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A I. The first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet; often construed as 'âdy-anutpâda' (original non-arising). II. A negative suffix, meaning 'no' or 'non.'

aba 阿婆 I. 'Mother'; used to call the husband's mother. II. A contraction of abamara.

abadana 阿波陀那 Sk. avadâna; exposition of the Dharma through allegories; one of the twelve different styles of the Buddhist teaching. See jûnibukyô.

abamara 阿跋摩羅 Sk. apasmâra, apasmâraka; also apara 阿波羅; a class of demon.

Abaya 阿婆耶 Sk. Abhaya; Mui 無畏 (Fearless); a son of King Bimbisâra (Binbashara) of Magadha and the younger brother of Ajâtaçatru (Ajase); he was called Mui Taishi 無畏太子 (Prince Fearlessness). He first followed Jainism (Jainakyô) and took refuge in the founder Nigantha Nâtaputta. Once he challenged the Buddha with difficult questions but was defeated. He then came to hold the Buddha in respect and finally took refuge in him. When Ajâtaçatru usurped the throne and killed the king, he became a Buddhist monk. After diligent practice, he attained arhatship. See Ajase, Binbashara, rokushi gedô.

Abi 阿鼻 Sk. Avîci; also Muken 無間 'incessant'; the lowest part of hell where those who have committed the gravest offenses suffer interminable pain. See muken.

abibatchi 阿毘跋致 Sk. avinivartanîya, avaivartika; futaiten 不退転; the stage of a bodhisattva at which one realizes undefiled wisdom and is assured of attaining enlightenment without falling back to lower stages.

abibatchiji 阿毘跋致地 The stage of non-retrogression.

Abi daijigoku 阿鼻大地獄 The great hell of Avîci.

Abigô 阿鼻業 The act that causes one to fall into Avîci hell.

Abigoku 阿鼻獄 Avîci hell; Sk. avîcika, ânantarya.

abidatsuma 阿毘達磨 Also 阿鼻達磨; Sk. abhidharma; transliterated as abidon 阿毘曇 and bidon 毘曇, and translated as daihô 大法 (great Dharma), muhihô 無比法 (supreme Dharma), and taihô 対法 (wisdom of observing the Dharma). This term is used for discourses on the Buddhist teachings, one of the three collections that make up the Buddhist canon, the other two collections are the sutras and the precepts. See sanzô, taihô.

Abidatsuma daibibasharon 阿毘達磨大毘婆沙論 The Great Abhidharma Discourse; Sk. Abhidharma- mahâvibhâsâ-çâstra; the most comprehensive discourse of Hinayana Buddhism in 200 fasc., compiled in Kashmir from 100 to 150 C.E. at the fourth Buddhist coonvention (see ketsuju). According to tradition, Venerable Pârçva (Kyô Sonja 脇尊者)and 500 arhats spent twelve years compiling this text; tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô) from 656 to 659. [T.27, No.1545]

Abidatsuma honruisokuron 阿毘達磨品類足論 The Abhidharma 'Leg' Discourse on Dharma Expositions; St. Abhidharma-prakarana-pâda; one of the 'six legs discourses' (rokusokuron 六足論) of Abhidharma. The first four chapters are said to have been composed by Vasumitra (Shou) and the rest by an arhat from Gandhâra; tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô), 18 fasc. [T.26, No.1542].

Abidatsuma hotchiron 阿毘達磨発智論 The Abhidharma Discourse on Awakening of Wisdom; Sk. Abhidharma- jñâna-prasthana; also, Kasennen-abidon 迦旃延阿毘曇 and Hakkendoron牛+建)度論; written by Kâtyâyanîputra (Kataenshishi) in about the 2nd century B.C.E.; tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô) during 567-660; 20 fasc. [T.26, No.1544]. This work consists of forty-four sections in eight chapters. It is considered to be the 'body' of the Abhidharma metaphysics as compared with the six other discourses, which are called 'six legs discourses' (rokusokuron 六足論). This work has been reputed to be the foundation text of the Sarvâastivâda (Setsuissaiubu) teaching.

Abidatsuma hôunsokuron 阿毘達磨法蘊足論 The Abhidharma 'Leg' Discourse on Dharma-Collection; Sk. Abhidharma-dharma-skandha-pâda; one of the 'six legs discourses' (rokusokuron 六足論) of Abhidharma; said to have been written by either Mahâmaudgalyâyana (Daimokkenren) or Çâriputra (Sharihotsu); tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô), 12 fasc. [T.26, No.1537].

Abidatsuma junshôriron 阿毘達磨順正理論 The Abhidharma Discourse Clarifying the Right Principle; Sk. Abhidharma-nyâyânusâra; an Abhidharma discourse refuting Vasubandhu's Abhidharma-koça (Kusharon) from the standpoint of the Sarvâstivâda (Setsuissaiubu); composed by Samghabhadra (Shugen衆賢) of the 4th century; tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô), 80 fasc.; popularly called Kushabakuron 倶舎雹論 (Discourse Refuting the Abhidharma-koça). [T.29, No.1562].

Abidatsuma kaishinsokuron 阿毘達磨界身足論 The Abhidharma 'Leg' Discourse on the Realms and Bodies; Sk. Abhidharma-dhâtu-kâya-pâda; one of the 'six legs discourses' of Abhidharma; attributed to Vasumitra (Shou世友); tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô), 3 fasc. [T.26, No.1540].

Abidatsuma kusharon 阿毘達磨倶舎論 The Discourse on the Repository of Abhidharma Discussions; Sk. Abhidharma-koça-bhâsya, written by Vasubandhu (Seshin); 30 fasc., tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô) in 651 [T.39, No.1558]; a comprehensive treatise discussing the doctrines of Hinayana. For another Chinese translation, see Abidatsuma-kusha-shakuron. This work has eight chapters, each composed of verses and their exposition on: 1) physical elements (dhâtu, 界 kai), 2) mental elements (indriya, 根 kon), 3) world (loka, 世間 seken), 4) actions (karma, 業), 5) evil passions (anuçaya, 随眠 zuimen), 6) the path to emancipation and its effects (mârga-pudgala, 賢聖 genjô), 7) knowledge (jñâna, 智 chi), and 8) meditation (samâpatti, 定 ). In the first two chapters, material and mental elements that constitute all that exists and also 'unconditioned' elements, the five skandhas, the twelve sense-fields, etc., and the six causes, etc., are explained. The chapter on "worlds" explains the origin, evolution, and changes of the sentient realms, including the twelve causations (juni-innen), and the insentient worlds with all the cosmic changes. The chapter on "actions" contains a detailed explanation of "karma." Next, evil passions (klesa, bonno) are analyzed and classified into various groups in the chapter on "evil passions," and the chapter which follows presents the ways of removing them and the spiritual stages of progress towards attaining Nirvana. In the chapter on "wisdom," various aspects of wisdom are explained and the chapter on "meditation" presents all kinds of Buddhist meditations which produce the sacred wisdom. There is an additional chapter called "refutation of the views attached to one's self" (破執我 hashûga); this ninth chapter has no verses. There are, in all, 607 verses; both the original Sanskrit texts of these verses and Vasubandhu's own exposition are still extant.

Abidatsuma kusharon honju 阿毘達磨倶舎論本頌 The Basic Verses to the Discourse on the Repository of Abhidharma Discussions; 1 fasc., by Vasubandhu (Seshin); tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô) in 651. [T.29, No.1560].

Abidatsuma kusha-shakuron 阿毘達磨倶舎釈論 A Commentary on the Discourse on the Repository of Abhidharma Discussions; 22 fasc.; a work by Vasubandhu (Seshin); tr. by Paramârtha (Shindai) in 564 [T.29, No.1559]. This is the older translation of the Abhidharma-koça. For the new translation of the same text, see Abidatsuma-kusharon.

Abidatsuma rokusokuron 阿毘達磨六足論 The Six 'Leg' Abhidharma Discourses; Sk. Sat-pâda-çâstra; the general appellation for the 'six legs discourses' of Abhidharma, which are as follows: Abidatsuma-shûimonsokuron, Abidatsuma-hôunsokuron, Abidatsuma-sesetsusokuron, Abidatsuma-shikishinsokuron, Abidatsuma-honruisokuron, and Abidatsuma-kaishinsokuron. Cf. Rokusokuron.

(Abidatsuma) sesetsusokuron (阿毘達磨)施設足論 The Abhidharma 'Leg' Discourse on Provisional Establishment; Sk. (Abhidharma-)prajñapti-pâda; one of the 'six legs discourses' of Abhidharma; composed by Mahâkâtyâyana (Makakasennen); tr. by Dharmaraksa (Hôgo) of the Sung dynasty; 7 fasc. [T.26, No.1538].

Abidatsuma shikishinsokuron 阿毘達磨識身足論 The Abhidharma 'Leg' Discourse on Consciousness and Bodies; Sk. Abhidharma-vijñâna-kâya-pâda; one of the 'six leg-discourses' of Abhidharma; composed by Devaçarman (Daibasetsuma 提婆設摩); tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô), 16 fasc. [T.26, No.1539].

Abidatsuma shûimonsokuron 阿毘達磨集異門足論 The Abhidharma 'Leg' Discourse on the Collection of Teachings; Sk. Abhidharma-samghîti-paryâya-pâda; one of the 'six leg-discourses' of Abhidharma; composed by Çâriputra or Mahâkausthila (Makakuchira); tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô), 20 fasc. [T.26, No.1536]

abidatsumazô 阿毘達磨蔵 The collection of Abhidharma literature; Sk. abhidharma-pitaka; the discourses explaining the Buddha's teaching. One of the three or five divisions of Buddhist scriptures. See gozô, sanzô.

Abidatsumazô kenjûron 阿毘達磨蔵顕宗論 The Abhidharma Discourse Revealing the Essential Teaching; Sk. Abhidharma-koça-samaya-pradîpikâ; this work is meant to reveal the teaching of the Sarvâstivâda school (Setsuissaiubu) as contrasted with that of Vasubandhu's Abhidharma-koça; composed by Samghabhadra (Shugen 衆賢) of the 4th century; tr. by Hsüan-tsang (Genjô), 40 fasc. [T.29, No.1563].

abidon 阿毘曇 Sk. abhidharma; the older translation of abidatsuma.

Abidonshinron 阿毘曇心論 The Abhidharma Heart Discourse; Sk. Abhidharma-hrdaya-çâstra; 4 fasc.; composed by Dharmaçrî (Fa-sheng or Hôshô 法勝) before the middle of the 4th century; the author is said to have come from Tukhâra. This text is a compendium of the doctrine of the Abidatsuma-daibibasharon; tr. by Samghadeva (Sôgyadaiba 僧伽提婆) in 384 [T.28, No.1559].

Abi jigoku 阿鼻地獄 Avîci hell. [Juju.; SW.]

abikyôkan 阿鼻叫喚 Cries of agony; originally, two hells: Abi jigoku (Avîci) and Kyôkan jigoku (Raurava).

Abiradai 阿比羅提 Sk. Abhirati; the name of the land of Aksobhya Buddha (Ashuku Butsu) in the east. See Ashuku.

abiraunken 阿毘羅吽欠 Sk. A-VAM-RAM-HAM-KHAM; the highest of the three mantras of Mahâvairocana (Dainichi) in the Matrix-store Realm Mandala (Taizôkai mandara).this mantra is known as gojimyô 五字明, gojiju 五字呪, and gojishingon 五字真言. It is believed that if one recites "Om a-vi-ra-hûm-kham svâha," one's wishes will be fulfilled.

abisanbudda 阿毘三仏陀 Sk. abhisambuddha; 'completely enlightened'; describes the highest state of enlightenment.

abô rasetsu 阿防羅刹 See next entry. [S.III-2]

abô rasetsu 阿傍羅刹 Abô raksasa; also 阿坊 and 阿旁羅刹; abô is a type of guardian of hell, distinguished by having the head and legs of an ox and human hands. The fact that he is as fearsome as a râksasa (rasetsu) gives rise to the term 'abô rasetsu.'

Abuda 楹浮陀 Sk. Arbuda; one of the eight freezing hells. See hachikan-jigoku.

abudadatsuma 阿浮陀達磨 Sk. adbhuta-dharma; see next entry.

abudatsuma 阿浮達磨 Sk. adbhuta-dharma, 'a miraculous thing'; translated as mizou-hô 未曽有法; one of the nine and twelve kinds of scriptures (kubukyô and jûnibukyô); an account of miracles performed by the Buddha or a deity.

adaguchi nembutsu 徒口念仏 Empty recitation of the nembutsu without faith; see kara nembutsu.

adaibudda 阿提仏陀 Sk.âdi-buddha; the primordial Buddha.

adanashiki 阿陀那識 Sk.âdâna-vijñâna; 'consciousness of holding.' I. In the Hossô school, this is another name for the âlaya-consciousness because it retains all the karmic seeds and continues to manifest bodily and environmental phenomena even after one has become a Buddha, in order to benefit sentient beings endlessly. II. In the Ti-lun (Jiron) and Shê-lun (Shôron) schools, this is another name for the seventh, or Manas, consciousness, which clings to the eighth as the true self.

adanashiki no hachigi 阿陀那識の八義 The eight meanings of the âdâna-consciousness. According to the Principles of Mahayana (Daijô-gishô) by Hui-yüan (Eon) of the Ching-ying temple, Âdâna has the following eight meanings: 1) mumyôshiki 無明識 (ignorance-consciousness, avidyâ-vijñâna) because the basic substance of this consciousness is ignorance (avidyâ); 2) gôshiki 業識 (action-consciousness, karma-vijñâna) because delusory thoughts arise out of ignorance; 3) tenjiki 転識 (revolving consciousness, pravrtthi-vijñâna) because external objects appear based on the karma-vijñâna; 4) genshiki 現識 (manifesting consciousness, khyâti-vijñâna) because one's inner delusion is manifested as an external world; 5) chishiki 智識 (discerning consciousness) because one falsely discriminates various things in the manifested world; 6) sôzokushiki 相続識 (continuing consciousness) because mind continues to create false discriminations and retains its karmic effects; 7) môshiki 妄識 (delusory consciousness) because the above-mentioned six meanings show that âdâna is a delusory consciousness; 8) shûshiki 執識 (attachment consciousness) because adana falsely clings to self and delusory manifestations. See ariyashiki no hachigi.

Adashino 化野 The name of a place in Kyoto; well-known as one of the three crematories in Kyoto, the other two being Toribeno 鳥辺野 in the east and Rendaino 蓮台野 in the north; in the compounds of the Nembutsuji temple 念仏寺 at Adashino, a large number of unidentified grave-stones are placed and services are regularly conducted to pray for the repose of the souls. [Tsu.]

adimokutaka 阿提目多伽 Sk. atimukta or adhimukta (a kind of shrub).

adô 下堂 'Leaving a hall'; to retire from a meditation hall or lecture hall.

Adô 阿道 The monk who transmitted Buddhism to Korea for the first time in around the 4th century. It is not known for certain whether he was an Indian or a native of Koryo 高麗 (Kôrai). He came to Koryo in 374 and dwelt in a temple built by the king.

aga hotoke あが仏 'My Buddha'; the Buddha in whom one takes refuge; also used for a person whom one respects or to whom one is dear.

agibika 阿耆毘伽 I. Sk. âjîvika; jamyô 邪命 (wrong livelihood); earning one's livelihood in a wrong way. II. Âjîvika; the name of a religious school in India, which negates the law of causality. See jamyo.

Agini 阿祇酋(人+爾) Sk. Agni; also 阿耆尼; the highest god on earth in the Indian mythology; Fire God; Kajin 火神; worshiped in Buddhism as Katen 火天 (Fire God). See Aguni.

Agini koku 阿耆尼国 Agni or Akuni; an ancient kingdom in the Central Asia bordering on Kucha to the west. According to Hsüan-tsang's (Genjô) record, this kingdom was about 600 li across and 400 li from south to north. There were more than ten temples and over 2,000 monks lived there. They were mainly engaged in the study of the doctrine of the Sarvâstivâda school (Setsuissaiubu).

Agitashishakinbara 阿耆多翅舎欽婆羅 Sk. Ajita-keçakambala; one of the six non-Buddhist masters at the time of the Buddha. He contended that if one undergoes pain in this life, one will receive pleasure in the next life. See rokushi gedo.

agô 阿号 'A'-title; the title containing '阿' added to the Buddhist name of a monk of the Jôdo or Ji school; the full title is Amidabutsugô 阿弥陀仏号 or Amidabutsumyô 阿弥陀仏名. Shunjôbô Chôgen 俊乗房重源 was the first to use such a title. When a debate took place at Ôhara in north Kyoto between Hônen and monks of other schools in 1186, Chôgen was in the audience. Deeply impressed by Hônen's exposition of the Dharma, he became Hônen's disciple. He resolved to add Amida's sacred Name to his Buddhist name so that, when after death he was asked to give his name at Enma's court, he would say the nembutsu. For this reason, he used 'Namuamidabutsu' for his title. This practice became a fashion among the followers of the Jôdo school and was adopted by those of the Ji school. Ben'a 弁阿 and Nen'a 然阿 are other examples of this.

agon 阿含 Sk. ágama, lit. 'coming'; a traditional, authentic doctrine. I. In India, generally referring to a traditional teaching; a sacred scripture. II. A Buddhist scripture; the Buddha's teaching. III. Hinayana sutras; see Agongyô. [KG.2]

Agongyô 阿含経 The Âgama Sutras. In the Chinese collection of scriptures, they form the division of sutras belonging to Hinayana. There are four groups: 1) Jô-agongyô 長阿含経, Long Âgama Sutras, 22 fasc. [T.1, No.1]; 2) Chû-agongyô 中阿含経, Middle-Length Âgama Sutras, 60 fasc. [T.1, No.26]; 3) Zôitsu-agongyô 増一阿含経, Increasing-by-One Âgama Sutras, 51 fasc. [T.2, No.125]; and 4) Zô-agongyô 雑阿含経, Miscellaneous Âgama Sutras, 50 fasc. [T.1, No.99]. In the Pali Canon, there are five groups of Nikâya suttas which roughly correspond to the Âgama Sutras: 1) Dîgha-nikâya (Long Nikâya suttas); 2) Majjhima-nikâya (Middle-length Nikâya suttas); 3) Samyutta-nikâya (Mixed Nikâya suttas); 4) Anguttara-nikâya(Increasing-by-one Nikâya suttas); and 5) Khuddaka-nikâya (Short Nikâya suttas).

Agon-ji 阿含時 'The period of the Agama sutras'; also, Rokuon-ji 鹿苑時 (the period of Deer Park); the third of the five periods of the Buddha's teachings established in the Tendai school. This is the period of twelve years during which the Buddha preached Hinayana sutras. See gojikyo.

