-fascicle commentary on the Contemplation Sutra by Shan-tao.
eternal bliss of Dharma-nature The highest spiritual state attending realization of the ultimate reality.
evil paths The three evil realms: hell and the realm of hungry spirits and that of animals; cf. three evil realms.
Exalted Being Mahasattva; used as a synonym of 'bodhisattva'.
'existence' and 'non-existence' The two extreme views regarding the ultimate nature of things, i.e. the view that there is some eternally abiding substance in things and the view that there is no such substance in them; Nagarjuna denied those dichotomous views and presented the truth of the Middle Path.
Extinct Dharma (age of) The period following the three Dharma-ages; in this period all the Buddhist teachings cease to exist to guide people to Enlightenment.
Extinction Refers to Nirvana, for it is the state free of evil passions.

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Fa-chao 'Hossho' in Japanese; -773; one of the prominent Chinese Pure Land masters. He first went up Mt. Lu, where he practiced the Nembutsu Samadhi, and later, in 766, he saw Amida in a vision and learned from him the method of chanting the Nembutsu in five movements; he has been regarded as an incarnation of Shan-tao.
Faith of the Universal Vow The Other-Power Faith promised in the Eighteenth Vow.
Faith of the Other-Power Faith awakened by the Other-Power; Amida's Mind transferred to us.
fearlessness Refers to the four forms of fearlessness in preaching the Dharma. Those attributed to a Buddha are: (1) fearlessness in asserting that he has attained the perfect Enlightenment, (2) fearlessness in asserting that he has destroyed all defilements, (3) fearlessness in pointing out evil passions of sentient beings, and (4) fearlessness in expounding the method of emancipation.
Fen-chou The name of the place in Shan-his Province where T'an-luan lived.
fidere A Latin word meaning 'to trust', from which the word 'faith' is derived.
fire-element One of the five constituent elements of one's existence.
fire-ice analogy An analogy used by T'an-luan to show that even if one has an attached view about the mode of life in the Pure Land, it will be spontaneously removed when one is born there, just as a fire made on ice is spontaneously extinguished by the water produced.
first fruit The first of the four stages of sainthood in Hinayana; Sk. srota-apatti-phala, 'the fruit of entering the stream (of the Dharma)'; one attains this stage by destroying various wrong views.
first, second and third insights into the nature of dharmas See three insights (L7).
five acts of merit for attaining Non-retrogression, 1. not perceiving one's own self, 2. not perceiving sentient beings, 3. not expounding the Dharma with discriminative views, 4. not perceiving Bodhi, and 5. not perceiving Buddhas with their physical characteristics.
five aggregates The five constituent elements of all existences; the five skandhas; they are: matter, perception, conception, volition, and consciousness.
five burnings The sufferings one receives in the next life as the retribution from the five evils.
five causal practices The Five Mindful Practices that are performed in this world are the cause of the five results in the Pure Land.
five defilements The five signs of corruption and defilement said to mark the cosmic period in which man's life-span is less than 20,000 years: (1) defilement of kalpa, because famines, plagues, and wars arise during this period, (2) defilement of views, because wrong views arise, (3) defilement by evil passions, because they become intense, (4) defilement of sentient beings, because they reject the morality and the law of causation, or because they are physically and mentally weak and so suffer greatly, and (5) defilement of life, because man's life-span is short. The five defilements become serious when man's life-span decreases to less than a hundred years.
five different paths of Samsara The five states of existence in Samsara, i.e. hell and the realms of hungry spirits, animals, men and heavenly beings.
five elements The five constituent elements of one's existence: earth, water, fire, wind and space.
five evil realms The five states of existence in samsara: hell and the realms of hungry spirits, animals, humans and devas.
five five-hundred-year periods According to the Great Collection Sutra, the history of Buddhism after the Buddha's death is divided into five 500-year periods, each characterized by a particular feature: (1) in the first period Buddhist practicers attain emancipation, (2) in the second, they steadfastly practice meditation, (3) in the third, they eagerly listen to the Buddhist teaching, (4) in the fourth, they are bent on building temples, and (5) in the fifth, they are engaged in doctrinal disputes.