Agonshu 阿含宗 The Agon (or Agama) sect. Originally, it started as the Kannon-jikeikai 観音慈惠会 (Society of Kannon's Compassion) in 1955. The founder is Seiyu Toyama 桐山靖雄. At the age of 18, he suffered from tuberculosis. While hospitalized, he learned some healing techniques and meditation. When he failed in a business enterprise, he tried to commit suicide. This gave him a chance to reflect on one's fate or destiny. After establishing the Kannon-jikeikai based on devotion to Kannon, he began to preach about karmic hindrances and liberation from them. He sought doctrinal bases in esoteric Buddhism and published works revealing his own interpretations of it. In 1978, the name of the sect was changed to Agonshu. The reason for choosing the Agon (Agama) sutras as the foundation texts is that, in his view, they provide the basis of esoteric practice for developing one's spirituality and supernatural power. The 'star festival' (hoshimatrsuri 星祭り) is a widely celebrated annual event in the Agon sect. A large homa (fire) ritual is held near the Ise Grant Shrine and in the compounds of the Oomi Shrine. The headquarters is in Kyoto. The three main objects of worship are Sakyamuni, Cundi (Jundei 准提) Kannon, and Mahavairocana (Dainichi). The sect has four temples and sixty-one churches and claims a membership of 321,283.

Aguni アグニ Sk. Agni; the god of fire; in ancient India fire was widely worshiped; in the Rg-Veda, there are many verses dedicated to Agni. His virtue is manifested as the sun in the heaven (Surya), lightning in the sky and ritual fire on earth. He enjoyed great popularity in ancient India as one of the three great gods: Vayu (Wind God), Indra, and Surya (Sun God). Agni is believed to convey the offerings to heaven and guide other gods to the human world. He is adopted in esoteric Buddhism as Katen 火天 (fire god) and placed in a specific position in the two mandalas.

ahadana 阿波陀那 Sk. avadana; translated as hiyu 譬喩 ; an exposition of the Dharma through allegories; a parable; one of the nine and twelve kinds of scriptures (kubukyo and junibukyo).

Ahaha 阿波波 Sk. Ahava; one of the eight freezing hells. See hachikan-jigoku.

Ahanta 阿槃多 Sk. Avanti: one of the sixteen great kingdoms (juroku-daikoku) in India at the time of the Buddha. [KG.6]

ahatsu 下鉢 Taking down the bowls and plates from the cupboard in a Zen monastery.

ahinsa アヒンサー Sk. ahimsa; not injuring; not killing or harming living beings; the basic moral teaching of Indian religions, especially Jainism (Jainakyo). In Buddhism, not killing is prescribed as the cardinal precept. See. Gokai, hassaisai, jukkai.

Aho rasetsu 阿放羅刹 See Abo rasetsu. [Tai.20,33.]

ai 愛 'Love, attachment, affection.' I. Sk. sneha; egoistic desire, e.g., sexual desire and pursuit of fame; defiled desire. II. Sk. preman and priya; undefiled love; love and respect of the Dharma or a master. III. Sk. trsna; a strong desire to fulfill one's wishes; lust for one's existence; one of the twelve causations (juni-innen). IV. One of the nine bonds; Sk. anunaya-samyojana; attachment to one's objective world.

ai (nishu) 愛(二種) I. Two kinds of love: 1) yokuai 欲愛, love of fame and sensual desires; 2) hoai 法愛, Buddhas' and bodhisattvas' love of sentient beings. II. Two kinds of love: 1) uzenma-ai 有染汚愛 defiled love, e.g., love of one's wife and children; 2) muzenma-ai 無染汚愛 undefiled love, e.g., love and respect of one's teacher.

ai (sanshu) 愛(三種) Three kinds of love or attachment: 1) kyogaiai 境界愛, attachment to one's state of existence; at the time of death, one becomes deeply attached to one's family, relatives, property, etc.; 2) jitaiai 自体愛, attachment to oneself; at the time of death, one becomes strongly attached to one's body; 3) toshoai 当生愛, attachment to one's future state; at the time of death, one becomes attached to one's next state of existence.

ai-araya 愛阿頼耶 Love of one's Alaya-consciousness; Sk. alaya-rata.

aibetsuriku 愛別離苦 The pain of separating from those one loves; Sk. priya-viprayoga-duhkha; also, priya-vina-bhava-duhkha [Yoga.]; one of the eight pains (hakku). [S.III-1,3,4; Tai.20]

Aido 愛道 'Love of the Way'; the name of a nun; Sk. Mahaprajapati (Kudonmi); Sakyamuni's stepmother.

aien 愛淵 Abyss of lust. [Za.]

aien garyo 哀婉雅亮 Pathos, grace, elegance and resonance; subtle musical sounds. [An.; JW.; KW.]

aien kien 逢縁機縁 Also 合縁奇縁; meeting brought about by some karmic relationships from the past; it is through connections from past lives that relationships between people such as friends, marital partners, and masters and servants, develop in this life. Also, it is through rare, fortunate relationships in past lives that one encounters the Dharma in this life.

aiga 哀雅 Affective and elegant (songs). [Kan.]

aigai 愛蓋 'Covering of lust'; unenlightened people are completely covered with lust. [Hokku.]

aigen 愛眼 The compassionate eye (of the Buddha). [Kegon.]

aigo 愛語 Kind and pleasant words; Sk. priyakhyana [Sutra.], priyalapa [Sukha-L.], priya-vadita [Yoga.]; one of the four methods of approach to people that bodhisattvas use to guide them to the Way of the Buddha; see shishobo.

aigoku 愛獄 'The prison of greed and lust'; metaphorically, the state of intense greed and lust in which people are confined.

aigyo 愛行 'Going by love'; the propensity to revel in love and attachment; one of the two types of people, the other type being kengyo 見行, the propensity to engage in reasoning. [Chido.; Nehan.]

aigyo 愛敬 To love and respect one's masters and elders. [Dai]

aigyo 愛楽 I. Attachment; Sk. abhikama, abhilasa, sabhirama. [Kusha.]. II. Love, affection, fondness; Sk. prema [Hosso.]; often used for the pleasure of hearing and studying the Buddha Dharma.

aigyo buppomi 愛楽仏法味 To love and enjoy the flavor of the Buddha Dharma.

aigyoko 愛楽光 Enjoyable light; Sk. premaniya-prabha [Sukha.]; one of Amida's lights. The term is the sixth of the thirteen lights in the Han version of the Larger Sutra.

aiho 愛法 Love of the Dharma; attachment to the Dharma.

aii 愛恚 Abbr. of tonnai 貪愛 (greed) and shinni 瞋恚 (anger) . [S.VII-6.]

aijaku 愛著 Love-attachment; attachment to objects pleasing to the senses; attachment to a loved one; Sk. anunaya, raga [Sukha.]; also, abhisvanga. [Kusha.]

aika 愛火 'Fire of lust'; ordinary people are 'burning' with the fire of lust.

aika 愛河 'The river of lust'; lust is compared to the river because it 'drowns' people. [Kegon]

aika 愛果 The result of love and attachment.

aikai 愛海 'The sea of lust.'

aikatsu 愛渇 Insatiable lust; like a man who is thirsty, one's lust is insatiable; also katsuai 渇愛.

aiken 愛見 I. Love and (wrong) views; passions and wrong views. II. The feeling of attachment. [S.Xb-1.]

aiken no daihi 愛見の大悲 'Great compassion with love'; great compassion which one awakens without realizing the ultimate reality and while harboring loving attachment; often used for Hinayana sages' compassion which is attached to the beings they seek to save.

aiken no jihi 愛見の慈悲 Compassion biased by loving attachment.

aiketsu 愛結 Bondage of clinging, lust; Sk. anunaya-samyojana. [Kusha.]

aiki 愛鬼 'Devil of love and greed'; love and attachment harm people like a devil.

aiko 愛光 Enjoyable light; Sk. premaniya-prabha [Sukha.]; one of Amida's lights. The term is the seventh of the fifteen lights of Amida in the T'ang version of the Larger Sutra. See juniko.

aikon 愛根 'Lust-root'; lust is the root of all evil passions.

Ai Kongobosatsu 愛金剛菩薩 Vajra-bodhisattva Lust; Sk. Raga Vajra-bodhisattva; a deity in the Vajra Realm Mandala (Kongokai mandara).

Aiku Daio 阿育大王 The Great King Asoka; see Aiku O. [S. VIII-22.]

Aiku O 阿育王 King Asoka; also Ayuka 阿輸迦 and translated as Muyu 無憂 'Sorrowless'; the third king of the Maurya dynasty in Magadha in Central India who reigned from 268 to 232 B.C.E. When he conquered Kalinga, he witnessed untold miseries of war, which inspired him to Buddhism. He had his messages of the Buddha Dharma inscribed on stone pillars and rocks throughout his kingdom, and ruled according to the Buddhist ideal. He also built many stupas (see Aiku O to). In the seventeenth year of his reign, he convened the third Buddhist council in the capital, Pataliputra, to which he invited 1,000 elders. He sent emissaries of the Dharma to such countries as Syria, Egypt, and Sri Lanka, and especially sent his son Elder Mahinda and his daughter Samghamitra to Sri Lanka to establish Buddhism there.

Aiku O chu 阿育王柱 'King Asoka's pillars'; the memorial pillars built by King Asoka at the Buddhist sites and elsewhere. It is believed that originally thirty pillars were constructed, of which sixteen are known to be extant, though partially damaged. The pillars of monolithic construction, measuring 12 to 16 meters, are crowned by an image of one or more of the four holy animals (elephant, bull, horse, and lion). The idea of those pillars is presumed to have come from the contact of the Maurya dynasty with Western countries; the artistic accomplishment of the sacred pillars traditionally worshiped in India seems to have developed under the influence of the Persian or Greek art of constructing large pillars.

Aiku O no hochoku 阿育王の法勅 'King Asoka's Dharma-edict'; Asoka issued an edict prohibiting taking lives of living beings and encouraging benevolent acts in accord with the Buddha Dharma and inscribed it on stone-pillars, cliffs, etc. More than forty inscriptions have been discovered, including nine on big cliffs and fourteen on small cliffs.

Aiku O to 阿育王塔 'King Asoka's stupas'; after his conversion to Buddhism, King Asoka built many stupas to enshrine the Buddha's relics; the number of such stupas is said to be 84,000 [Zenkenritsu-bibasha, 善見律毘婆沙]. According to the record by Fa-hsien 法顕 (Hokken), the king collected the relics of the Buddha from seven of the eight large pagodas (because one pagoda refused the king's request) and divided them into a number of small portions to be housed in the stupas.

Aikuozan 阿育王山 Mt. A-yu-wang; a mountain in Chechiang Province (浙江省 Sekkosho, Zhejiangsheng); one of the five famous mountains in China. In 283, Hui-ta (Etatsu 慧達) discovered an old pagoda there, which he worshiped as one of the 84,000 padogas built by King Asoka, and in 435 Dharmamitra (Donmamitta 曇摩蜜多) constructed a temple there. Before Dogen went to Mt. T'ien-t'ung (天童山 Tendozan), he met a superintendent of cooking from this mountain and learnt an important aspect of the monastic life from him; later, he visited this temple in 1223. See Dogen, gosan.

aimin 哀愍 Pity, compassion; Sk. anukampa, anukampita [Lanka.]; also, anukampaka, karuna [Yoga.].

aimo no go 愛網の業 The karma of being caught in the net of love and attachment; karmic bondage caused by attachment. [R.III-38]

ainen 愛念 Love, attachment. [S.VII-2]

airin 愛輪 'A cart of lust'; greed and lust are compared to a cart because they carry people around in Samsara.

airon 愛論 'Being fond of discussion'; meaningless discussion based on emotional attachments.

airu 愛流 'The current of lust'; the samsaric current caused by lust. [SK.]

airyo 哀亮 Affective and resonant (sound). [Dai.]

Aisa 愛作 'Act of Love'; Sk. Priyamkara; the name of a bodhisattva that appears in Daihoshakukyo (Sutra on the Great Collection of Treasure). [Ron.]

aisa 愛鎖 'The chain of lust.'

aisatsu 挨拶 To inquire, pursue; to put a question to the master; to put a question to someone in order to probe the depth of his understanding of Zen. [Zen.]

aisen 愛箭 'The arrow of lust'; Buddhas are described to be the best physicians who extract arrows of lust from the bodies of sentient beings. [Yuga.]

aishi 愛刺 'The thorn of lust.'

aishin 愛心 A lustful mind; lust and attachment. [KG.3]

aishu 愛種 'The seed of lust'; lust is the cause of suffering in the future.

aishu 愛執 Love and attachment; attachment.

Aitsu 阿逸 Same as Aitta 阿逸多.

Aitta 阿逸多 Sk. Ajita, 'Unconquerable'; the name of the bodhisattva identified with Maitreya (Miroku). See Miroku. [Ami.; Tai.15]

aiyoku 愛欲 Sexual desire; Sk. maithuna. [Lanka.]

aizen 愛染 Attached affection.

Aizen Daimyojin 愛染大明神 Refers to Aizen Myoo. [Yashi.]

Aizen hoto 愛善(=染)宝塔 A tower in which is enshrined a statue of Aizen Myoo. [Tai.5,7]

aizen komo 愛染虚妄 Being attached and false. [An.]

Aizen mairi 愛染参り Pilgrimage on New Year's Day to a temple where Aizen Myoo is enshrined; this custom is especially popular among those who deal with dyed goods (somemono 染め物); also popular in Osaka among geisha girls.

Aizen Myoo 愛染明王 Also, Aizen O 愛染王 and Zen'ai O 染愛王; Sk. Raga Vidyaraja; the God of Love. Though having a fearsome appearance with three eyes and six arms, he is full of affection. His original state is Vajrasattva (Kongosatta), in whom love and affection of sentient beings are identified with the samadhi of pure Bodhi-mind. Hence, Vajrasattva's seventeen attendants become this deity's attendants. Also, since Vajrasattva and Mahavairocana (Dainichi) are the same deity, Aizen Myoo shares Mahavairocana's thirty-seven attendants (see Kongokai no sanjushichison). [Tai.18.]

Aizen Myoo no ho 愛染明王の法 The ritual dedicated to Aizen Myoo to pray for the winning of a person's affection or the suppression of one's enemy, removing calamities, and securing benefit. [Tai.33.]

Aizen O koshiki 愛染王講式 The Rite for Aizen Myoo; a work prescribing the rite for praising the virtue of Aizen Myoo composed by Kakuban [T. 84, No.2726].

Ajanta アジャンター Ajanta; a group of some thirty cave temples located in Ajanta in west India; there are many reliefs and statues carved out in the stone walls as well as mural paintings depicting Buddhist stories; they date from the fifth to the seventh century.

ajari 阿闍梨 Sk. acarya; a Buddhist master, esp. an eminent monk of the Shingon or Tendai schools.

ajari kanjo 阿闍梨潅頂 The abhiseka (kanjo) ceremony performed for those who become acaryas (ajari); see denbo kanjo.

Ajase 阿闍世 Sk. Ajatasatru' ('Unborn enemy' or 'Having no enemy'); tr. as Mijoon 未生怨 'Revengeful before Birth'; the son of King Bimbisara (Binbashara) of Magadha (Makada). At the instigation of Devadatta (Daibadatta), he usurped the throne and imprisoned his parents. Later, he repented his evil acts before the Buddha and became his patron. He died twenty-four years after the Buddha. See Binbashara, Daibadatta. [Kan.; KG.2,3; Lotus.; S.Xa-2.]

Ajase O 阿闍世王 King Ajatasatru. [JW.]

aji 阿字 Also ◇字; 'A', the first sound in the Sanskrit alphabet. In esoteric Buddhism, the belief is that it embodies the mystic truth, and that one who meditates on it will attain Buddhahood. See ajikan; aji shichigi. [Hei.2; Ho.19; S,II-8,III-1,Va-12,Vb-9.]

aji goten 阿字五転 Five revolving meanings of the letter 'A'; the four phonetic variants of 'A' and a script representing the combination of them; they are used as Mahavairocana's (Dainichi) seed-letters (shuji) in the Matrix-store Realm Mandala (Taizokai mandara) and are allocated to the five stages of spiritual progress of the practitioner: 1) 'A' - awakening aspiration for Bodhi based on the firm belief that one, originally, has Buddha-nature (hosshin 発心); 2) 'A' - performing the three mystic practices (sanmitsu) and the Six Paramitas (shugyo 修行); 3) 'AM' - attaining Bodhi (shobodai 証菩提); 4) 'AH' - entering Nirvana; and 5) 'AMH' - manifesting skillful means of salvation (hoben kukyo 方便究竟).

aji honpusho 阿字本不生 'The letter 'A' (indicating) the originally unproduced (state of things)'; the esoteric principle that all phenomena are originally unproduced (ady-anutpada). This principle is represented by the first sound of the Sanskrit alphabet, 'A.' [S.Xb-3; Tsu.144.]

ajikan 阿字観 Meditation on the letter 'A'; also gachirinkan 月輪観 (meditation on the moon-wheel), aji-gachirin-kan 阿字月輪観 (meditation on the letter 'A' in the moon-wheel), etc. In this meditation, a practitioner sits in the lotus or half-lotus posture in front of a painting of the moon measuring 16 inches in diameter and in which is drawn a lotus with eight petals; on the lotus is drawn the Sanskrit letter 'A' in gold. He keeps meditating on the letter while uttering 'A' as he breathes in and out, until he is able to see the letter in the moon whether his eyes are open or closed. Then he practices meditation on the 'A-moon' in his mind, which is the real substance of the painted 'A-moon.' When this meditation is completed, dualistic views regarding evil passions and enlightenment, the realm of birth-and-death and Nirvana, etc., are destroyed and Buddhahood is attained with the present body. [S.Xb-3.]

aji no itto 阿字の一刀 The sword of the letter 'A'; the mystical power of the letter 'A' is capable of destroying all evil passions.

aji shichigi 阿字七義 The seven meanings of 'A': 1) bodaishin 菩提心, Bodhi-mind, 2) homon 法門, Dharma- or teaching-gate, 3) muni 無二, non-duality, 4) hokkai 法界, Dharma-realm, 5) hossho 法性, Dharma-nature, 6) jizai 自在, free exercise of power, and 7) hosshin 法身, Dharma-body.

Ajita 阿氏多 The fifteenth of the sixteen arhats (juroku rakan); it is said that he lived on the Vulture Peak (Ryojusen) with his 1,500 relatives who were all arhats. See Jishi.

Ajitabatchi 阿恃多伐底 Sk. Ajiravati; the name of the river where the Buddha passed into Nirvana. Another name for this river is Hiranyavati.