five good deeds There are two interpretations: (1) observance of the five precepts for lay Buddhists, i.e. not killing, not stealing, not committing adultery, not telling lies, and not using intoxicants, and (2) the five constant virtues of Confucianism, i.e. humanity, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, and sincerity.
five gravest offenses The five gravest evil acts; they are: killing one's father, killing one's mother, killing an arhat, causing the Buddha's body to bleed, and causing disunity in the Buddhist order; one who has committed any of those is destined to hell to suffer immeasurable pain for many aeons.
five kinds of suffering (1) The pain accompanying one's birth, (2) the pain of getting old, (3) the pain of illness, (4) the pain of death, and (5) the pain of separation from those one loves (M8).
Five Mindful Practices The Yogacara-Pure Land system of practice established by Vasubandhu for the attainment of birth in the Pure Land and final Enlightenment; they are: (1) worshiping Amida, (2) praising his merit and virtue, (3) aspiring for birth in the Pure Land, (4) contemplation of Amida, his Pure Land and bodhisattvas there, and (5) merit-transference.
five powers The five powers obtained by the practice of the five roots of goodness: (1) firm faith in the Buddha and Dharma, (2) great effort, (3) mindfulness, (4) deep concentration, and (5) deep wisdom.
five precepts The five precepts for laymen and laywomen; 1. not killing, 2. not stealing, 3. not committing adultery, 4. not telling lies, and 5. not drinking intoxicants.
five resultant states The five results of the Five Mindful Practices: 1. gate of approach, 2. gate of great assemblage, 3. gate of residence, 4. gate of chamber, and 5. gate of playing ground.
Five Right Acts The Pure Land system of practice established by Shan-tao for attaining birth in the Pure Land; they are: (1) chanting sutras, (2) meditating on Amida and his Pure Land, (3) worshiping Amida, (4) reciting the Nembutsu, and (5) praising Amida's virtue. The fourth is called Act of Right Assurance, and the remaining four are called Auxiliary Acts.
five roots of goodness (1) Faith in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, (2) efforts to practice good, (3) mindfulness of the Buddha-Dharma, (4) concentration, and (5) insight into the true nature of existence.
five rules for reaching Bodhi without retrogression 1. the mind of equanimity towards sentient beings, 2. not envying others' possessions, 3. not criticizing preachers for errors, 4. joyful faith in the Dharma, and 5. not seeking others' respect.
five sense-organs Eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and the whole body treated as a tactile organ.
five sufferings The sufferings one receives in this life as the retribution for the five evils.
five supernatural powers The five transcendent powers of a Buddha, bodhisattva or arhat: (1) the ability to go anywhere at will and to transform oneself or objects at will, (2) the ability to see anything at any distance, (3) the ability to hear any sound at any distance, (4) the ability to know others' thoughts, and (5) the ability to know the former lives of oneself and others.
fivefold three thoughts toward beggars 1. think that these beggars are good teachers, wish that they will be wealthy when reborn, and think that they assist in your attainment of Bodhi; 2. think of removing your stinginess, think of abandoning everything, and think of seeking all wisdoms; 3. think of following the Tathagata's teaching, not seeking reward, and think of subduing maras; 4. think that they are your relatives, resolve not to discard the four rules of embracing beings, and seek to avoid wrongdoing and abide by righteousness; and 5. think of removing desires, of cultivating compassion, and developing wisdom. The last three thoughts are the most important in this discourse.
flood at the end of the period of cosmic change One of the three calamities which occurs at the end of the world; first, seven suns appear in the sky and burn out the world, then the whole world is flooded with water, and finally, everything in the world is blown away by strong winds.