Ajivika アージーヴィカ A non-Buddhist religious-philosophical school which thrived at the time of the Buddha. It is called by Buddhists Jamyo-ha 邪命派 (School of Wrong Livelihood) or Jamyo-gedo 邪命外道 (Non-Buddhist School of Wrong Livelihood). Its founder Makkhali Gosala was listed among the six non-Buddhist masters (rokushi gedo). The doctrine of this school is characterized by negation of causality; whether pain or pleasure, birth or death, everything is devoid of cause; things are naturally united or disintegrate. They admit the existence of such elements as earth, water, fire, wind, space, and soul; their concept of soul seems to have been an animistic one.

ajunna 阿順那 Sk. arjuna; a forest-tree, Pentaptera Arjuna; its skin is smooth and glossy; one of the sacred trees in India. Nagarjuna (Ryuju) was born under an arjuna tree.

Ajutsugidakeirei 阿術祇陀掲蠡 Sk. Avidyandhakara-vidhvamsana-kara; 'Destroying the Darkness of Ignorance'; the name of a Buddha. [Sukha.]

aka 閼伽 Sk. argha; also 阿伽 and akka 遏伽; holy 'water' to be offered to a Buddha, deity or deceased person.

akadana 閼伽棚 '(Holy) water shelf'; a shelf for offerings. [Ho.29; Tsu.11.]

akai 閼伽井 A well from which one obtains water to be offered to a deity at a shrine or to a deceased person at the grave. [Tai.29.]

akaki 閼伽器 A vessel of water to be offered to a Buddha or deity.

aka no mizu 閼伽の水 Water to be offered to a Buddha or deity. [Hei.2; Tai.39.]

akada 阿伽陀 Sk. agada (free from disease); translated as mubyo 無病 (no-illness) and muge 無価 (invaluable); a medicine believed to be effective in curing all illnesses and securing deathlessness. [KG.3]

akada-daiyaku 阿伽陀大薬 Great agada medicine; Sk. mahagada. [Sutra.]

akadayaku 阿伽陀薬 Sk. agada: a medicine with miraculous healing power, or a medicine for deathlessness. [KG.3]

akaginu 赤衣 A red robe worn by Gundari Myoo 軍荼利明王 (Kundalin).

akago nembutsu あか子念仏 'A baby's nembutsu'; the nembutsu practiced with the heart of a baby. [IH.]

akai shinnyo 赤い信女 'The name of a laywoman in red'; a widowed laywoman has her Buddhist name inscribed in red on the tomb stone, side by side with her husband's name which is inscribed in black. When she dies, the color of her name is changed to black.

Akaku Daishi 阿覚大師 See Annen.

Akanita 阿迦尼姙 Sk. Akanistha; also 阿迦膩姙; the highest, i.e., the eighteeth, heaven in the world of form (shikikai 色界); also, Shikikukyoten 色究竟天 and Uchoten 有頂天. [Lotus.] See Appendix C 1

Akao no doshu 赤尾の道宗 Doshu of Akao (Toyama Prefecture); Rennyo's disciple; died in 1516. His twenty-one articles of self-discipline (Doshu nijuichikajo 道宗二十一箇条) are well-known.

akashiki 阿伽色 I. Any material that has a form. II. Formless open space or sky.

Aki monto 安芸門徒 The Jodoshin followers in Aki Province (present-day Hiroshima Prefecture). During the warring period in the Middle Age, under the patronage of the daimyo Mori 毛利, they assisted Honganji to fight against Oda Nobunaga 織田信長; from that time on, the collective term 'Aki monto' has been used for them. They are especially well known for their sincere devotion to the Jodoshin teaching.

akirame 諦め To give up something as hopeless, to be resigned to; originally, to be clear about the Buddhist truth. See shitai.

Akishinodera 秋篠寺 The Akishino Temple; a temple in Nara founded by Zenju 善珠 in the 8th century. First it belonged to the Hosso school and later to the Shingon school. The main object of worship is Medicine Master Tathagata (Yakushi Nyorai).

akkaku 悪覚 An evil conception or thought.

akken 悪見 Wrong views; Sk. drsti; also, asad-drsti [Yoga.]. Five wrong views are distinguished. See goakuken.

akkennin 悪見人 A person with a wrong view. [Gu.]

akki 悪機 Evil beings. [Gu.]

akki 悪鬼 An evil demon. [IT.; JW.; KG.; SS.]

akkijin 悪鬼神 An evil demon or evil spirit. [JW.]

akku 悪口 Wrong speech, abusive words; Sk. parusa [Sutra.], parusya; one of the ten evil acts (juaku).

ako 下火 To light a fire; lighting firewood to cremate a dead body. [Tai.30,33,40.]

ako butsuji 下火仏事 A Buddhist ceremony of lighting firewood to cremate a dead body. This is part of the funeral service in the Zen school.

ako 下炬 In Zen, hinko 俵炬; both ako and hinko are T'ang pronunciations. Originally, it means 'holding a torch' in the hand of the priest in charge of the funeral service. It signifies cremation and, later, conferment in front of the coffin of the last words of blessing for the deceased person. The origin of this custom can be found in the story of the Buddha's cremation. According to the Bosatsu-shotaikyo 菩薩処胎経 (Sutra on the Bodhisattvas Dwelling in the Womb), when the Buddha passed into Nirvana, Mahakasyapa (Makakasho) and the five hundred disciples of the Buddha circumambulated the golden coffin seven times and stood on one side. Then ox-head sandalwood was piled on the coffin and Mahakasyapa set fire to it with a burning sandalwood torch.

aku 悪 Evil; Sk. papa; an act committed in contradiction to the Dharma or the principle of truth or reality and bound to bring about suffering in the future.

akubiku 悪比丘 An evil monk; a false monk; a monk unworthy of the name. [SR.]

akuchishiki 悪知識 An evil friend or teacher; Sk. papa-mitra; also, praty-amitra [Yoga.]; cf. zenjishiki. [An.; S.II-10.]

akudo 悪道 An evil path; an evil realm, such as hell and the realm of animals; Sk. durgati [Sam.], aksana [Sukha.], apaya [Sutra.].

akudofu 悪道怖 Fear of an evil realm; Sk. durgatito bhayam. [Sutra.]

akudoi 悪道畏 Fear of falling into an evil realm; one of the five fears (gofui).

akuen 悪縁 An evil condition; a thing or person that causes one to do an act which is evil or contradicts the Buddhist teaching. [S.I-9,Va-1.]

akugo 悪業 An evil act; Sk. papa-karma [Lanka.], samdosa [Sutra.].

akugo bonno 悪業煩悩 Evil karma and evil passions.

akugoka 悪業果 Retribution for an evil act. [KG]

akugosho 悪業障 Hindrance of evil karma; Sk. karmavarana [Lanka.], duskrtavarana [Sam.].

akugo shoten 悪業所纏 Covered by evil karma; Sk. sva-karma-dosavaranavrta. [Lanka.]

akugyaku 悪逆 I. In ancient China, one of the ten rebellious acts for which heavy punishments were imposed. In Japan, one of the eight rebellious acts; see hachigyaku. II. Refers to juaku gogyaku 十悪五逆, ten evils and five gravest offenses. III. Generally, vile and atrocious acts.

akugyo 悪行 Misbehavior, bad conduct.; Sk. duscarita, kukrta, papa-kriya [Hosso.], visama-carya [Yoga.].

akui 悪意 An evil thought or intention; Sk. pratighata, manah-pradosa. [Sutra.]

akuin akka 悪因悪果 An evil cause that brings about an evil result.

akuju 悪習 Bad habit; Sk. dausthulya. [Lanka.]

akukai 悪戒 A wrong precept; Sk. dauhsilya. [Sam.]

akuma 悪魔 A devil; Sk. mara. See ma. [Ara.]

akumuka 悪無過 'No fault in doing evil acts'; a wrong view that doing evil acts does not create any fault.

akumyo 悪名 A bad reputation; Sk. ayasasvin. [Sutra.]

akumyoi 悪名畏 Fear of a bad reputation; for example, when a beginner of the bodhisattva path enters a bar to save someone addicted to wine, he fears that such an act may invite a bad reputation; one of the five fears (gofui); Sk. asloka-bhaya [Yoga.].

akunin 悪人 An evil person.

akunin jobutsu 悪人成仏 Evil persons becoming Buddhas. [Tan.3]

akunin ojo 悪人往生 Evil persons' attainment of birth in the Pure Land.

akunin shoki 悪人正機 Evil beings are exactly the object of Amida's salvation; one of the essential points in the teaching of Shinran. He is quoted in the Tannisho as saying, "Even a good person is born in the Pure Land; how much more so is an evil person?" This, however, is the view which Shinran inherited from his teacher, Honen. Although this idea appears to contradict the general Buddhist teaching that encourages good, meritorious acts as the cause of emancipation, it best reveals Amida's unconditional and universal salvation, which applies to the most wicked persons who have no chance of emancipation.

akuritsugi 悪律儀 'Wrong precepts'; also, furitsugi 不律儀 and akkai 悪戒; they include such acts as killing in order to make one's living or make profit.

akuryo 悪霊 An evil spirit; there are two kinds: revengeful spirits of living persons (ikiryo 生霊) and those of dead persons (shiryo 死霊).

akuryu 悪竜 An evil dragon. [SW.]

akusa 悪作 I. Sk. kaukrtya; one of the eight indeterminate mental functions; repenting an evil act already committed or feeling remorse for having done something good; see osa. [Hosso.; Kusha.] II. Sk. duskrta; in Vinaya, an evil act done with the body.

akusatsuna 悪察那 Sk. aksara (unalterable, syllable, letter); a word.

akuse 悪世 Evil world. [JW.; KW.; SS.]

akushaju 悪叉聚 Sk. aksa, rudraksa; the name of a plant which bears a cluster of fruit; Eleocarpus Genitrus; the core of its fruit is used for rosaries. [BJ]

akushin 悪心 Evil mind. [YM.]

akusho 悪性 Evil nature; Sk. asubha. [Kusha.]

Akusho O悪性王 King Evil Nature; a king who killed his father to usurp the throne. [KG.3; Nehan.]

akushu 悪趣 Evil realms; Sk. apaya, durgati [Kusha.: Yoga.]; the states of existence, such as hell, the realm of hungry spirits, and the realm of animals, to which evil-doers are destined.

akushu jinenpei 悪趣自然閉 'Evil states of existence close naturally'; evil realms perish of themselves. When one attains birth in the Pure Land, there are no more evil realms to which one returns. [Dai.; Mon.; SS]

akushujo 悪衆生 Evil beings. [YM.]

akushuku 悪取空 'A wrong view of voidness'; also hekishuku 僻取空; Sk. dur-grhita sunyata; understanding voidness without fully realizing the principle of 'dependent origination' (ensho 縁生) and 'non-arising' (musho 無生).

akushukusha 悪取空者 One who clings to a wrong view of voidness; Sk. durgrhita sunyata. [Yoga.]

akuso 悪相 Evil signs, such as those at the time of death, e.g., hallucinations, mental derangement and ominous bodily symptoms. [Tai.20.]

akusoku 悪触 'Wrong touch'; in Vinaya, food touched by the hand of another person is considered as defiled, and so such food should not be eaten.

akuu 悪友 An evil friend; Sk. akalyana-mitrata, kumitra. [Sutra.]

ama 阿摩 Sk. amba, P. amma; mother. [SW.]

ama 尼 A nun; Sk. bhiksuni; see bikuni 比丘尼.

amacha 甘茶 'Sweet tea'; Hydrangea tea; used to pour over an image of the infant Buddha on his birthday. The tradition is based on the story that when he was born, dragons came down and poured nectar over the Buddha's body.

amadera 尼寺 'A temple for nuns'; the first such temple in Japan is Sakurai-dera 桜井寺 in Nara Prefecture where the first three ordained nuns dwelt.

amado 尼堂 A convent.

amagoi 雨乞い 'Praying for rain'; also, kiu 祈雨 and shou 請雨. The ceremony includes chanting such sutras as the Sutra on the King of Sea Dragons (Kairyu-o-kyo 海龍王経) [T.15, No.593].

amagoi nembutsu 雨乞い念仏 'Nembutsu recitation to pray for rain.' In times of drought, special nembutsu rites were performed in various places, often accompanied by traditional local customs.

amagoromo 天衣 Robe of a heavenly being; said to be extremely light.

amako 尼講 'Nuns' meeting'; regular meetings of women Buddhists. Once a month or several times a year, women, often elderly, meet at a temple to chant songs of praise and hear sermons.

amaneki kado 普き門 'Universal Gate'; refers to the chapter on "Fumonbon" 普門品 of the Lotus Sutra, which is popularly called Kannongyo 観音経 (Kannon Sutra).

ama no hagoromo 天の羽衣 'The feather robe of a heavenly being.' [Tai. 11.]

ama-no-jakku 天邪鬼 'The heavenly evil spirit'; originally, the name of the mask of a devil worn on the abdomen of the King Vaisravana (Bishamon). Later, it came to refer to the two devils trampled upon by Vaisravana. Commonly, it is used to refer to a perverse or cross-grained person.

ama-nyobo 尼女房 See ama-nyudo.

ama-nyudo 尼入道 Female and male converts to the Jodo or Jodoshin school by having their heads shaven; used in the sense of a laywoman who has entered upon the Buddhist Path. In this sense, ama-nyobo 尼女房 is also used. Another meaning of this term is ordinary ignorant laypeople with little knowledge of Buddhism. [Fumi]

amara 阿末羅 Sk. amalaka; the name of a fruit. See amarokuju.

amarashiki 阿摩羅識 Amala (pure)-consciousness; the basic consciousness which is pure and undefiled. In the Consciousness-Only doctrine (Hosso), it refers to the eighth consciousness when it turns into the wisdom of enlightenment. In the teaching of the She-lun (Shoron) school, it is the ninth consciousness which is identical with True Suchness. See Shoronshu.

Amaravati アマラーヴァティー The place on the lower reaches of the river Krsna in south India; the ancient center of Buddhist arts from the Sunga dynasty (184 B.C.E.-300 C.E.). The great stupa was constructed in about 200 C.E. under the patronage of the Satavahana royal family. That the image of the Buddha in human form was found in a relief testifies to the fact that Greek art had reached here through Gandhara and Mathura.

amarokuju 阿摩勒樹 Sk. amalaka; also, 阿末羅, 阿摩羅, etc.; the name of a plant bearing edible fruits, which are also used for medicinal purposes.

amarokuka 阿摩勒果 A fruit of amalaka tree; see above. [KG.5; Lanka.]

Amatsu koyane no mikoto 天児屋根尊 'The August One Amatsu Koyane'; a Shinto god and the ancestral kami of the Fujiwara 藤原 clan. When Amaterasu 天照, the Sun Goddess, hid herself behind a huge rock in a cave, he played music to appease her mind. At the time of the descent from heaven of August One Ninigi 瓊瓊杵尊 (Ninigi-no-mikoto), this god followed him. His descendants were successively in charge of ritual affairs in the imperial court. [Den.]

Amida 阿弥陀 The name of the Buddha in the Western Pure Land; Sk. amita 'infinite,' which stands for amitabha 'infinite light' and amitayus 'infinite life'; hence, translated as Muryoko 無量光 and Muryoju 無量寿, respectively; also called Muryoshojo 無量清浄 ('Immeasurably Pure'), Jinjippo-mugeko 尽十方無碍光 ('Light Unhindered in the Ten Quarters'), etc. The Larger Sutra presents twelve epithets for this Buddha which are associated with the twelve kinds of light he possesses. Amida is one of the most popular Buddhas in Mahayana Buddhism and is mentioned in more than 200 sutras, of which the Larger Sutra is the most important. According to this sutra, Amida was previously a king. When he met a Buddha, called Lokesvararaja 世自在王 (Sejizaio), he wished to become a Buddha. He then renounced the world and became a mendicant, called Hozo 法蔵 (Dharmakara). He made forty-eight vows (shijuhachi-gan) and performed various bodhisattva practices to fulfill them. After many aeons, his vows were fulfilled, and he became a Buddha of infinite light and life. His land in the west, which is also part of the result of his Vows and practices, is called Sukhavati 極楽 (Gokuraku), 'Utmost Bliss.' As promised in the Eighteenth Vow (see hongan no mon), those who have sincere faith in Amida and recite his Name (nembutsu) are able, through his power, to be born in his land after death. Amida is a transcendent Buddha, as contrasted with a historical Buddha, and is generally regarded as a recompensed body Buddha (hojin 報身; Sk. sambhoga-kaya). The school of Buddhism centering around Amida is known as Pure Land Buddhism (Jodokyo 浄土教 or Jodomon 浄土門). It arose in India, grew in China, and attained its fullest development in Japan. Amida is thus the principal Buddha of the Jodo, Jodoshin, and other Pure Land schools. In esoteric Buddhism, Amida is one of the five Buddhas in the five cardinal directions. See gobutsu, gochi nyorai.

Amida Butsu 阿弥陀仏 I. Amida Buddha. II. Refers to the nembutsu. See Amida. [Ho.36.]

Amida Butsu o mosu 阿弥陀仏をもうす To recite the Name of Amida Buddha. [MT.]

Amida daishinju 阿弥陀大心呪 Amida's Great-Mind Spell; see Amida no daishu.

Amida darani 阿弥陀陀羅尼 'Amida dharani or mantra'; Kakuban 覚鑁 uses three kinds of Amida mantra in his works: 1) nine syllable-mantra, i.e., OM (or M) A MR TA TE JE HA RA HUM; 2) six syllable-mantra, i.e., NA MO A MI TA BUH; 3) three syllable-mantra, i.e., A MI TA. A comparative study of these three mantras reveals that the third is an ontological and philosophical exposition of the Shingon Nembutsu and that the first is the most elaborate exposition of the authentic esoteric Amida mantra along the line of the Pure Land thought. Of the three, the second mantra shows the closest affinity to the popular nembutsu formula of the Pure Land school.

Amida-do 阿弥陀堂 'An Amida hall'; with the growing popularity of Pure Land Buddhism in Japan, many Amida halls were constructed from the middle of the Heian period (794-1185). Most of them were modeled after the Jogyodo 常行堂 built by Ennin 円仁 on Mt. Hiei. It is a small hall in the form of a mani-gem, with the interior richly decorated and painted with a picture of the Pure Land; inside the hall is enshrined a statue of Amida Buddha. The Hokaiji Temple法界寺 at Hino in Kyoto and the Ojogokuraku-in 往生極楽院 of Sanzen-in Hall 三千院 in Kyoto are some examples of this type of hall. The Hoo-do 鳳凰堂 of the Byodo-in Hall 平等院 is an Amida-do but is built in a much more elaborate style.

Amida gasa 阿弥陀笠 A bamboo hat worn on the back of the head, so that it looks like the halo of a Buddha statue.

Amida gobutsu 阿弥陀五仏 Five Holy Ones of Amida and others; Amida and four bodhisattvas: Kannon (Avalokitesvara), Seishi (Mahasthamaprapta), Jizo (Ksitigarbha)and Ryuju (Nagarjuna). A picture showing these five Holy Ones is called Amida goson mandara 阿弥陀五尊曼荼羅.

Amida gochi 阿弥陀五智 'The five wisdoms of Amida'; according to the Larger Sutra, Amida has the following five kinds of wisdom: 1) butchi 仏智, Buddha-wisdom, 2) fushigichi 不思議智, inconceivable wisdom, 3) fukashochi 不可称智, ineffable wisdom, 4) daijokochi 大乗広智, boundless Mahayana wisdom, and 5) muto-murin-saijoshochi 無等無倫最上勝智, incomparable, unequalled, and unsurpassed supreme wisdom.

Amida goma 阿弥陀護摩 A goma (Sk. homa) ritual to pray to Amida for protection from evils and for a long life. [K.59]

Amida-hijiri 阿弥陀聖 'An Amida saint'; an epithet for Koya hijiri.

Amida hishaku 阿弥陀秘釈 The Esoteric Meaning of Amida by Kakuban 覚鑁; [T.79, No.2522]. This short work presents the essential teaching of the esoteric nembutsu. Kakuban first explains that Amida is the manifestation of the wisdom of the Dharmakaya, Mahavairocana (Dainichi), and corresponds to the wisdom of wonderful discernment (myokanzatchi 妙観察智). When one realizes the ultimate One Mind which contains all the Buddhas, deities, their wisdoms, and other beings, one attains unity with Amida. Next, the author explains the thirteen different names of Amida related to his manifestations of light, each being one of the functions of the Dharmakaya's wisdom of discernment. Lastly, he presents the esoteric meanings of 'AMITA' 1) 'A' signifies the principle of non-differentiation and original non-production of One Mind; 'MI' signifies the principle of non-differentiation, egolessness, and universal self of the One Mind; 'TA' signifies the principle of Suchness and tranquility of all dharmas pervaded by the One Mind. 2) 'A' also signifies the Buddha family (butsubu) because it symbolizes the oneness of the principle of reality and the transcendental wisdom, and represents the essential nature of the Dharma-realm pervaded by One Mind. 'MI' signifies the Lotus family (rengebu) because the ultimate reality revealed by the wisdom of wonderful discernment and observation, i.e. the emptiness of sentient beings and dharmas, is like a lotus-flower, originally undefiled by the objects of the six sense-perceptions. 'TA' signifies the Vajra family (kongobu), because the wonderful wisdom of the Tathagata is, in itself, indestructible and destroys all delusions as enemies. 3) 'A' also signifies the principle of emptiness; the essential nature of One Mind is, from the beginning, free from delusory appearances. 'MI' signifies the principle of the temporary; all dharmas pervaded by the undifferentiated One Mind exist temporarily like illusions. 'TA' signifies the principle of the middle; all dharmas pervaded by the undifferentiated One Mind are free from the two extreme views and, therefore, cannot be conceived as having fixed forms. 4) 'A' also signifies the principle of existence; the essential nature of the One Mind is originally non-existent, unproduced, and without extinction. 'MI' signifies the principle of emptiness; all dharmas pervaded by the One Mind are in themselves ungraspable. 'TA' signifies the principle of non-emptiness; all dharmas pervaded by the One Mind have, from their origin, been always possessed of the merits of the Dharmakaya. 5) 'A' also signifies cause; the realms of Buddhas and those of sentient beings are caused respectively by realization and ignorance of the One Mind. 'MI' signifies practice; by destroying self-attachment and attachment to dharmas, one realizes emptiness of self and dharmas, thereby attaining Buddhahood. 'TA' signifies the Buddha; the undifferentiated One Mind expresses the principle of the reality of Suchness and the transcendent wisdom, which are among the qualities of Buddhahood. Since the merits of the name are inestimably great, Kakuban states, "One who pronounces the three syllables, 'A,' 'MI,' and 'DA,' will have his grave karmic offenses committed from the beginningless past extinguished; one who is mindful of Amida will perfect endless merits and wisdom. Just as a single gem in Indra's net at once reflects images of innumerable gems, the single Buddha, Amida, instantly endows one with boundless intrinsic merits."

Amida-ho 阿弥陀法 'Amida ritual'; an esoteric ritual dedicated to Amida in which the Amida Dharani is recited, the three mystic practices are performed, and the nembutsu samadhi is practiced. By performing this ritual, one expects to be born in the Pure Land and reach the stage of a bodhisattva.

Amida-hoo 阿弥陀法王 Amida, the Dharma-king. [KG.4,5]

Amida jodohen 阿弥陀浄土変 A picture showing Amida's Pure Land. In China many paintings of this kind were produced from the early T'ang period (618-907). In Japan, the Chiko mandara 智光曼荼羅, Taima mandara 当麻曼荼羅, and Shokai mandara 青海曼荼羅 are well known. See Amidakyo Mandara, Muryojukyo mandara.

Amida-ko 阿弥陀講 'An Amida gathering'; a gathering devoted to Amida; also Ojo-ko 往生講, a gathering for the attainment of birth in the Pure Land. This type of gathering became popular among the nobility towards the end of the Heian period (794-1198). According to the Ojo-koshiki 往生講式 by Yokan, who began these gatherings, they took place on the 15th day of the month but, commonly, they were held on other days, too. [K.155]

Amida konpon darani 阿弥陀根本陀羅尼 'The root-dharani of Amida'; see Amida no daishu.

Amida konpon'in 阿弥陀根本印 'Amida's basic mudra'; the manual sign formed by placing the left hand on the right one and holding the middle fingers straight while keeping their tips close to each other; this represents a lotus-bud.

Amida-koshiki 阿弥陀講式 The Rite for Paying Homage to Amida; see Ojo-koshiki. [K.51]

Amida kubon-ojo-in 阿弥陀九品往生印 The nine mudras of Amida corresponding to the nine grades of aspirants of the Pure Land.

Amida-kuji 阿弥陀籤 'Amida lottery'; a lottery sheet with several intersecting lines is used. Those participating in the lottery write their names on one end of the line, and the amount of money to be donated is given in such a way as to hide it from the participants. Later they will know who must pay how much. Afterwards, they divide the total earnings equally among themselves.

Amida kuonjoo daranikyo 阿弥陀鼓音声王陀羅尼經 The Sutra on the Dharani of Amida Drum-Sound King; the translator's name unknown. Repetition of this dharani is taught as the cause of birth in Amida's land. According to this sutra, Amida had parents and children. [T.7, No.370].

Amidakyo 阿弥陀経 The Amida Sutra; the Chinese translation by Kumarajiva (Kumaraju) [T.12, No.366]; also called shishikyo 四紙経, 'four-sheet sutra', because this sutra is only four sheets in length. This has been used as one of the three basic texts of Pure Land Buddhism, side by side with the Larger Sutra and Contemplation Sutra, since the time of Shan-tao (Zendo) who held it in high esteem. The title of the Sanskrit text is Sukhavativyuha, which means 'Glorious Adornment of Sukhavati (the land of happiness).' One day the Buddha was staying at Sravasti (Shaekoku) in north-east India, together with 1,250 monks and many bodhisattvas. He began to address the audience, headed by Sariputra (Sharihotsu), as follows: There is in the western quarter a Buddha-land called 'Utmost Bliss,' where the Buddha Amida presides. The land is full of wonders, pleasing to the mind and comforting to the senses, and those born there can enjoy the highest spiritual bliss. This Buddha is called Amida (lit. immeasurable) because his life span is immeasurable, also because his light shines out boundlessly. All beings there dwell in the Stage of Non-retrogression (futai), assured of attaining enlightenment. In order to be born there, one must concentrate on Amida, holding fast to his Name for one to seven days. Then, at the time of death, Amida, accompanied by a host of sages, appears before him and ensures his attainment of birth in the Pure Land. Innumerable Buddhas dwelling in the six quarters urge sentient beings to have faith in this sutra which is protected by all the Buddhas. One who receives it is also protected by them and led to reach enlightenment without retrogression. For this reason, all beings should aspire for birth in the Pure Land. The sutra ends with praise of Sakyamuni for becoming a Buddha during the period of five defilements (gojoku).
Many commentaries have been composed in China and Japan. The eminent scholar-monks of the Path of Sages, such as Seng Chao (Sojo, 384-414), Chih-i (Chigi, 538-97), and K'ui-chi (Kiki, 632-682) reputedly wrote commentaries on this sutra but their authorship is doubtful. In his Hojisan 法事讃 (Liturgy of Services), Shan-tao expounded in full detail the liturgy of chanting the Amida Sutra. In the Pure Land schools in Japan and elsewhere, this sutra is extensively used at services.

Amidakyo mandara 阿弥陀経曼陀羅 The Amida Sutra mandala; pictorial presentation of the contents of the Amida Sutra in mandala form. One such mandala is preserved at Chion-in, Kyoto, and another which was in the possession of the late Mr. Harold Stewart from Australia has been introduced by Hisao Inagaki [The Amida Sutra Mandala, Nagata Bunshodo, 1995].

Amidakyosho 阿弥陀経疏 The Commentary on the Amida Sutra. I. A work by a Pure Land master Wonhyo (Gangyo 元暁) of Silla (617-686); [T.37, No.1759]. II. A work ascribed to K'ui-chu (Kiki 窺基)(632-682); [T37, No.1757]. III. A work by a Tendai master Chih-yuan (Chien 智円)(976-1022); [T.37, No.1760].

Amida mandara 阿弥陀曼荼羅 The Amida mandala; there are several kinds of Amida mandala in esoteric Buddhism: 1) five holy ones - Amida and four bodhisattvas based on the Vajra Realm Mandala (Kongokai mandara); 2) eight petals and nine holy ones - Amida surrounded by eight bodhisattvas and further attended by eight puja bodhisattvas and four incarnate bodhisattvas; 3) eight Tathagatas - Kannon at the center surrounded by eight Tathagatas on the eight petals; 4) five holy ones - Amida at the center attended in front by Kannon and Seishi and in the back by Jizo and Nagarjuna (Ryuju); and 5) nine grades of Amida - the highest grade of Amida at the center of a lotus flower with eight other grades on the eight petals, who are further attended by twenty-four bodhisattvas.

Amida nijugo bosatsu raigozu 阿弥陀二十五菩薩来迎図 A picture showing Amida and twenty-five bodhisattvas welcoming the devotee. Traditionally, Genshin was the first to produce this kind of painting. See nijugo-bosatsu.

Amida no daishu 阿弥陀の大呪 Also, Amida no daizu or daiju; the great spell of Amida. Refers to Muryoju-nyorai konpon-darani 無量寿如来根本陀羅尼 (the Basic Dharani of the Tathagata of Infinite Life), which reveals Amida's inner realization, vows, and merit. The spell used in Japan is the one translated by Amoghavajra (Fuku), which appears in the Muryoju-nyorai kangyo-kuyo-giki 無量寿如来観行供養儀軌 (Manual of Rituals of Contemplation of and Making Offerings to the Tathagata of Infinite Life) [T.19, No.930], and is also called Jukanromyo 十甘露明 (Ten Spells of Nectar). This is one of the three spells of Amida, the other two being the one-letter spell (ichijishu 一字呪) and the small spell (shoshu 小呪). [Ma.(variant text)]

Amida no ennichi 阿弥陀の縁日 'Amida's ennichi'; the 15th of the month when Amida is believed to be in closer relation with human beings. See ennichi. [K.711.]

Amida no honshowa 阿弥陀の本生話 Jataka stories of Amida Buddha; there are the following fifteen birth stories of Amida other than the one recounted in the Larger Sutra: 1) According to texts such as the Sutra on the Dharani that Produces the Boundless Gate (Shussho-muhenmon daranikyo 出生無辺門陀羅尼経) [T.19, No.1009], there was a prince named 'Gem-like Glory of Inconceivable Merit' (Munentokushu 無念徳首, Fushigi-shokudoku 不思議勝功徳, etc.); he practiced the dharani and quickly became a Buddha named Amida. 2) According to the Sutra on the Samadhi of Wisdom-Seal (Ein-zanmai-kyo 慧印三昧経) [T.15, No.621], and other texts, there was a king named 'Extended Wisdom' (Ejo 慧上, etc.); having heard the exposition of the Tathagata-wisdom-mudra Samadhi, he renounced the world together with his one thousand children and dedicated himself to this samadhi; the king later became Amida and the thousand princes became the thousand Buddhas of the present cosmic period. 3) According to the Lotus Sutra, there was a Buddha named 'Distinguished Wisdom of Great Transcendent Faculty' (Daitsu-chisho 大通智勝, Mahabhijnajnanabhibhu); when he was a prince, he had sixteen sons, who all renounced the world and became monks under the Buddha; later they all became Buddhas; the ninth prince became Amida and the last one became Sakyamuni. 4) According to the Rastra-pala-pariprccha (Tokko-taishi-kyo 徳光太子経, the Sutra on Prince Virtuous-light) [T.3, No.170] and other texts, there was a king named 'Arcismat' (Burning) who had a son named 'Punya-rasmi' ('Merit-light,' Tokko 徳光); after the prince became a monk under a Buddha, the king also received the Dharma from the Buddha; later, the king became Amida and the prince became Sakyamuni. 5) According to the Sutra on the Auspicious Kalpa (Gengogyo 賢劫経) [T.14, No.425] and other texts, there was a prince named 'Proclaiming the Pure Sound of the Reward of Merits for Many Beings' (Jofuku-hoshuon 浄福報衆音, etc.); when he heard an exposition of the Samadhi of Realizing the Dharma-essence, he resolved to attain this samadhi; later the prince became Amida. 6) According to the same sutra, a monk called 'Practices of Boundless Treasure-Sounds' (Mugenryo-hoongyo 無限量宝音行) dedicated himself to the Samadhi of Realizing the Dharma-essence and became Amida. 7) According to the same sutra, there was a Buddha who expounded the Samadhi of Realizing the Dharma-essence; in the audience was a king named 'Merit-flower' who upheld the samadhi and urged his one thousand sons and attendants to accept the Dharma in faith; he finally attained the samadhi and became Amida; the thousand princes became the thousand Buddhas of the present cosmic period. 8) According to the Mahayana-vaipulya-dharani Sutra (Daijo-hoko-sojikyo 大乗方広総持経, the Sutra on the Extensive Mahayana Dharanis) [T.9, No. 275] and other texts, a monk named 'Pure Life' (Jomyo 浄命) led many people to awaken pure faith and attain higher spiritual states; he later became Amida. 9) According to the Sutra on Abusing the Buddha (Hobutsukyo 謗仏経) [T.17, No.831] and other texts, there was a master who expounded the Dharma and led many people to spiritual attainment; the king called 'Given by the Moon' (Gattoku 月得, etc.) went to see the master and made offerings to him; the king later became Amida. 10) According to the Jataka Sutra (Shokyo 生経, the Sutra on the Birth Stories) [T.5, No.154], there was a young monk named 'Wei-hsien' 惟先 who was renowned for his deep wisdom; he later became Amida. 11) According to the Lotus of Compassion Sutra (Hikekyo 悲華経) [T.3, No.157], etc., there was a king named 'Aranemin' ('Not disputing,' Mujonen 無諍念); one of his ministers named 'Samudra-renu' ('Ocean-sand,' Hokai 宝海) had a son who renounced the world and became a Buddha named 'Ratna-garbha' ('Treasure-store,' Hozo 宝蔵); the king went to see the Buddha and awakened the aspiration for Bodhi; he made fifty-two vows and became Amida. 12) According to the Sutra on the Ocean-like Samadhi of Contemplation of Buddhas (Kanbutsu-zanmaikai-kyo 観仏三昧海経) [T.15, No.643], when the Buddha named 'Voidness King' (Kuo 空王) was in the world, there were four passion-ridden monks; one day they heard a voice in the air urging them to enter a pagoda and contemplate the Buddha; so they did as they were told; as a reward for contemplating the Buddha's image and repenting of their evil karma, they visualized Buddhas of the ten quarters and attained the nembutsu-samadhi; later they all became Buddhas; the third monk became Amida. 13) According to the Sutra on the Great Dharma-torch Dharani (Daihoko daranikyo 大法炬陀羅尼経) [T.21, No.1340], there was a bodhisattva named 'Brilliant Sign' (Myoso 明相), who made a pilgrimage to all the stupas constructed in honor of the deceased Buddhas; after performing bodhisattva practices, he became Amida. 14) According to the Sutra on the Dharma-gate of Immeasurable Mudras Arising from the Illusion-like Samadhi (Nyogen-sanmaji muryoin-homonkyo 如幻三摩地無量印法門経) [T.12, No.372], there was a king named 'Distinguished Glory' (Shoi 勝威, etc.) who paid homage to a Buddha for 84,000 koti years; as the Buddha expounded the Dharma to him, he attained deep insight into all dharmas; later the king became Amida. 15) According to the Vaipulya Sutra on the Wisdom of Enlightenment (Kakuchi-hokokyo 覚智方広経) quoted in the Discourse on Jewel-essence of Mahayana (Daijo hoyogiron 大乗宝要義論) [T.32, No.1635], there was a Buddha-land where there were only sravakas; a monk named 'Seeing Objects Equally' (Tokan-shoshoen 等観諸所縁) practiced Mahayana but became self-conceited; seeing that he was reborn in the Heaven of Long Life in the world of form, the Buddha provided various means to save them; the monk thereby attained emancipation and became Amida.

Amida no renga 阿弥陀の連歌 'Amida linked-verse'; a linked verse with each line beginning with the sacred phrase, Namu Amida Butsu 南無阿弥陀仏; a kind of myogo renga 名号連歌, often composed as an act of transferring merit to a deceased person (tsuizen 追善). [S.Vb-7]

Amida no sanji 阿弥陀の三字 The three syllables, A-MI-DA.

Amida no shoshu 阿弥陀の小呪 'The small spell of Amida'; one of the three spells of Amida; also shinshingon 心真言; the spell reads, "Om amrita teje hara hum" (Homage to the one who works in the imperishable glory).

Amida sanji hoppoo sanshin kukechu sandai 阿弥陀三字法報応三身空仮中三諦 The three letters, 'A,' 'MI,' and 'DA,' represent the three Buddha-bodies, i.e., Dharma-body, Recompensed Body, and Accommodated Body, respectively, and also the threefold truth, i.e., voidness, temporariness, and the middle. This theory appears in Genshin's work, Amida-bushinshu 阿弥陀部心集.