Flower of Enlightenment Refers to Amida's Enlightenment.
flowers in the sky Illusory images seen by those with eye-diseases; metaphorically, all that are perceived and conceived by unenlightened people are delusory phantoms like flowers in the sky.
formlessness Absence of characteristic features of existences.
four bases of virtue Four bases of virtue: 1. seeking truth, 2. giving gifts. 3.destroying karmic evils, and 4. cultivating wisdom.
four 'black' acts 1. making offerings to one's teacher in a wrong way, 2. wrongly forcing others to repent of their evils, 3. being angry with those who follow Mahayana, and 4. entertaining flattery and crookedness when practicing at the place of one's teacher.
four continents According to Buddhist cosmology, there are four continents in the outermost ocean surrounding Mt. Sumeru.
Four Discourses The four discourses originally written by Indian masters and used as the canonical texts of the Four-discourse school; they are: (1) Discourse on the Middle by Nagarjuna, (2) Twelve-Gate Discourse by Nagarjuna, (3) One Hundred-Verse Discourse by Aryadeva, and Great Wisdom Discourse (Commentary on the Prajnaparamita Sutra) by Nagarjuna.
four faults in the acts of Dana 1. not directing the acts of Dana to Bodhi, 2. lacking the proper method, 3. seeking rebirth in a lower state of existence, and 4. approaching a bad teacher.
four fruits The four stages of sagehood in Hinayana: 1. 'the fruit of entering the stream' of the sacred law to be attained by destroying various wrong views (srota-apatti-phala), 2. 'the fruit of returning once more' to be attained by destroying gross evil passions (sakrid-agami-phala), 3. 'the fruit of not returning' to be attained by destroying more of one's evil passions (anagami-phala), and 4. 'the fruit of arhatship' to be attained by destroying all evil passions (arhat-phala).
four great oceans The oceans surrounding Mount Sumeru.
four groups of followers of the Buddha The four groups of those forming the Buddhist order: (1) monks, (2) nuns, (3) laymen, and (4) laywomen.
four kinds of acts of Dana 1. both the donor and the recipient are pure, 2. the donor is pure but the recipient is impure, 3. the donor is impure but the recipient is pure, and 4. both are impure.
four kinds of jewels Gold, silver, beryl, and crystal.
Forty-eight Vows The vows made by Amida when he was a bodhisattva; cf. Forty-eight Vows.
four kinds of offering The prescribed items of offering to the Buddha: (1) food and drink, (2) clothes, (3) bed, and (4) medicinal drink.
four major prohibitions The four gravest offenses for monks: having sexual intercourse, stealing, killing a man, and telling a lie about his spiritual attainment.
four modes of practice The rules for practice laid down by Shan-tao: 1. revering Amida and the bodhisattvas and prostrating oneself before them, 2. exclusively performing the five right practices, 3. performing the five right practices without interruption, and 4. continuing the five right practices throughout one's life.
four texts which directly expound the Pure Land teaching The four most important texts of Pure Land Buddhism selected by Honen: the Larger Sutra, Contemplation Sutra, Amida Sutra and Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land.
Four-discourse school A Chinese Buddhist school based on the four Madhyamika texts; see Four Discourses.
four-fascicle commentary Shan-tao's commentary on the Contemplation Sutra in four fascicles.
Fourfold Noble Truth One of the basic teachings of the Buddha: (1) the truth of suffering, (2) the truth regarding the cause of suffering, i.e. evil passions, (3) the truth regarding the extinction of suffering, i.e. the state free of suffering called Nirvana, and (4) the truth regarding the path to Nirvana, i.e. the Eightfold Noble Path.
fourteen questions The fourteen questions which a non-Buddhist master put to the Buddha; the Buddha remained silent and did not answer them: 1. Are the world and the self eternal? 2. Are they not so? 3. Are they both eternal and not eternal? 4. Are they neither eternal nor not eternal? 5. Is the world finite? 6. Is it not finite? 7. Is it both finite and not finite? 8. Is it neither finite nor not finite? 9. Is the soul perishing at death? 10. Is it not perishing? 11. Is it both perishing and not perishing? 12. Is it neither perishing nor not perishing? 13. Is the body identical with the soul after death? 14. Is it different from the soul? Those 14 questions, known as 14 'inexpressibles' occur in many dialogues with variant forms. The more or less standard form consists of the following four sets of questions:
1. Whether the world is eternal, or not, or both, or neither;
2. Whether the world is finite (in space), or infinite, or both, or neither;
3. Whether the Tathagata exists after death, or does not, or both, or neither;
4. Is the soul (jiva) identical with the body or different from it?
fourth five-hundred-year period See five five-hundred-year periods.