Amida sanjushichigo 阿弥陀三十七号 Thirty-seven names of Amida listed by Shinran in the preface to the Jodo Wasan (Hymns on the Pure Land): 1) muryoko 無量光, infinite light, 2) shinjitsumyo 真実明, true illumination, 3) muhenko 無辺光, boundless light, 4) byodogaku 平等覚, equal enlightenment, 5) mugeko 無碍光, unhindered light, 6) nanjigi 難思議, inconceivable one, 7) mutaiko 無対光, incomparable light, 8) hikkyoe 畢竟依, ultimate resort, 9) koenno 光焔王, king of the flaming light, 10) daiogu 大応供, great arhat, 11) shojoko 清浄光, pure light, 12) kangiko 歓喜光, light of joy, 13) daianni 大安慰, great consolation, 14) chieko 智慧光, light of wisdom, 15) fudanko 不断光, unceasing light, 16) nanjiko 難思光, inconceivable light, 17) mushoko 無称光, ineffable light, 18) chonichigakko 超日月光, light outshining the sun and the moon, 19) mutodo 無等等, equal to the unequaled, 20) kodaie 広大会, great assembly, 21) daishinkai 大心海, great oceanic mind, 22) mujoson 無上尊, highest honored one, 23) byodoriki 平等力, equalizing power, 24) daishinriki 大心力, great mind-power, 25) mushobutsu 無称仏, ineffable Buddha, 26) bagaba 婆伽婆, bhagavat, 27) kodo 講堂, lecture-hall, 28) shojo daishoju 清浄大摂受, pure, great embracing one, 29) fukashigison 不可思議尊, inconceivable honorable one, 30) dojoju 道場樹, bodhi-tree, 31) shinmuryo 真無量, truly immeasurable one, 32) shojogaku 清浄楽, pure music, 33) hongan kudokuju 本願功徳聚, mass of the merits of the Primal Vow, 34) shojokun 清浄薫, pure fragrance, 35) kudokuzo 功徳蔵, store of merits, 36) mugokuson 無極尊, limitless honored one, and 37) namo fukashigiko 南無不可思議光, taking refuge in the inconceivable light. See juniko.

Amida sanmyo 阿弥陀三名 Amida's three names: 1) Muryoju 無量寿, Amitayus, Infinite Life; 2) Muryoko 無量光, Amitabha, Infinite Light; 3) Kanro 甘露, Amrta, Nectar.

Amida san'yasanbutsu sarubutsudan kadonindokyo 阿弥陀三耶三仏薩楼仏檀過度人道経 The Sutra on the Way of Salvation of Humans by Amida, the Perfectly Enlightened One, that Transcends all Buddhas; tr. by Chih Ch'ien (Shiken) of the Wu kingdom during 223-228; often abbreviated to Daiamidakyo 大阿弥陀経; the second earliest Chinese translation of the Larger Sutra. See goson shichiketsu. [KG.2,5]

Amida sanzon 阿弥陀三尊 The Amida triad; Amida and his two attendant bodhisattvas: Kannon and Seishi.

Amidasen 阿弥陀仙 'Amida Rsi'; Amida the Hermit; an appellation for Amida, used, for example, by Nagarjuna (Ryuju) in his Twelve Adorations (Junirai).

Amida senbo 阿弥陀懺法 The ritual for repentance dedicated to Amida; the ritual of repenting one's evils before Amida and the Three Treasures (sambo) and aspiring to be born in his Pure Land after death. The ritual originated from Ennin's Saihosenbo 西方懺法, and was first performed on Mt. Hiei and in the imperial court, and later at the Chion-in and Honganji Temples. See Ennin.

Amida shiyuikyo 阿弥陀思惟経 The Sutra on Contemplation of Amida; refers to the Amidabutsu daishiyui kyosetsu jomon 阿弥陀仏大思惟経説序文 (Preface to the Sutra on Great Contemplation of Amida), which appears in the Darani-jukyo 陀羅尼集経 (Sutra Containing Dharani) [T.18, No.901, p.800 ff.].

Amida shuji 阿弥陀種子 The sacred letter of Amida, namely, HRIH.

Amida wasan 阿弥陀和賛 A Japanese hymn eulogizing the virtue of Amida. [K.48.]

amiginu 阿弥衣 Also, amie 網衣 (a net robe); a special robe worn by monks of the Jishu 時宗, often seen in the pictures of Ippen.

amirita 阿蜜哩多 Sk. amrta; kanro 甘露 (nectar); a divine drink or medicine used by gods to attain immortality; often used to describe the Buddha Dharma.

Amita 阿弥陀 I. According to Genshin (942-1017), the Sanskrit syllables A, MI and TA represent the triple truth of the void, the temporary, and the middle; see Kanjin ryakuyoshu 観心略要集, A Compendium of Contemplation of Mind; (Eshin Sozu Zenshu I, 277). II. Kakuban (1095-1143), in his Amida-hishaku阿弥陀秘釈, the Esoteric Meaning of Amida, interprets these three syllables in various esoteric ways.

an 庵 Also soan 草庵 ('grass-roofed hut') and hoan 蓬庵 ('thatched cottage'); a hermitage. I. A small hall built in the same premises of the graveyard of the founder or an eminent monk of a Zen temple; tatchu 塔頭. II. A small hall before it is promoted to the rank of a temple. III. A small hall that belongs to a large temple. According to the survey of temples in 1788, the five principal Zen temples (gosan) in Kyoto had a number of an: the Nanzenji Temple had 23 an, the Tenryuji Temples 79, the Shokokuji Temple 12, the Kenninji Temple 29 and the Tofukuji Temple 71. See anju.

an 暗 Darkness; ignorance; an indistinguishable state; the noumenal aspect of existence; see myo 明.

ana 阿拏 Sk. anu; gokumi 極微; a particle; the smallest unit of the material element. See sumoku, III.

Anabadatta 阿那婆達多 Sk. Anavatapta; a dragon king. [Lotus.]

anagon 阿那含 Sk. anagamin; 'a no-returner', a Hinayana sage who has destroyed subtle evil passions and is no longer subject to rebirth in the world of desire. [Dai.; KG.5; Kan.]

anagonka 阿那含果 The stage of a no-returner: Sk. anagami-phala; the second highest rank in Hinayana; one who attains this stage will never again be reborn in the world of desire; see fugenka. [Dai.; KG.5]

anahana 阿那波那 Sk. anapana; exhalation (ana) and inhalation (apana); also, anhan 安般; translated as susokukan 数息観; concentration on one's breathing while counting its number.

anakashiko あなかしこ, 穴賢,噫畏 Humbly and respectfully; 'ana' is an interjection and 'kashiko' is used for 'kashikoshi,' an adjective meaning 'with awe and humbleness.' [Fumi.; MT.]

ana myoga あな冥加 'Heavens!'; an exclamatory remark. [K.551]

Anan 阿難 Abbr. of Ananda 阿難陀; Sk. Ananda ('Happiness' or 'Joy'); a cousin and one of the ten great disciples of the Buddha. After he joined the Sangha, he constantly attended on the Buddha for more than twenty years and committed all his sermons to memory. He was therefore renowned as 'first and foremost in hearing the sermons.' After the Buddha's death, Ananda recited the sermons, which were later compiled as a collection of sutras. See ketsuju.

Annami 安阿弥 The name which Kaikei 快慶 used for himself.

Anannari 阿難那利 Sk. Anupalipta; the name of a Buddha. [Sukha.]

Anan sonja 阿難尊者 Venerable Ananda. See Anan. [JW.]

Anaritsu 阿那律 Sk. Aniruddha; also Anaritsuda 阿那律陀, Anirudda 阿瀦楼陀 and Risho 離障; one of the ten great disciples of the Buddha; renowned for his divine sight; see judai-deshi. [Zen.]

Anaritsuda 阿那律陀 See Anaritsu. [Zen]

anata makase あなたまかせ 'Leaving everything up to you'; 'you' here refers to Amida; leaving everything up to Amida is the state of mind of a person of true faith in the Jodoshin school. [Issa]

anchinho 安鎮法 An esoteric ritual for securing peace of one's home; offering of prayers to a new house or stupa. This term, however, is limited to a new building at the imperial household or shogunate family. For ordinary families, the term antakuho 安宅法 is used. A mandala scroll is hung at the ritual and the main object of worship is either Fudo Myoo 不動明王 or Yoe Kannon 葉衣観音 when a new house is consecrated, and Hachiji Monju 八字文殊 is enshrined when an old house is consecrated. In the Tendai esoteric tradition, anchinkakokuho 安鎮家国法 (the ritual of praying for peace of the home and the state) is conducted. Cf. jichinsai.

anchin-kokkaho 安鎮国家法 The ritual for securing the peace and quiet of the state; an esoteric ritual performed in the imperial palace, in which Fudo (Acala) is the principal deity; abbreviated as kokuchin 国鎮; one of the four great rituals of the Mountain School of Tendai (sanmon shika-daiho 山門四ケ大法). A similar ritual performed at an ordinary house is called kachin 家鎮 or chintaku 鎮宅.

andae 安陀会 Sk. antar-vasa; one of the three robes of a monk; see sanne.

Andarakoku 案達羅国 Andhra; the name of a kingdom; a powerful dynasty in south India, founded after King Asoka's death, lasting about 450 years until 225. The first king, Simka, called his dynasty 'Satavahana' ('riding on a gandharva called Sata'). The famous tower Amaravati and the cave temple Ajanta were constructed under the patronage of this dynasty. Also, King Gautamiputra Yajnasri was a patron of Nagarjuna.

Andora ocho アンドラ王朝 Sk. Andhra dynasty, a dynasty which thrived in south India for about 450 years, from the time of the death of King Asoka (BCE 232) to C.E. 225. The great stupa at Amaravati and the earliest part of Ajanta were constructed during the reign of the Satavahana royal family. It is said that King Gautami-putra Yajnasri of this family offered Nagarjuna a cave in Mt. Black Bee. Thus, this king's contribution to the development of Mahayana was very great.

angesho 安下処 'The place where a monk can unload his bag and take rest'; a lodge.

ango 安居 I. 'Peaceful dwelling'; Sk. varsika; originally the rainy season of three months, from the 16th day of the 4th month to the 15th day of the 7th month, during which monks stay in their monasteries concentrating on Buddhist studies and practice. [K.46; Tai.39] II. 'The monastic retreat'; the title of the 79th chapter of the Shobogenzo.

ango-e 安居会 A lecture-meeting during the ango period. See ango. [R.III-19]

Angurimala アングリマーラ Sk. Angulimala; see Okutsumara.

angya 行脚 Traveling for the sake of the Buddhist practice; Buddhist pilgrimage. [Tai.20]

angyaso 行脚僧 An itinerant monk.

anin 轌人 A dumb person. [Ron.]

anja 行者 One who does miscellaneous work in a Zen temple. In China, a person who is not ordained, keeps his hair long and may even be married can be an anja. In Japan, anja is usually a shaven-headed person, but later any one who serves a head priest or his attendant irrespective of whether he is ordained or not. [Tai.39,40]

anjin 安心 A settled heart; faith; assurance; firm belief.

anjin ketsujo 安心決定 Settling of one's faith; one of the key terms in the Jodoshin school. [Fumi.]

Anjinketsujosho 安心決定抄 A Tract on the Firm Establishment of Faith; the author is unknown but is presumed to have been someone closely related to the Seizan sub-school of the Jodo school. Rennyo found this to be a highly inspirational book and compared it to a gold mine. [AK.]

anjin kigyo 安心起行 Faith and practice; settling one's faith in Amida and performing the Pure Land practice. [Gu.]

anjin kigyo sago 安心起行作業 'Faith, practice, and act'; a term used in Pure Land Buddhism; it originally appears in Shan-tao's (Zendo) Liturgy for Birth (Ojoraisan). 1) Faith: refers particularly to the threefold mind (sanshin 三心) mentioned in the Contemplation Sutra; 2) Practice: performance of the five mindful practices (gonenmon 五念門) set up by Vasubandhu (Seshin) or the five right practices (goshogyo 五正行) provided by Shan-tao, and 3) Act: the fourfold prescribed manner of practice (shishu 四修).

anjin ritsumyo 安心立命 Also, anjin ritsumei; settling one's body and life by attaining steadfast faith or performing prescribed practices; attaining complete peace and establishing one's course of life (myo 命) in accord with the ultimate reality. [H.56,60; Zen.]

anjin rondai 安心論題 'The topics on faith'; the thirty topics on faith of the Jodoshin school. In 1926 a hundred topics for discussion were chosen by the Kangakuryo 勧学寮 (seminary of scholars of the highest rank) at Nishi Honganji; 70 of them are doctrinal topics, and 30 are about faith of the Jodoshin school. The number of the topics on faith has been reduced to seventeen since 2002.

anjo 安処 A peaceful place; refers to Nirvana. [KG]

anjo 安詳 Peacefully and calmly.

Anjo no miei 安静の御影 Also Anjo no goei; Shinran's portrait at Anjo; painted by Hogen Choen 法眼朝圓 at Anjo in Aichi Prefecture at the request of Senkai 専海, a disciple of Shinbutsu 真仏, when Shinran was 83.

anju 庵主 A monk or hermit of a temporary habitation; also, a nun who lives in a hermitage. Generally, a novice who lives in a small temple. See an 庵.

anju 闇誦 Reciting from memory.

anju 安住 I. To establish securely; Sk. pratisthapaka, pratisthita [Sukha.], vyavasthita [Sam.]. II. A comfortable existence; sparsa-vihara [Hosso.].

Anju 安住 Peacefully dwelling; Sk. Supratisthita*; the 10th of the 11 Buddhas in the east in the prose of the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

Ankokuji 安国寺 I. A temple in Chang-an (Choan) constructed by Emperor Hsuan玄宗 (Genso) in 713. II. The temple of the Nichiren school in Kanagawa Prefecture where Nichiren wrote the Risshoankokuron. III. At the suggestion of Muso Soseki, in 1338, Ashikaga Takauji and his brother, Tadayoshi, undertook to build a temple and a tower in each of the sixty-six provinces and two islands in order to appease the souls of dead soldiers. The temple was called Ankokuji (temple for securing peace of the state) and the tower, Rishoto 利生塔 (tower for benefiting living beings). Such temples are known to exist in sixty-one districts and the two islands.

Ankokuron 安国論 An abbreviation of the Rissho-ankokuron.

anko myorai 闇去明来 'When darkness is dispersed, light comes'; doubt is gone when the wisdom of faith comes.

Ankoru-wato アンコール・ワート Ankor Wat; ruins of the huge stone temple in Cambodia. The kings built many temples after the capital of Cambodia was set up at Ankor in the beginning of the 9th century during the Khmer dynasty. One of them, Ankor Wat, was constructed by King Suryavarman the Second (1113-1145). At first, it was dedicated to the god Visnu (Bishunu), but later became a Buddhist temple. Its dimensions are 215 meters from east to west, 187 meters from south to north, and 60 meters high. This grandiose temple represents the apex of Khmer art. Repair work began to be undertaken in 1908 by the l'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient but was suspended in 1971 owing to the civil war which began in 1970. During the civil war, the Pol Pot faction belonging to the Khmer Rouge was responsible for extensive damage to the ruins. In 2001, a team of Japanese archeologists discovered a stone pillar, measuring 1 meter by 45 cm., on which are carved 1,008 images of seated Buddhas in symmetrical order; this can be taken as a proof that esoteric Buddhism was popular in the 13th century.

ankotsu 安骨 Laying in state the ashes of a deceased person in the hall.

anmara 菴摩羅 Sk. amra; the name of a plant; it bears juicy and tasteful fruits.

anmoraju 菴没羅樹 An amra tree; see anmara.

Anmaraju-on 菴摩羅樹園 'Mango-grove monastery'; Sk. Amrapali-arama near Vaisali; the monastery donated byAmrapali; one of the five monasteries in India (goshoja).

anmaraka 菴摩羅果 Sk. amra; the name of an edible fruit; also used as medicine.

anmyo 闇冥 Darkness; spiritual darkness; ignorance. [Ron.]

Anmyocho 安明頂 'Peak of Mt. Sumeru'; Sk. Meru-kuta or Sumeru-kuta [Sukha.]; the 14th of the 53 Buddhas of the past. [Dai.]

Anmyosen 安明山 'The mountain that is resting securely (in the deep sea) and is brilliant (on the top)'; refers to Mt. Sumeru (Shumisen).

annahanna 安那般那 Sk. ana-apana (inhaling and exhaling); meditation on one's breathing. See susokukan.

Annami 安阿弥 The Buddhist name of Kaikei 快慶.

An-nan-jin-go no ichinisanshi 安難陳護の一二三四 Divisions of one's consciousness into one, two, three, and four portions by Anne, Nanda, Jinna, and Goho, respectively. Concerning the structure of each consciousness, it is said that Anne 安慧 (Sthiramati), Nanda 難陀 (Nanda), Jinna 陳那 (Dignaga), and Goho 護法 (Dharmapala), respectively, advanced the theory of 'one part' (ichibunsetsu 一分説), 'two parts' (nibunsetsu 二分説), 'three parts' (sanbunsetsu 三分説), and 'four parts' (shibunsetsu 四分説). [Hosso.]

Anne 安慧 Sk. Sthiramati; 6th century; an Indian master of the Yogacara school (Yugagyoha); one of the ten great masters of the Consciousness-Only doctrine (judaironji). His doctrinal standpoint is called the 'theory of Consciousness-Only that possesses no perceptive form' (nirakara-vijnana-vadin, muso-yuishikiha 無相唯識派), which negates the existence of objects of perception and subjective perceptive aspect. His works include the Commentary on the Thirty Verses of Consciousness-Only (Yuishiki sanjujushaku 唯識三十頌釈), the Commentary on the Discourse Distinguishing the Middle and the Extreme Views (Chuhen- funbetsuron shakusho 中辺分別論釈疏) and the Commentary on the Adornment of Mahayana Sutras (Daijo shogonkyoronshaku 大乗荘厳経論釈). [S.III-1.]

Annen 安然 A Tendai monk; born 841; a descendant of Saicho's relative and a disciple of Ennin 円仁 and Henjo 遍昭. He dwelt in the Godaiin Temple 五大院 on Mt. Hiei, and systematized Tendai esotericism; he wrote more than a hundred works. He died during 889-98, and was posthumously awarded the title of Akaku Daishi 阿覚大師 (Master 'Enlightened to A'). He is considered as the greatest master of Tendai after Saicho.

annon 安穏 Peace and tranquility; resting at ease; an easy or comfortable state; Sk. ksema [Hosso.; Yoga.]; another name for gedatsu 解脱, emancipation, and nehan 涅槃, Nirvana. [Ron.]

annondo 安穏道 'The path of peace and tranquility'; the path leading to Nirvana. [Ron.]