Fujiwara Kanezane (1147-1207); a government minister in the 12th century; appointed regent in 1184 and afterward prime minister in 1189; a disciple of Honen, and at his request Honen wrote the Collection of Passages Concerning the Nembutsu of the Best-Selected Primal Vow.

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Gandhara An ancient country in north-west India; under the patronage of King Kaniska in the 2nd century, eminent Buddhist masters, such as Asanga and Vasubandhu, came to live in its capital Purusapura (present Peshawar) and Mahayana Buddhism thrived; also Buddhist art characterized by Greek influence flourished there.
Garland Sutra One of the most important Mahayana sutras, well-known as the foundation text of the Hua-yen (Kegon) sect; said to have been delivered during the first three weeks after the Buddha's Enlightenment. The original text was exceptionally voluminous, and so, according to tradition, Nagarjuna went to the Dragon's Palace and brought back the shortest version of the sutra.
garuda A mythological bird said to eat dragons; one of the eight gods and demi-gods who protect Buddhism.
Gate of Essential Teaching Refers to the teaching of the Nineteenth Vow and corresponds to the teaching of the Contemplation Sutra.
Gaya-kashyapa 'Kashyapa of Gaya'; younger brother of Uruvilva-kashyapa; converted to Buddhism with his 200 disciples.
Genko A Tendai monk on Mt. Hiei and Honen's teacher.
Genku Honen's Buddhist name; see Honenbo Genku.
Genshin (942-1017); a Tendai monk and a great exponent of the Pure Land teaching; well-known as the author of the Collection of Essential Passages Concerning Birth in the Pure Land; looked upon as the sixth master of the Shin tradition.
genso 'Returning' aspect; returning to the world of Samsara to save other beings; cf. oso.
'Going forth' aspect One of the two aspects of Amida's merit-transference for universal salvation; this is the aspect of carrying us to the Pure Land; cf. 'Returning' aspect.
gokuraku The Land of Utmost Bliss; Sk. Sukhavati.
Golden River Refers to River Naira\jana which flows near Buddhagaya where the Buddha attained Enlightenment.
good friend One who guides others to the Buddhist Path; a master who often approaches others as their friend; Sk. 'kalyana-mitra'.
good realms Refers to heavenly realms.
Grand Sutra on the Inconceivable Emancipation The title of the old text of the sutra which later came to be known as the Garland Sutra.
Great Assemblage The assemblage of bodhisattvas in the Pure Land.
Great Being Same as bodhisattva.
Great Cliff Temple The temple in Shan-si Province where T'an-luan lived.
Great Collection Sutra A sutra which explains the Mahayana principles, such as the theory of voidness; this sutra is also strongly characterized by esotericism.
great compassion The Buddha or bodhisattva's mind that embraces all sentient beings without discrimination and deliver them from sufferings. Great Compassion is the essential quality of a bodhisattva and is the cause of Buddhahood.
Great Consoler Refers to Amida.
Great Nirvana Mahayana Nirvana which is distinguished from the nihilistic Nirvana of Hinayana.
Great Sage: The title of respect for Shakyamuni Buddha.