Annon(kai) 安穏(界) 'Peaceful'; Sk. Ksemavati*; the land of the Buddha Sanjogyo 三乗行 in the northeast mentioned in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

Annyo 安養 Peace and provision; another name for Amida's Pure Land. [Dai.; JW.; KW.; S.IV-1; Tai.6; YM.]

Annyo josetsu 安養浄刹 The Pure Land of Peace and Provision. [SS.]

Annyokai 安養界 The Realm of Peace and Provision; another name for Amida's Pure Land. [JW.; KG.2; Tai.18.]

Annyokoku 安養国 The Land of Peace and Provision; Sk. Sukhavati. [Dai.]

Annyo soku Jakko 安養即寂光 'The Land of Peace and Provision is identical with the Land of the Tranquil Light.' In Tendai, Buddhas' lands are divided into four; according to the Tendai view, Amida's land ranks at the lowest. However, from the viewpoint of the perfect fusion (en'yu 円融), it is identical with the highest Buddha-land called Land of the Tranquil Light (Jakkodo 寂光土). See shido 四土.

anoku bodai 阿耨菩提 A contraction of anokutara sanmyaku sanbodai 阿耨多羅三藐三菩提 the highest, perfect enlightenment. [SS.]

Anokudatchi 阿耨達池 Lake Anavatapta; Sk. Anavatapta (lit. 'no heat or fever'). It is believed that the lake is in the northern part of the Himalayas and is the origin of the four main rivers which flow through the Jambu continent (Enbudai). See Kosuisen.

Anoku Kannon 阿耨観音 The twentieth of the thirty-three manifestations of Kannon; Sk. Anavatapta; a form of Kannon manifested when one is drifting in the ocean and facing the danger of harm by fish or demon. If one prays to Kannon, one will not be drowned. See Kannon, sanjusan Kannon.

anokutara-sanmyaku-sanbodai 阿耨多羅三藐三菩提 Sk. anuttara-samyak-sambodhi; the highest, perfect enlightenment.

anokutara-sanmyaku-sanbodai-e 阿耨多羅三藐三菩提衣 'The robe of the highest, perfect enlightenment'; another name for a Buddhist robe, because the robe leads one to enlightenment; in the same sense, the robe is also called gedatsu-e 解脱衣, the robe for attaining emancipation.

Anpan-shuikyo 安般守意経 The Sutra on Controlling the Mind through Regulated Inhalation and Exhalation; translated by An Shih Kao 安世高 (Anseiko); 2 fasc.; T.15, No.602. The full title is Daianpan-shuikyo 大安般守意経. The sutra explains the method of controlling the mind through regulated breathing; an 安 and pan or han 般 stand for anna 安那 (ana, inhalation) and hanna 般那 (apana, inhalation), respectively.

Anraku 安楽 I. Peace and bliss. II. The name of Amida's land; Sk. Sukhavati. See anraku no jussho. [Dai.; JW.; KG.2,3,4,5,6; KW.; YM.]

Anraku bukkoku 安楽仏国 The Buddha Land of Peace and Bliss; another name for Amida's Pure Land. [KW.]

Anraku butsudo 安楽仏土 The Buddha Land of Peace and Bliss; Sk. Sukhavati-lokadhatu [Sam.]; another name for Amida's Pure Land. [JW.]

Anraku-bo 安楽房 Honen's disciple. When he chanted the Liturgy for Birth (Ojoraisan) with his fellow-disciple, Juren, at Shishigatani in Kyoto, two court-ladies attending ex-Experor Gotoba, Matsumushi (松虫) and Suzumushi (鈴虫), came to them and were impressed by the chant, and so they became nuns under them. This incident led to the execution of these two monks. See Jogen no honan. [Tan. Post.]

anrakugyo 安楽行 The four peaceful practices; the practices prescribed in the Lotus Sutra, "Chapter on Peaceful Practices," for bodhisattvas who intend to spread the Lotus Sutra in the evil world. They are: faultless acts with body, mouth, and mind and making vows to save living beings.

Anrakugyo-hon 安楽行品 The "Chapter on Peaceful Practices"; the fourth chapter, and one of the four most important chapters, of the Lotus Sutra. The four peaceful practices with body, mouth, mind and vows are explained in this chapter. [S.IV-1.]

Anraku hodo 安楽宝土 The Treasure Land of Peace and Bliss; refers to Amida's Pure Land. [Ron.]

Anraku Jodo 安楽浄土 The Pure Land of Peace and Bliss; another name for Amida's Pure Land. [IT.; JW.; MT.; SS.; YM.]

Anraku Josetsu 安楽浄刹 The Pure Land of Peace and Bliss; another name for Amida's Pure Land. [Nimon; SS.]

anrakuju 安楽住 Dwelling in peace; Sk. sukhha-vihara. [Sam.]

Anrakukoku 安楽国 The Land of Peace and Bliss; another name for Amida's Pure Land. [IT.; JW.; Sane.; SS.]

Anraku kokudo 安楽国土 The Land of Peace and Bliss; Sk. Sukhavati. [Sutra.]

anraku no homon 安楽の法門 The Dharma-gate of bliss; the method of attaining or actualizing peace and happiness; refers to the Zen teaching. [Za.]

Anraku no jussho 安楽の十勝 The ten supreme merits of Amida's Land of Peace and Bliss; the view held by K'ui-chi 窺基 (Kiki): 1) the Lord Teacher's abode is supreme, 2) the lifespan of the beings who receive the teaching is long, 3) the land is free of captivity, 4) the people have pure inclinations and no sensual desires, 5) there are no women, 6) the people are able to practice without retrogression, 7) they have pure inclinations and no defilement, 8) the land is full of glorious adornments, 9) the nembutsu controls all passions, and 10) the people attain birth by ten recitations of the nembutsu.

Anraku no nonin 安楽の能人 The Lord Teacher of the Land of Peace and Bliss; refers to Amida Buddha. [KG.6]

Anrakuritsu 安楽律 The Tendai Vinaya school with its headquarters at the Anrakuritsu-in 安楽律院 in Yokawa on Mt. Hiei; established at the beginning of the Edo period (1603-1867) by the "three great masters of Anraku": Myoryu 妙立, Reiku 霊空, and Genmon 玄門. Their Vinaya standpoint is characterized by strict observance of the Hinayana precepts of the Four-part Vinaya school (Shibunritsu 四分律).

Anraku sekai 安楽世界 The World of Peace and Bliss; Amida's Pure Land. [JW.; Mura.; SS.]

Anrakushu 安楽集 A Collection of Passages Concerning Birth in the Pure Land; 2 fasc., by Tao-ch'o 道綽 (Doshaku) [T.47, No.1958]. Based mainly on the Contemplation Sutra, the author expounds the Pure Land teaching in twelve chapters with a total of thirty-eight headings. He divides the whole teaching of the Buddha into two: the Path of Sages (shodomon) and the Pure Land Path (jodomon), and asserts that the practices of the Path of Sages are too difficult for ordinary people of the Latter Age; he then urges them to follow the Pure Land Path, take refuge in Amida, and diligently practice the nembutsu in order to attain birth in the Pure Land. He also corrects wrong views held by masters of other schools, such as the view that Amida is a Buddha of Accommodated Body (ojin). This work is highly esteemed as one of the canonical texts of the Jodoshin school and is often quoted by Shinran in his Teaching, Practice, Faith, and Enlightenment (Kyogyoshinsho). [KG.2,3,4,6]
The outlines of the twelve chapters are as follows: 1) clarification of the circumstances under which the Pure Land teaching arose, together with the discussion on its central doctrines like Amida's three bodies; 2) the Bodhi-mind in the Pure Land teaching; 3) distinguishing the Path of Sages and the Pure Land Path; 4) the predecessors of the Pure Land teaching and the merits of the nembutsu samadhi; 5) a long period of practice required in the Path of Sages and a short period of practice for the nembutsu followers; 6) comparison between Amida's land and other Buddhas' lands; 7) the manifested glorious aspects of the Pure Land are in accord with True Suchness (shinnyo); 8) recommendation of birth in the Pure Land in many sutras; 9) comparison of pain and pleasure in the worlds of Samsara and in the Pure Land; 10) the meaning of 'merit-transference' (eko 迴向); 11) necessity of good teachers and different conditions awaiting dying persons, and 12) recommendation of birth in the Pure Land based on the Sutra on the Ten Ways of Attaining Birth (Juojokyo 十往生経).

Anraon 菴羅園 Amravana; the forest donated to the Buddha by Amrapali, a prostitute, when he was sojourning in Vaisali; one of the five viharas (goshoja); famous as the place where the Vimalakirti Sutra (Yuimagyo) was delivered.

anri 行履 Acts, doings; everything we do in daily life.

anryu 安立 Securely establishing. I. 'Placing someone securely' in the Buddhist path. II. Provisional establishment, as of a reality principle; Sk. vyavasthana [Sam.]. III. Peace of mind, security. [FK.]

Anryugyo 安立行 'Well Established Practice'; Sk. Supratisthita-carya; the name of a bodhisattva; [Lotus.]

anryu shinnyo 安立真如 True Suchness established behind phenomenal aspects of painful reality; one of the seven kinds of True Suchness. See shichi-shinnyo.

anryutai 安立諦 'Established truth'; reality in the worldly sense which is recognized as existent in the light of relative truth. Opposite of hianryutai 非安立諦; see sezokutai. [S.IV-1.]

Anseiko 安世高 Ch. An Shih Kao; a prince from Parthia (Ansokukoku 安息国); 'An 安' in his name indicates his country of origin, which was Ansoku 安息, Parthia. Giving up his heirship to the throne to his uncle, he became a Buddhist monk; well-versed in Abhidharma (abidatsuma) metaphysics and meditation; went to Lo-yang 洛陽 in 148, where he stayed for more than twenty years and produced translations of many scriptures; well known as a translator of the earliest period in China.

anshitsu 庵室 A monk's hut; hermitage.

anshitsu nembutsu 闇室念仏 'Practicing the Buddha-recollection samadhi (nembutsu zanmai) in a dark room'; reciting Amida's name in a loud voice in a dark room, so that one can easily attain concentration of thought.

ansho 安処 See anjo.

ansho 暗証 'Obscure realization'; practicing only meditation and lacking in knowledge of Buddhism.

ansho 闇障 The hindrance of spiritual darkness.

anshojoshin 安清浄心 Peaceful pure mind; one of the three minds distinguished by Vasubandhu which bodhisattvas should attain as the cause of birth in Amida's land. The other two minds are muzenshojoshin 無染清浄心 (undefiled pure mind) and raku-shojoshin 楽清浄心 (blissful pure mind). [Ron.]

ansho no hoto 暗証之朋党 Those with obscure realization; see next entry.[Tai.24.]

ansho no zenji 暗証の禅師 A meditation master with obscure realization; a Zen monk who clings to meditation and lacks knowledge of Buddhism. [Tsu.193]

Ansokukoku 安息国 Parthia; an ancient kingdom in Persia; founded by King Arsakes the First about 250 B.C.E.; this Arsakes dynasty lasted for about 500 years until it was conquered by the Sasan dynasty in 226. It flourished as a large kingdom having under its dominion eighteen countries in the Indus River region and even Mesopotamia. This country produced such eminent monks as An Shih Kao 安世高 (Anseiko), An Hsuan 安玄 (Angen), and An Fa-ch'in 安法欽 (Anhokin) in the 2nd to 3rd centuries.

antaku 闇宅 'A dark house'; refers to Samsara. [Ron.]

Antira 安底羅 Sk. Andira; one of the twelve guardian deities of Medicine Master Tathagata (Yakushi Nyorai).

Anuruda 阿泥楼駄 Sk. Aniruddha [Sukha.]; see Anurudda.

Anurudda 阿瀦楼駄 Sk. Aniruddha ('Unobstructed'); one of the ten great disciples of the Buddha, renowned for his divine sight; also Risho 離障. [Ami.]

anwa chojaku 安和調適 Also, anna jojaku; peaceful and comfortable; Sk. sukha-samarpita. [Sukha.]

Anyakyojinnyo 阿若躁陳如 Sk. Ajnata-kaundinya; P. Anna-Kondanna; translated into Chinese as Chihonzai 知本際, Ryohonzai 了本際, etc.; a native of Donavatthu village near Kapilavastu. He was the youngest of the eight fortune-tellers who were invited to the castle to foresee the future of Siddhartha. When he heard that Siddhartha had renounced the world, he followed him with four friends; thus he is reckoned as the head of the five companions of the Buddha before his attainment of Buddhahood (gobiku). Later, he became the Buddha's disciple. Kondanna or Kondanna was his family name; as he was the first to understand the Four Noble Truths expounded at the first teaching assembly, the Buddha praised him, saying, "Annasi Kodanna" (You understand well, Kodannana!). Since then, the word "Anna" came to be affixed to his name. It is said that he realized arhatship on the first occasion that he heard the teaching of Dharma. [Lotus.; Sukha.]

An'yo(kai) 安養(界) See Annyo(kai).

An'yo-in 安養院 The An'yo-in Temple; the temple located in Fukakusa, Kyoto, where Dogen lived for some time writing the first chapter of the Shobogenzo, entitled Bendowa. The present Gonjoji Temple 忻浄寺 is believed to be at the same site of this temple.

anza 安坐 'Peaceful sitting'; sitting down; Sk. nisadana. [Sam.]

anza 安座 A ceremony of hearing a sermon after installing a Buddhist statue in the hall.

anzen 暗禅 'Dark-minded meditation'; practicing meditation only without depending on scriptures.

Ao Fudo 青不動 The painting of Fudo in navy blue preserved at the Shoren-in Temple 青蓮院 in Kyoto.

aooni 青鬼 'A green devil'; a devil that rebukes and torments sinners in hell.

aoshinju 青真珠 Blue pearl; Sk. nila-mukta. [Sukha.]

apadana 阿波陀那 Sk. avadana; one of the twelve kinds of scriptures; an exposition of the Dharma through allegories. See junibukyo.

arabotoke 新仏 'A new Buddha'; a recently deceased person.

aragyo 荒行 An ascetic practice; used for the austere disciplines practiced in Japan, such as walking in a steep mountain, standing naked under a waterfall, and walking on fire; they are intended to fulfill the vows or attain a higher spiritual state.

Arahakadera 荒陵寺 Another name for Shitennoji 四天王寺 in Osaka.

arahijiri 荒聖 A monk with rude behavior; also, a monk who practices austerities.

araka 阿羅呵(or 訶) Sk. arhat. See arakan. [Kan.; KG.5]

arakan 阿羅漢 Also rakan 羅漢; Sk. arhat, which is interpreted as 'killing the enemy (i.e. evil passions)' or 'worthy (of offerings)'; hence, translated as setsuzoku 殺賊 and ogu 応供. I. One of the ten epithets for the Buddha (jugo). II. A Hinayana saint who has completely destroyed his evil passions and attained emancipation from the cycle of birth and death. See kushu rakan, shika.

arakando 阿羅漢道 Arhatship; the state of an arhat; the highest of the four stages of spiritual attainment in Hinayana.

arakanka 阿羅漢果 Sk. arhat-phala, 'the fruit of arhatship', which is to be attained by destroying all evil passions; the highest of the four stages of sainthood in Hinayana. See shika.

arakanko 阿羅漢向 A Hinayana sage proceeding to arhatship.

arakanni 阿羅漢尼 A female arhat; Sk. arhanti. [Yoga.]

arama 阿羅磨 Sk. arama; garden.

aranba 阿藍婆 Sk. rati-lambha ('attaining pleasure'); a kind of herb; when used as an ointment one feels refreshed and one's mind becomes agile.

arannya 阿蘭若 Sk. aranya; a forest; a hermitage; a quiet dwelling for monks to practice the Way, not very far from towns, such as a forest or field. Living in aranya is one of the twelve dhuta rules (zuda). According to the Eon-ongi 慧苑音義 (Hui-yuan's Lexicon), three aranya places are distinguished: 1) daruma-arannya (達磨阿蘭若, dharmaranya) ― any place because all dharmas are originally void and tranquil; 2) matoga-arannya (摩登伽阿蘭若, matangaranya) ― a burial ground removed from the nearest village by at least one krosa (approx. 4,000 feet); and 3) dandaka-arannya (檀陀伽阿蘭若, dandakaranya) ― a desolate place. [K.36]

arannyaju no kashitsu shiho 阿蘭若住の過失四法 The four unwholesome tendencies in the wrong way of living in the aranya; those who lack wisdom and diligence and yet live in the aranya are liable to the following tendencies: 1) coveting much sleep, 2) coveting riches and gains, 3) showing abnormal behaviors under certain circumstances, and 4) not enjoying living in the aranya. [Juju.]

arannyaju no tano shishu no kashitu 阿蘭若住の他の四種の過失 The four other unwholesome tendencies in the wrong way of living in the aranya: 1) presuming proudly that one has already attained a higher spiritual stage which he had not yet, 2) rejecting in the mind the sutras of profound teaching, 3) breaking the samadhis of emptiness, non-form, and non-desire, and 4) bearing enmity toward those who uphold the sutras of profound teaching. [Juju.]

arannyasho 阿蘭若処 Abode in aranya; Sk. aranya-vana-prastha. [Lanka.]

Arara 阿羅邏 See next entry.

Ararakarama 阿羅邏迦羅摩 Sk. Arada Kalama, P. Alara Kalama; the Buddha's first teacher; he taught that the meditation in the Abode of Nothingness (Mushousho 無所有処) was the highest state of emancipation.

arashoryo 新精霊 'A new spirit'; a person who died recently; a bon service for the repose of
the soul of such a person.

araya 阿頼耶 Sk. alaya; see arayashiki. [S.III-1.]

araya-ai 阿頼耶愛 Love of Alaya-consciousness; Sk. alaya-trsna. [Yoga.]

arayashiki 阿頼耶識 Sk. alaya-vijnana ('store-consciousness'); the eighth and the most fundamental of the eight levels of consciousness established in the Hosso school. It stores all potential energy for the mental and physical manifestations of one's existence, and supplies the substance to all existence. It also receives impressions from all functions of other consciousnesses and retains them as potential energy for their further manifestations and activities. In the Ti-lun (Jiron) school, however, alaya is considered the 'true, eternal, and pure consciousness.' See ariyashiki, hasshiki, Jironshu. [Lanka.]

arennya 阿練若 More popularly, arannya 阿蘭若; Sk. aranya; see arannya.

ariju 阿梨樹 An arjaka tree. [Lotus.]

Arinenmi 阿離念弥 Sk. Aranemin; the 9th of the 143 bodhisattvas listed in the Jujubibasharon. See Mujonen. [Juju.]

Ariwaradera 在原寺 A temple in Nara constructed by Ariwara Narihira 在原業平 (825-880), one of the 'six poetic geniuses' (rokkasen). [Izu.]

ariya 阿梨耶 I. Sk. arya; holy; a sage. II. Sk. alaya; see ariyashiki. [Lanka.; Sam.].