Great Treasure-Ocean of Merits Amida's vast merits accumulated by performing numerous acts of merits for innumerable kalpas; these merits are manifested as Amida's glorious body and his Pure Land; they are shared by those who trust him with sincere Faith.
great treasury of merit Bodhisattvas cultivate merit by doing various good acts, and so they are called 'great treasuries of merit'; their merit is not merely for their own sake, but is equally shared by other beings so that they achieve higher spiritual states.
guardian gods of the world Refers to the Four Guardian Gods of the four directions: (1) Dhritarashtra in the east, (2) Virudhaka in the south, (3) Virupaksha in the west, and (4) Vaishravana in the north.

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Heart Sutra The popular title of the Prajnaparamita-hridaya Sutra; one of the most popular Mahayana sutras which explains voidness of all things.
Heaven: (1) In India, various abodes of heavenly beings (deva) are conceived. (2) In Confucian religion, Heaven is generally the ultimate principle, but is sometimes personified and conceived as if it had will and judgement.
Heaven of Free Enjoyment of Others' Manifestations The Sixth and the highest Heaven in the world of desire; demons are said to inhabit there; cf. Sixth Heaven.
Heaven of Pure Abode The Fourth Dhyana Heaven in the world of form; this heaven is further divided into five planes. In the Pure Land such a heaven does not exist, but the Larger Sutra metaphorically speaks of its existence as a guide to the reader's understanding.
Heaven of the Four Kings The heaven of the guardian kings of the four directions surrounding Mount Sumeru; see guardian gods of the world.
Heaven of Thirty-three Gods Second (counting from below) of the six heavens in the world of desire; located on top of Mount Sumeru; each of the four peaks in the four directions is inhabited by eight gods, and the lord of the heaven, Indra, lives in the palace at the center.
Highest Heaven of the world of form Popularly known as Akanistha.
Heian period The period extending from the foundation of Kyoto as Japan's capital (794) to the establishment of the shogunate Bakufu in Kamakura (1185).
hell of incessant pain The lowest part of hell where one suffers interminable pain; Avici Hell.
hell of Shrieking One of the eight great hells where sinners undergoing extreme torments shriek.
highest principle of Dharma The ultimate truth or reality; the absolute state of existence.
Hinayana 'The lesser or smaller vehicle'; originally, a derogatory term applied by Mahayanists to various schools of Buddhism which aim at the salvation of one's own self and attainment of the stage of an arhat.
Honen (1133-1212); the seventh master of the Shin tradition and Shinran's teacher.
Honenbo Genku Honen's full name.
Hosso school The Consciousness-Only school.
Hsiao-yen The name of the king of Liang who venerated T'an-luan.
Hsuan-chung Temple The temple in Fen-chou where T'an-luan spent his later days.
Huai-kan A Chinese Pure Land master in the 7th to 8th centuries; one of the disciples of Shan-tao and the author of the Discourse Clearing Many Doubts.
Hui-yuan of Ching-ying Temple (523-92); a native of Tun-huang; a great Buddhist scholar who was invited to live in Ching-ying Temple in Lo-yang; well-versed in Buddhism, he wrote commentaries on many Mahayana sutras and also composed an encyclopedic discourse on the Mahayana principles.
Hui-yuan (of Mt. Lu) (334-416); a celebrated Chinese monk who formed the White Lotus Society on Mt.Lu for the performance of meditation on Amida; he is often looked upon as the founder of Chinese Pure Land school.
Hymn in Praise of Amida Buddha T'an-luan's work that praises Amida's virtue, based on which Shinran composed Japanese hymns.
Hymn of Aspiration for Birth in the Pure Land The hymn composed by Vasubandhu, which is fully explained in his Discourse on the Pure Land; for its full title, see next.
Hymn of Aspiration for Birth in the Pure Land A discourse on the Sutra of the Buddha of Infinite Life, the full title of the work by Vasubandhu which is popularly known as Discourse on the Pure Land.
Hymn of True Faith The literal translation of 'Shoshinge'.
Hymn of True Faith in Nembutsu A translation of 'Shoshin nembutsu ge.'
Hymns on the Pratyutpanna Samadhi The hymns composed by Shan-tao which eulogize Amida's virtue and explain, among other things, torment in hell, pleasure in the Pure Land, and the method of attaining birth there.