Ariyadeva アーリヤデーヴァ Sk. Aryadeva; in Chinese, Shodaiba 聖提婆, Shoten 聖天 or, simpley, Daiva 提婆; also called Kanadeva ('One-eyed Deva'). He flourished around 170-270. He entered the priesthood under Nagarjuna and soon became an excellent Madhyamika scholar. The follower of an opponent killed him because he strongly criticized non-Buddhist views. He wrote important Madhyamika works, including the Four-hundred-verse Discourse (Shihyakuron 四百論) and the One-hundred-verse Discourse (Hyakuron 百論). The latter was translated into Chinese by Hsuan-tsang (Genjo), 2 fasc. [T.30, No.1569] and became one of the foundation texts of the Three-Discourse school (Sanronshu).

ariya honjiki 阿梨耶本識 The primordial consciousness alaya; Sk. param alaya-vijnana. See ariyashiki. [Lanka.]

ariyashiki 阿梨耶識 Sk. alaya-vijnana [Sutra.], vijnanalaya [Lanka.]; used by Paramartha (真諦 Shindai) and Hsien-shou (賢首 Genju) to explain the manifestation of phenomena from the absolute reality, True Suchness (shinnyo). The term as it is used in the Daijokishinron refers to one's fundamental consciousness, which is the basis for both the noumenal principle, or the ultimate reality, and the phenomenal existence. In this sense, it is synonymous with the Tathagata-garbha (nyoraizo 如来蔵). In the Ti-lun school (Jironshu), Alaya is considered 'the true, eternal and pure consciousness' (shinjojoshiki 真常浄識) and is identified with the Tathagata-garbha and Buddha-nature (bussho 仏性), whereas the She-lun school (Shoronshu) considers it to be a defiled and delusory consciousness; the Hosso interpretation of alaya is that it is a base-consciousness of all phenomena. See arayashiki.

ariyashiki no hachigi 阿梨耶識の八義 The eight meanings of the Alaya-consciousness. According to the Principles of Mahayana (Daijo-gisho) by Hui-yuan 慧遠 (Eon) of Ching-ying-ssu 浄影寺 (Joyoji), alaya has the following eight meanings: 1) zoshiki 蔵識 (store consciousness) because Alaya is the same as the Tathaga-matrix (nyoraizo) and also because it is the storage of innumerable elements of Buddha-Dharma; 2) shoshiki 聖識 (sacred consciousness) because it produces virtues of the Great Sage, i.e., Buddha; 3) daiichigishiki 第一義識 ('highest principle' consciousness) because it is the mind of the ultimate truth; 4) joshiki 浄識 (pure consciousness) and also mukushiki 無垢識 (undefiled consciousness) because it is free of defilement; 5) shinshiki 真識 (true consciousness) because it is true and not false or delusory; 6) shinnyoshiki 真如識 ('true suchness' consciousness) because it is indestructible and unconditioned; 7) kashiki 家識 (home consciousness) and also takushiki 宅識 (residence consciousness) because it is the basis for all delusory manifestations and 8) honjiki 本識 (root consciousness) because it is the root of the delusory mind. See adanashiki no hachigi.

Ariyashura アーリヤシューラ Sk. Aryasura ('Holy Hero'); Shoyu 聖勇 in Chinese; flourished in the 3rd to 4th century; a Buddhist writer, celebrated as the author of the Jataka-mala, a collection of jataka stories. See Honshoman , Jatakamara..

asaba 阿娑縛 Sanskrit letters 'A, SA and VA'; they specifically represent the three sections in the Matrix-store Realm Mandala (Taizokai mandara): Buddha, Lotus, and Vajra, but are believed to contain all the sacred letters that represent all the deities of the Matrix-store Realm Mandala. See Asabasho. [MD]

Asabasho 阿娑縛抄 The A-SA-BA Compendium of Rituals; a comprehensive manual of rituals in the tradition of Tendai esotericism compiled by Ogawa Shocho 小川承澄 (1205-1282); 128 fasc. It also contains illustrations of sacred images, mandalas, etc. For the meaning of its title, A-SA-VA, see asaba.

asacha 朝茶 'Morning tea'; at a Zen temple, monks drink powdered tea after cleaning the halls in the morning. [Basho.]

asa daimoku yu nembutsu 朝題目夕念仏 A Tendai ritual of performing the Hokke senbo 法華懺法 (the Hokke ritual for repentance) in the morning and the Amida senbo 阿弥陀懺法 (the Amida rite) in the evening; also called asa senbo yu reiji 朝懺法夕例時.

Asahara Saichi 浅原才市 A devout follower of the Jodoshin school; 1850-1932; born in Shimane Prefecture, he was a ship's carpenter. From about 20, he began to seek true faith of the Other-Power (tariki) and attained it when he was about 50. Though a man of little education, he wrote many poems in Japanese syllabary expressing his deep devotion to Amida.

asaji 晨朝 Also, jinjo; originally, one of the three periods of the day, from the time of u 卯 to the time of mi 巳, which roughly correspond to six to ten o'clock in the morning. Used in the sense of the service performed in the morning. See rokuji.

Asaka monto 安積門徒 The Jodoshin followers in Asaka area in northern Japan; this community was formed by Kakuen 覚円, one of Shinran's direct disciples, as an offshoot of the Takada group. See Takadaha.

asa Kannon yu Yakushi 朝観音夕薬師 'Kannon in the morning and Yakushi in the evening'; the 18th day of the month is Kannon's day, so many go to worship this bodhisattva in the morning, and the 8th day of the month is Yakushi's day, so many go to worship this Buddha in the evening. In both cases, the moon is in the sky, which may be the reason for choosing the time of the visit.

asako 朝講 A morning lecture. [Ma.33.]

Asakusa Kannon 浅草観音 'Kannon at Asakusa'; the popular name of the Sensoji Temple 浅草寺.

asa senbo yu reiji 朝懺法夕例時 'The rite of repentance in the morning and the regular service in the evening'; a Tendai ritual of performing the Hokke senbo 法華懺法 ('Repentance based on the Lotus Sutra') in the morning and the reiji saho 例時作法 (regular service), i.e., Amida senbo 阿弥陀懺法, in the evening; also called asa daimoku yu nembutsu.

Asa Taishi 阿佐太子 Prince Ajwa; a son of King Seong Myong (Seimei 聖明) of Peikche (Korea); he was sent to Japan as an envoy to present a statue of Kannon in gold and copper to the Emperor Kinmei 欽明. [SS]

asaza 朝座 A morning gathering; morning sermon. [Ma.33.]

Asenagashi Jizo 汗流し地蔵 'Sweating Jizo'; Jizo bathed in perspiration undergoing suffering in place of human beings. Among many Jizo statues of this kind, the one on Mt. Koya is especially well-known.

Asetsuji 阿説示 Sk. Asva-jit ('Gaining Horses'); translated as Mesho 馬勝; one of the five companions of the Buddha before his attainment of Buddhahood; he became the Buddha's disciple.

asetsutaju 阿説他樹 An asvattha tree; the tree under which Sakyamuni attained enlightenment.

Ashada 阿沙陀 Sk. Asadha. I. The name of the 4th month in India. II. The name of a constellation; Toshuku 斗宿.

ashamashama 阿娑摩娑摩 Sk. asamasama ('unequal-equal'); translated as mutodo 無等等; an epithet for the Buddha; 'unequal' because, of all beings, Buddhas are unequaled; 'equal' because all Buddhas have the same Dharma-body. See mutodo.

Ashara 阿遮羅 Sk. Acala ('Immovable'). I. Refers to Fudo Myoo. II. The name of the eighth stage of a bodhisattva; fudoji 不動地.

Ashi 阿私 See Ashidasen.

ashi 唖子 A mute; in Zen, a beginner who is not able to say a word in answer to the master's question; also, one who has transcended the realm of verbal expression and, hence, does not say a word.

ashi tokumu 唖子得夢 'A mute has had a dream'; used to describe the mysterious Zen experience of satori which cannot be adequately explained to others. [M.]

Ashibiki no miei 足引きの御影 'Ashibiki' portrait of Honen; one of the portraits of Honen; painted by Hogen 法眼 at the request of Kujo Kanezane 九条兼実; preserved at Nison-in 二尊院, Kyoto. 'ashibiki' is a pillow word for a mountain, which in this case refers to Ogurayama 小倉山 where Nison-in is.

Ashidasen 阿私陀仙 The Hermit Asita; two different persons of the same name are mentioned in the scriptures: 1) A seer who visited the Buddha when he was born and foretold that he would become a great king or sage; 2) Sakyamuni's teacher in one of his past lives who expounded the Lotus Sutra to him.

ashi no ha ni nori no hoben 葦の葉に法の方便 'A means of Dharma-conveyance even for a leaf of reed.' Tradition has it that Bodhidharma (Daruma) came to Chine from India by crossing the sea by a leaf of reed; used to describe the usefulness of an apparently useless thing.

Ashisen 阿私仙 The Hermit Asita; see Ashidasen. [K.52.]

ashitaniwa kogan arite yubeniwa hakkotsu 朝には紅顔ありて夕には白骨 'A shining face in the morning but white bones in the evening'; part of one of the letters of Rennyo, which describes impermanence of human life.

Ashuba 阿湿婆 Sk. Asvaka; one of the sixteen great kingdoms (juroku-daikoku) in India at the time of the Buddha. [KG.6]

ashuba 阿芻婆 Sk. aksobhya ('not moved'); a large number; the 20th in the 52 scales of numbers in India; said to be equal to 100 vimvara (one vimvara is equal to 10,000 nayuta). See sumoku I. [Kusha.; Lotus.]

ashudaju 阿輸陀樹 An asvattha tree; the tree under which Sakyamuni attained enlightenment. See asetsutaju. [Juju.]

ashudana 阿周陀那 Sk. arjuna; a deciduous tree that grows to the height of more than twenty meters. Also, the given name of Nagarjuna, because he was born under an arjuna tree.

ashukaju 阿輸迦樹 Sk. asoka ('no sorrow'); translated as muyuju 無憂樹 ('a tree of no sorrow'); Jonesia Asoka; a tree with beautiful red blooms; the name of the tree under which Vipasyin (Bibashi) Buddha attained enlightenment.

Ashuka O 阿輸伽王 See Aiku O. [S.VIII-22.]

Ashuku 阿男 Sk. Aksobhya ('Not shaken or agitated'); Wu-tung 無動 (Mudo) in Ch.; the Buddha residing in the land in the east called Abhirati (Myoki 妙喜); one of the five Buddhas of the Vajra Realm Mandala (Kongokai mandara). See gobutsu, gochi nyorai. [Ami.]

ashukuba 阿男婆 Sk. aksobhya; the twentieth of the sixty numerical units. See sumoku I.

Ashuku bukkokukyo 阿男仏国経 The Sutra on the Land of Aksobhya Buddha; 2 fasc. [T.11, No. 313]; translated by Lokaksema (Shirukasen). The sutra describes the glorious ornaments of Aksobhya's land called Abhirati ('Very Pleasant') and explains how one can make aspiration for birth there.

ashumakaruba 阿湿摩掲拉婆 Sk. asmagarbha ('interior of a stone'); emerald or agate; one of the seven treasures. See shippo. [Shosan]

ashura 阿修羅 Sk. asura ('spiritual, incorporeal'); a type of demi-god; one of the ten kinds of beings living in different states of existence (jikkai) and one of the eight supernatural beings who protect Buddhism (hachibushu). Originally a Hindu god, Asura became an evil spirit who constantly engages in fighting with Indra (Taishaku). In Buddhism, asuras are generally considered as evil and fearsome spirits fond of fighting, but some of them are good spirits and protectors of Buddhism.

ashurajo 阿修羅城 'The asuras' castle'; there are four asura kings' castles under the sea on the four sides of Mt. Sumeru (Shumisen). [KG.6]

ashura no kin 阿修羅の嫩 'The asura's harp'; the harp possessed by asuras; it produces music without anyone touching it. [KG.2,4]

asogi 阿僧祇 Sk. asamkhya or asamkhyeya ('incalculable'); a great number. [S.VI-10.]

asogiko 阿僧祇劫 Sk. asamkhya-kalpas; incalculable kalpas. [KG.3]

Asogya 阿僧伽 Sk. Asanga; see Mujaku.

asokiya 阿僧企耶 Sk. asamkhya; fifty-second of the sixty numerical units. See sumoku I.

asoraku 阿素洛 Sk. asura; see ashura. [Sam.]

Asuka daibutsu 飛鳥大仏 The large Buddha statue at Asukadera; the 16-foot sitting statue of Sakyamuni; said to have been constructed by Kuratsukuri-no-Tori 鞍作止利 in 609; it is 2.76 meters high.

Asukadera 飛鳥寺 Another name for the Gangoji in Nara founded by Prince Shotoku.

Atago jinja 愛宕神社 Atago Shrine; the head shrine of some 800 shrines that exist throughout the country; located on Mt. Atago, Kyoto; also called Atago Daigongen 愛宕大権現; though several gods are enshrined, they are believed to be the gods of good harvest and prevention of fire.

atama o sori te mo kokoro o sorazu 頭を剃りても心を剃らず 'Though shaven headed, one has an unshaven mind'; though one has entered priesthood by shaving one's head, one still has secular desires and attachments. [Hei]

Atata 阿姙姙 Sk. Atata; the name of the third of the eight freezing hells. See hachikan-jigoku

Atirisen 阿底哩仙 The Hermit Atri; an ancient hermit in India. Also, one of the seven stars of the Big Dipper; Tonrosei 貪狼星.

Atisha アティーシャ Sk. Atisa; 980-1052; his Buddhist name was Dipamkara-sri-jnana ('Auspicious Wisdom of Lamp-maker'). Born of a royal family in Bengal, he began to study esoteric Buddhism in his youth and later won people's respect as a great master in Magadha. When Tibetan Buddhism was in danger of collapse owing to the persecution by Lan-daruma (Glan Darma), King Kor-re (Khor-re) of western Tibet invited Atisa to come to Tibet. He refused once, but after the king's death he came to Tibet during the reign of King U-de (hod-lde). He renovated Buddhism by removing the degenerate esoteric tendency which was widely practiced at that time and introducing the orthodox teaching and practice of Indian Buddhism. Thus he established the Ka-dam-pa (Bkah gdams-pa) school.

atoman アートマン Sk. atman; 'self' in Indian philosophy. Originally, it meant an individual's selfhood, but later acquired a developed meaning of 'universal self' and came to be identified with Brahman (Bon 梵), the universal and ultimate principle of existence. Buddhism does not recognize the permanent, imperishable atman, but holds the view of anatman (no-self 無我), although it does not negate the temporary, provisionally established self in the normal sense of the term. It asserts that self is the result of many causes and conditions; hence, it has no substantiality.

ato taru 跡垂る 'To show a trace'; to manifest an incarnation; used to describe a Buddha or a bodhisattva's incarnation manifested for the sake of the beings; see honji suijaku. [Masu.]

atsuzetsu 遏絶 To be hindered. [KG.1]

Aukutsu 央掘 See Okutsumara.

a-un 阿吽 Sk. 'A HUM'; the first and the last letter of the Sanskrit alphabet. 'A' indicates the principle of origination of all things, and 'hum' is the state to which all things return. Also, 'A' represents Bodhi-mind and 'HUM', Nirvana. Also, 'A' is the seed of Mahavairocana (Dainichi) and 'Hum' is the seed of Vajrasattva (Kongosatta 金剛薩藉). They also represent inhalation and exhalation. A pair of guardian gods or dogs often placed at the entrance of a temple or shrine, one with an open mouth and the other with a closed mouth, represent these two letters.

awanuda butsu 合わぬだ仏 An expression that comes from 'Amida Butsu,' meaning 'it does not pay.' [Shinju ten no amijima]

au wa wakare no hajime 逢うは別れの始め 'Meeting is the beginning of parting'; those who meet must part.

aya 阿爺 'Father! Dad!'; used to call one's father.

ayo 唖羊 A dumb sheep; Sk. eda-muka; an extremely stupid person.

ayo no so 唖羊の僧 A stupid monk like a dumb sheep.

Ayuda 阿踰陀 Ayodhya; said to have been the capital of Kosala kingdom and closely related to Buddhist activities. It is said that Asanga (Mujaku) and Vasubandhu (Seshin) engaged in their Buddhist work here. According to Hsuan-tsang (Genjo), there were twenty temples in the area when he visited there.

ayuiotchi 阿惟越致 Sk. avaivartika ('unretrogressive'); the stage of non-retrogression. See abibatchi. [IT.; KG.2,3; Lotus.; Sukha.]

ayuiotchi(ji) 阿惟越致(地) The stage of non-retrogression; see futai 不退. [Juju.; KG.2,3]

Ayuiradai 阿維羅提 Sk. Abhirati ('Very Pleasant'); the name of the land of Aksobhya (Ashuku) Buddha; Miao-hsi 妙喜 (Myoki) in Ch.; also Abiradai.

ayuta 阿由多 Sk. ayuta; a great number, said to be equal to ten koti (kutei 倶胝); the 10th in the fifty-two scales of number. See sumoku I. [Kusha.; Sukha.]

azari 阿闍梨 See ajari.

Azuchi shuron 安土宗論 The doctrinal discussion at Azuchi; the discussion which took place in 1579 at the Jogon-in Hall浄厳院 of the Jodo school in Azuchi, Shiga Prefecture, between the Hokke school and the Jodo school. It was originally Oda Nobunaga's intention to subjugate the Hokke school, so the discussion ended in the defeat of the Hokke side.


ba 婆 I. Sk. BA; one of the fifty Siddham syllables; it is construed as representing bandhana 縛, bondage. II. Sk. BHA, which represents bhava 有 (u), existence. See. shittan.

Ba 口+縛 Sk. VA; one of the fifty Siddham syllables; it is construed as representing vak-patha 語言道 (gogondo), the verbal path, and vara-yana 最上乗 (saijojo), the supreme vehicle. It signifies that all existence is beyond verbal expression.

bagaba 婆伽婆 Sk. bhagavat; see bagabon. [JW.]

bagabon 婆伽梵 Sk. bhagavat; the Honored One; an epithet of a Buddha. See jugo. [Tai.2]

Bagyaba 跋伽婆 Sk. Bhargava; see Bakasen.

bai 唄 Abbr. of bainoku; see bonbai.

baie no ho 敗壊の法 Perishable things; Sk. vinasa-dharmin. [Lanka.]

bainoku 唄彌 Sk. bhasa; also bachoku 婆陟, bashi 婆師; abbreviated as bai 唄, and translated as sanju 讃頌 (eulogizing in verse) and sandan 讃嘆 (praising); the chanting of hymns.