Hymns on the Pure Land, The first of the three collections of Japanese hymns by Shinran.
Hymns on the Seven Patriarchs The second of the three collections of Japanese hymns by Shinran.

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Ichinen tanen mon'i A work composed by Shinran when he was 85; the title means 'One Thought and Many Callings'; written in answer to his disciples' question whether one thought of Nembutsu-Faith is the sufficient cause of birth in the Pure Land or many callings of Nembutsu are required.
ignorance Spiritual darkness or obscurity; the first of the twelve causations.
Immovable Stage The Eighth Stage of Bodhisattvahood.
imperfect faith According to T'an-luan, imperfect faith, which is the opposite of perfect faith, has three aspects: insincere faith, mind which is not single, and faith which does not continue.
inconceivable (1) Beyond concepts; (2) a large number.
Inconceivable Light One of the twelve lights of Amida.
Ineffable Light One of the twelve lights of Amida.
Infinite Life One of the two major qualities of Amida, from which his name Amitayus is derived.
Infinite Life and Light The two major qualities of Amida.
insight into the non-arising of all dharmas See next.
insight into the non-arising of all existences The higher spiritual awakening in which one recognizes that nothing really arises or perishes; Sk. anutpattika-dharma-ksanti.
irreversible wheel of the Dharma, the Buddha Dharma keeps moving endlessly like a wheel without reversing.

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Jambu River The river running through the mango forest in the northern part of Jambudvipa; this river is known for producing purple-gold; see purple-gold (M12,15-8).
Jambudvipa The continent situated to the south of Mount Sumeru; a triangular island inhabited by human beings; it is believed that hell is located many yojanas underground.
Jambu-gold The red-yellow gold which gives forth purple vapor; it is said to be obtained from the Jambu River.
Japanese Tendai Buddhism Founded on Mt. Hiei by Saicho (766 or 767-822), who went to China and received the T'ien-t'ai teaching from Tao-sui and Hsing-man; after returning home in 805, he extensively propagated the teaching and wrote some 160 works.
jara-marana 'Decay and death'; the last of the twelve causations.
jati, 'birth'; the eleventh of the twelve causations.
Jeta Grove The garden of Prince Jeta presented to the Buddha by Sudatta, who built a monastery there.
Jinjippo Mugeko Nyorai, 'The Tathagata of Unhindered Light Shining throughout the Ten Directions'; the name of adoration for Amida first used by Vasubandhu in his Hymn of Aspiration for Birth in the Pure Land; Shinran especially liked to use this, and this name with the word 'Kimyo' (I take refuge in) affixed to it came to be used widely as the Name.
Jivaka A famous physician and the son of King Bimbisara's younger brother; said to have cured the Buddha's illness.
jivamjivaka 'Life-living'; a mythical bird with two heads that sing sweetly; also identified with a kind of pheasant found in the mountains of north India.
Jodo school The Pure Land school founded by Honen.
jojonin 'A superior person'; one of the five words of high praise given by Shan-tao to a Nembutsu follower.
Joyful Faith Second of the three aspects of Faith in the Eighteenth Vow; it represents all the three aspects and so refers to the Other-Power Faith; Sk. prasanna-citta, prasada.

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kalavinka An Indian cuckoo; a bird with sweet voice said to be found in the Himalayas; also a mythical bird with woman's head, found in the Pure Land; cf. Amida Sutra Mandala.
Kalayashas A monk from Central Asia; went to China in early 5th century and translated two sutras, including the Contemplation Sutra; died in 442 at the age of 60.
Kao Tsung (Emperor) (628-83); the third emperor in T'ang dynasty.
kalpa An immeasurably long time; aeons; also a period of cosmic change.
Kapphina Also Kapphilla, Kaphina, Kaphila, Kamphilla; n. of a disciple of the Buddha.
karma An act; in Buddhism, three kinds of act are distinguished: bodily, verbal, and mental; also, according to its moral nature, an act can be good, evil or neutral.
karma-bound Bound by one's own evil karma.
karmic Pertaining to karma; related to bodily and mental acts; often used in the sense of evil acts which will bring about painful retributions.
karmic bondage The state of being bound by one's own acts.
karmic defilement Defilements by evil acts.
karmic energy Psycho-physical energy created by one's karma.
karmic evil Evil acts, often in the sense of those done in the past and bound to bring about their effect in the present and future lives.
karmic force Psycho-physical energy created by one's acts and bound to bring about their effect.
karmic hindrances Hindrances to spiritual progress brought about by evil karma.
karmic power Same as karmic force.
Karmic Power Amida's Power originating in his vows and practice; it has produced and sustains his body of glory and the Pure Land everlastingly; also, this is the source of eternal activity of saving sentient beings.
karmic retribution Retribution for evil acts done in the past.
karmic transgressions Wrong-doing which are bound to bring about their retribution.
Kegon sect Hua-yen sect; founded in China based on the Garland Sutra; in Japan, this sect thrived in the Nara period.
keunin 'A rare person'; one of the fives words of high praise given by Shan-tao to a Nembutsu follower.
kimshuka The tree Butea frondosa which bears beautiful red blossoms.
Kimyo Jinjippo Mugeko Nyorai 'I take refuge in the Tathagata of Unhindered Light Shining throughout the Ten Directions'; the term originally comes from Vasubandhu's Hymn of Aspiration for Birth in the Pure Land and is used by Shinran as the 10-character Name of Amida which indicates unity of Amida and the devotee.
king of fire A big blazing fire.
King of Liang Refers to Wu-t'i of Liang dynasty, who reigned from 502 to 549.
king of mountains Refers to Mount Sumeru.
King of Sages An epithet of the Buddha.
King of Wei Refers to the Emperor of Eastern Wei dynasty, who is identified as Hsiao-ching T'i (reigned 534-50).
king of samadhis A description of the Nembutsu Samadhi.
King of the Dharma Refers to the Buddha because he has realized the Dharma, become one with it and is capable of employing it freely.
King of the Vows A term used to describe the Eighteenth Vow.
Koen A Tendai monk and one of the teachers of Honen on Mt. Hiei; died in 1169.
Kokalika Devadatta's disciple; he made a false remark that Shariputra and Mahamaudgalyayana had a sexual intercourse with a woman. The Buddha reprimanded him three times but he did not obey the Buddha. As a result, he fell into Great Lotus hell while alive.
konin 'An excellent person'; one of the five words of high praise given by Shan-tao to a Nembutsu follower.
koti A numerical unit in India, said to be equal to 10 million.
Ksatriya king A king of the warrior caste, the second highest of the four castes in India.
Kuccha An ancient country in Central Asia.
Kumarajiva 'Youth-life'; a great translator of Buddhist texts (344-413); his Indian father, Kumarayana, was formerly a government minister; having renounced the world, he went to Kuccha and married Jiva, a sister of the king. Kumarajiva entered the priesthood at seven and studied Buddhism in northwest India and elsewhere. After returning home, he spread Mahayana Buddhism. At the invitation of a Chinese king, in 401 he went to Ch'ang-an, where he was appointed as the teacher of the state. For the rest of his life, he translated Buddhist texts, amounting to 35 sutras and discourses in more than 300 fascicles, including the Lotus Sutra and Prajnaparamita Sutra. It is said that he had 3,000 disciples.
Kuo-ch'ing Temple A famous temple on Mt. T'ien-t'ai.
Kurodani (precinct) A part of Mt. Hiei where Honen dwelt for some time and studied under Eiku.
Kyogyoshinsho 'Teaching, Practice, Faith and Enlightenment'; Shinran's magnum opus written in Chinese, in which he explains the Shin Buddhist system of salvation in full detail; doctrinally, the most important text of Shin Buddhism.

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