Baisheshika ヴァイシェーシカ Sk. Vaisesika; known in the Buddhist scriptures as Katsuron 勝論 and Eiseishi 衛世師; one of the six philosophical schools in ancient India. Founded by Kanada (also, Uluka), to whom is attributed the basic scripture, Vaisesika-sutra. This school holds that all things which are objects of our concepts are really existent and these existences are grouped into six catagories (padartha, 句義 kugi). See roppa tetsugaku.

baishi 唄師 A chanting priest; one who leads the chanting of verses eulogizing the Buddha's virtue, etc.; one of the seven priests taking main parts in a big service; see shichiso.

baita 貝多 An abbreviation of baitara; see next entry.

baitara 貝多羅 Sk. pattra; leaves of a tala tree. They are used for inscribing sutras.

Baitariya 梅咀利耶 Sk. Maitreya; see Miroku.

Bakasen 跋伽仙 The Hermit Bhargava, Bhagava or Bhaga; the ascetic who was the first teacher of the Buddha after his renunciation of the world.

bakku 抜苦 Getting rid of pain or suffering; Sk. duhkhapagama. [Sutra.]

Bako 馬光 'Horse-Radiance'; Sk. Hayaprabha*; the 114th of the 143 bodhisattvas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

baku 縛 I. 'Binding, bondage'; another name for bonno 煩悩, evil passions; Sk. bandha, baddha, bandhana. [An.; Lanka.; Yoga.] See gobaku. II. Binding; spellbinding; see jubaku. [R.I-15]

bakudatsu 縛脱 Emancipation from evil passions.

ban 幡 Flag, ensign; Sk. pataka, pataka-vaijayanti. [Sukha.]

ban 鑁 VAM; the mystic syllable of Mahavairocana (Dainichi) in the Vajra Realm Mandala (Kongokai mandara).

ban'en 万縁 A myriad conditions; myriad things.

bandits of the five sense-organs The five sense-organs often cause hindrances to the practicing of the Way; hence, compared to bandits.

banpo 万法 'The ten thousand dharmas'; see manbo.

bansho 万象 'The ten thousand forms'; also manzo.

banshukke 晩出家 Renouncing the world (i.e., becoming a monk) in one's later years. [S.II-I,Xb.-3]

banso 伴僧 An assistant priest.

banso 番僧 'A caretaker monk'; a monk or novice who takes care of a temple building; the same as domori 堂守.

bansoku 幡足 Perhaps 'stripes attached to a banner.' [R.II-Pre.]

baramon 婆羅門 Sk. brahmana; the priestly caste in India; a brahmin. [Tai.37]

Baramon sojo 婆羅門僧正 'The brahmin sojo'; refers to the Indian monk, named Bodhisena (Bodaisenna 菩提僊那), 704-760. He went to China with a Vietnamese monk, named Buttetsu 仏哲. At the request of a Japanese envoy to China, he came to Japan in 736 with Buttetsu and Tao-hsuan 道珮 (Dosen) and was well treated by the emperor. He was appointed sojo in 751 and took the leading part in the Buddhist service in celebration of the great new statue of the Buddha dedicated at the Todaiji Temple in 752. He died in 760 at the age of 57. Baramon sojo was the name by which he was popularly known. [Tai.24]

Barana 波羅奈 Sk. Baranasi; one of the sixteen great kingdoms (juroku-daikoku) in India at the time of the Buddha; the present Benares and its neighboring area. [Zen.]

Basarabodai 縛曰羅菩提 Sk. Vajrabodhi; see Kongochi.

Basha 婆蹉 Sk. Vamsa; one of the sixteen great kingdoms (juroku-daikoku) in India at the time of the Buddha. [KG.6]

Basharon 婆沙論 An abbreviation of Abidatsuma-daibibasharon.

Bashi 馬師 'Trainer of a horse'; one of the five companions of the Buddha and his first disciples; Sk. Asva-jit. See gobiku. [Sukha.]

Basho 芭蕉 I. Matsuo Basho (1644-94); one of the three greatest haiku poets, along with Issa 一茶 and Buson 蕪村. Born in Ueno (or Tsuge) in Iga Province, he was named Munefusa 宗房. He first learned haiku under Kitamura Kigin 北村季吟; at the age of 29, he went to Edo (Tokyo) to study a different school of haiku under Nishiyama Soin 西山宗因; he changed his name to Tosei 桃青. At 34 he established himself as a haiku teacher and became famous in Edo, but three years later he retired to a cottage in Fukagawa 深川 in the outskirts of Edo. He learned Zen from Master Butcho 仏頂 who happened to be staying in Fukagawa. His style of haiku gradually changed from 'play of words' to 'rustic serenity.' At 38, his disciple gave him a banana plant, which grew into such a splendid tree that he named his cottage 'Basho-an' (Banana Hut). From the age of 44 he often traveled in the country and wrote his travel diaries. At 46 he set out for a long journey to Northern Japan with his disciple Sora 宗良 and his chronological account was compiled as Oku no hosomichi (A Narrow Road to the Interior), which eternalized his name. Later he visited Kyoto and elsewhere; on his way to Osaka from Nara he became ill and died in 1694.

Basho 芭蕉 II. Basho Esei 芭蕉慧清; Ch. Pa-chiao Hui-ch'ing; the fifth in the line of Zen tradition after Ma-tsu 馬祖 (Baso). [M.44]

basic ignorance Spiritual darkness which lies at the basis of one's existence. See mumyo.

Baso 馬祖 Ch. Ma-tsu, 709-788; a spiritual grandson of Hui-neng 慧能 (Eno).

Basobanzu 婆薮般豆 Vasubandhu; see Seshin. [SS.]

Basobanzu bosatsu ron 婆薮般豆菩薩論 The Bodhisattva Vasubandhu's Discourse; refers to the Discourse on the Pure Land; see Jodoron. [SS.]

Basumitara 筏蘇蜜咀羅 Sk. Vasumitra ('Friend of a God'); also transcribed as 和須蜜, 婆須蜜多, and 婆須蜜多羅; translated as Shou 世友 and Ten'u 天友. A master of the Hinayana Sarvastivada school (Setsuissaiubu) who appeared about 400 years after the Buddha's Parinirvana. When 500 arhats were gathered to compile the Abhidharma-mahavibhasa (Abidatsuma-daibibasharon), Vasumitra was the head convenor.

Bato Kannon 馬頭観音 Horse-crowned Kannon; one of the six kinds of Kannon (rokkannon). He is the lord of the realm of animals and the manifestation of Amida Buddha in a fierce form. [S.II-4]

Batsuda 跋陀 Sk. Bhadrapala. See Batsudaba, Gengo.

Batsudaba 跋陀婆 Also, Batsudahara 跋陀波羅; Sk. Bhadrapala ('Gracious protector'); translated as 賢護 (Gengo) in Ch.; the foremost of the sixteen lay bodhisattvas, whom the Buddha addressed in the Pratyutpanna Samadhi Sutra (Hanju-sanmaikyo); the 57th of the 143 bodhisattvas mentioned in the list of Jujubibasharon. See juroku shoji. [Juju.]

Batsudaiga 抜提河 The River Hiranyavati ('Possessing Gold'); the river in Kusinagara near which the Buddha passed away. 'Batsudai' is part of 'Shiranabatsudai' 尸頼拏抜提, a transcription of 'Hiranyavati'. [Tai.18]

Batsudahara 跋陀婆羅 Sk. Bhadrapala; see Batsudaba; Gengo. [Lotus.]

Batsudawa 跋陀和 Also 跋陀婆羅 Batsudabara. See Batsudaba. [An.; KB.]

Batsunan 跋難 Refers to Batsunanda. [JW.]

Batsunanda 跋難陀 Sk. Upananda; one of the eight great dragon kings; see hachidai-ryuo. [JW.; Lotus.]

batsuzetsu 抜舌 Pulling out the tongue; as the retribution for telling lies, one must suffer the pain of having one's tongue pulled out in hell. [Sho.]

bazara 縛曰羅 Sk. vajra; adamant, vajra-pounder; see kongo, kongosho.

Beda ヴェーダ 吠陀 Sk. Veda; a collection of ancient Indian religious scriptures compiled by the Aryans between about 2000 and 500 B.C.E.; they still hold the highest spiritual authority as one of the messages of gods revealed to sages (sruti, keiji 啓示). When we speak of Veda, we usually mean Samhita (collection, honju 本集), which comprises four parts: Rc or Rg (sanka 賛歌), Saman (kaei 歌詠), Yajus (kito 祈祷), and Atharvan (jumon 呪文). They respectively belonged to the four groups of priests: Hotr, Udgatr, Adhvaryu, and Brahmana. Each of the four Vedas is composed of four parts: Samhita (in the narrow sense), Brahmana, Aranyaka, and Upanisad. Over a long period, a large number of different schools arose due to the variety of different traditions and interpretations, and so there are many different versions of the scriptures. As a whole, however, the Vedic literature constitutes the reservoir of spiritual, religious and cultural traditions of Hinduism. In the context, the Vedic literature can be divided into two categories: a. jnana-kanda, the section on religious and philosophical speculations, and b. karma-kanda, the section on rituals. The former corresponds to the Upanisad and the latter, to the Brahmana. Besides, there are a number of sutras which specifically define theoretical and ceremonial details.
1) The Rg-Veda, or Veda of 'praise': the oldest and most important of the four Vedas. It contains 1,028 hymns in ten cantos and is believed to have been composed between about 2000 and 800 B.C.E. Those hymns were transmitted from generation to generation through an oral tradition. They are religious hymns recited in praise of various gods. The Vedic gods include those representing natural phenomena such as Varuna (sky, king of the universe), Indra (storm, war), Agni (fire), Surya (sun), Rudra (storm), Soma (elixir of immortality), Vayu (wind), Vak (language) and Usas (dawn). About a quarter of the hymns are dedicated to Indra, who drinks Soma, destroys Dasa's citadel with a pounder (vajra), kills a snake-shaped devil Vrtra and pours water onto the human world. The Rg-Veda was transmitted through the two schools: Sakala and Vaskara.
2) The Sama-Veda, or Veda of 'chants': except for about 78 of them, these are included in the Rg-Veda hymns; they are chanted mostly by the Udgatr priests at Soma sacrifices. The Samhita of the Sama-Veda consists of two parts: a. Arcika which contains 585 verses and b. Uttararcika which contains 1225 verses. This Veda is said to have eight Brahmanas. The Sama-Veda was reputedly transmitted through a thousand schools but only three are known to exist today: Kauthuma, Ranayaniya, and Jaiminiya.
3) The Yajur-Veda, or 'prose' Veda: explanations of hymns and rituals; a great deal of material is taken from the Rg-Veda but is given a ritualistic character. There are two kinds of Yajur-Veda: black and white; four schools belonged to the former, namely, Maitrayaniya, Kathaka, Kapisthala and Taittiriya, and the school that belonged to the latter was Vajasaneyi.
4) The Atharva-Veda, or Atharvan's Veda: 'Atharvan' is the priest who is said to have been the first to institute the worship of fire and offer Soma and prayers to it; a collection of magic charms and incantations along with hymns and prayers. It is said that nine schools belonged to the Atharva-Veda, but only two, Saunaka and Paippalada, have survived to the present. See Hindukyo.

bekkyo 別教 'The distinctive teaching'; the third of the four doctrinal teachings of the Buddha classified in Tendai; the distinctively Mahayana teaching which shows that although things are distinguishable in their phenomenal aspects, their essence is the same; see keho no shikyo. [S.IV-1,Va-6]

bekkyo 別境 'Specific objects'; five mental functions which arise with regard to specific objects; Sk. viniyata, visese niyatatva. The Hosso school establishes five such mental functions: 1) yoku 欲 (chanda), desire; 2) shoge 勝解 (adhimoksa), clear observation and understanding; 3) nen 念 (smrti), thinking on, remembering; 4) jo 定 (samadhi), concentration; and 5) e 慧 (dhi, prajna), correct discernment, wisdom. See Appendix A, goi-hyappo. [Hosso.]

Bencho 弁長 Shokobo Bencho 聖光房弁長; 1162-1238; one of the leading disciples of Honen, and was later known as Chinzei Shonin 鎮西上人. He first went to Mt. Hiei in 1183 and studied Tendai under Kan'ei 観叡 and Shoshin 証真, but returned to his native place in Kyushu in 1190. Seven years later, he went to Kyoto and became Honen's disciple. After having received the nembutsu teaching, he spread it in Shikoku for a while. From 1204 until death he actively propagated this teaching in Kyushu. Bencho's school of the Jodo sect came to be known as Chinzei. Today Chion-in 知恩院 in Kyoto is its general head temple (sohonzan 総本山), and the famous Zojoji 増上寺 in Tokyo is one of the major head temples (daihonzan 大本山). After Honen's death there was among his disciples a tendency to deviate from his teaching. Seeing this, Bencho emphasized repeated recitation of the nembutsu as the authentic practice of the Jodo school. On the other hand, with his Tendai background, Bencho considered the nembutsu and other practices as essentially the same because both originated from True Suchness (shinnyo). In his view, those who are better suited to other practices should be encouraged to follow them, because they are also eligible for birth in the Pure Land.

Benchubenron 弁中辺論 Sk. Madhyantavibhaga; the Discourse on the Middle and the Extreme Views; the work consists of the verses by Maitreya (Miroku), which were given to Asanga (Mujaku) who spread them in the world, and their exposition by Vasubandhu (Seshin). "The Middle" refers to the truth of the Middle Path (chudo) systematized as the Yogacara teaching, and "the extreme views" refer to the two opposing views which are at variance with the Middle Path. This work elaborates on the principle of Consciousness-only, while maintaining the theory that one's essential nature is pure mind. It also expounds the "three natures" (sansho) as the three phases of reality ― imaginary existence, existence originating from causes and conditions, and existence conforming to the ultimate reality. This is one of the sixteen basic discourses of the Hosso school (Hossoshu shoe no kyoron). This work was translated by Hsuan-tsang (Genjo), 3 fasc. [T.31, No.1600], and also by Paramartha (Shindai) with the title, Chuhen-funbetsuron 中辺分別論 (the Discourse Distinguishing the Middle and the Extreme Views), 2 fasc. [T.31, No. 1599].

bendo miroku Same as Maitreya.

Bendowa 辧道話 The Discourse on the practice of the Way; the title of the 1st chapter of the Shobogenzo.

Ben-kenmitsu-nikyoron 辯顕密二教論 The Discourse Discerning the Two Teachings, Exoteric and Esoteric; 2 fasc.; popularly, Kenmitsu-nikyoron 顕密二教論 and Nikyoron 二教論; an important Shingon work written by Kukai in 813 or 815 and included in the Ten-fascicle Works (Jikkanjo). In this work, Kukai distinguishes the theoretical differences between the exoteric and esoteric teachings, quoting from six sutras, including the Mahavairocana Sutra (Dainichikyo), and three discourses, including the Discourse on the Bodhi-Mind (Bodaishinron). The main points of Kukai's assertion are as follows: 1) the exoteric teachings were delivered by Sambhogakaya (hojin) and Nirmanakaya (ojin) Buddhas as the methods of guiding living beings, whereas the esoteric teaching was the direct revelation of the Dharmakaya (hosshin) Buddha's 'self-enlightened truth' (jinaisho); 2) the exoteric teachings were the expositions of truth in terms of 'cause-condition,' whereas the esoteric teaching was the disclosure of truth beyond causal relationships; 3) according to the exoteric teachings, Buddhahood is to be attained after three great innumerable kalpas (sandai-asogiko), whereas the esoteric teaching enables one to realize Buddhahood instantaneously with one's present body; 4) even those who are unable to attain emancipation owing to their heavy karmic hindrances can be saved quickly by the esoteric teaching.

ben ojo 便往生 'Provisional birth'; one of the two kinds of birth in the Pure Land distinguished by Shinran in the Kyogyoshinsho, the other being soku ojo 即往生 (immediate birth). The term 'sokuben ojo' 即便往生 that appears in the Contemplation Sutra is interpreted by Shinran as two kinds of birth: 1) soku ojo refers to birth in the Recompensed Land in accordance with the eighteenth vow and 2) ben ojo refers to birth in an embryonic state and borderland and, also, beneath the Twin Sala trees in accordance with the nineteenth and twentieth vows. [KG.6]

Ben'on 辯音 'Eloquent Sound'; one of the bodhisattvas in the Vimalakirti Sutra (Yuima-gyo).

Benshaku 辯積 'Heap of Eloquence'; one of the bodhisattvas in the Vimalakirti Sutra.

Benshoron 辨正論 The Discourse Discerning the Right; 8 fasc.; a work by Fa-lin 法琳 (572-640) that severely criticized Taoism [T.52, No.2110]. Shinran quotes a large part of this in his Kyogyoshinsho, chapter on "Transformed Buddhas and Lands."

Benso 弁宗 A monk of the Daianji Temple. [R.III-3]

benzai 辯才 Eloquence; Sk. pratibhana. [Sukha.]

benzai chie 辯才智慧 Wisdom of discernment; Sk. pratisamvid. [Sukha.]

benzai muge-e 辯才無碍慧 Unimpeded wisdom of discernment; Sk. pratibhana-pratisamvid. [Yoga.]

Benzaiten 弁才天 Strictly, 辯才天; Sk. Sarasvati; also Benten 弁天; a goddess of music, eloquence, wealth, and wisdom; being originally a deification of a river, her shrines are often built by the sea, rivers, and lakes. [Tai.18,27]

benzetsuchi 弁舌智 Wisdom in eloquence; Sk. desana-jnana. [Sam.]

besso 別相 I. 'A special feature or characteristic' as contrasted with tsuso 通相 'a common feature or characteristic.' [An.] II. One of the six aspects which, according to the Kegon teaching, each and every existing thing possesses; see rokuso.

bessonenjo 別相念処 'Contemplation on different aspects of dharmas'; Sk. vyasta-laksana-smrty-upathana; contemplating separately the four objects: 1) one's body is defiled, 2) one's perceptions are painful, 3) one's mind is constantly changing, and 4) things in general are devoid of fixed entities. See gojoshin, shinenjo.

besson mandara 別尊曼荼羅 Specific deities' mandalas; mandalas centering on specific deities; opposed to toe mandara 都会曼荼羅 (all-inclusive mandalas), which refer to the Matrix-store Realm Mandala (Taizokai mandara) and Vajra Realm Mandala (Kongokai mandara). There are innumerable deities whose mandalas are depicted and worshiped. They are grouped under the following headings: 1) Buddhas, 2) Buddha's head, 3) Sutras, 4) Bodhisattvas, 5) Avalokitesvara, 6) Vidya-rajas, and 7) Deities.

Best-selected Primal Vow Refers to Amida's Forty-eight Vows which he chose out of many wishes when he was a bodhisattva; especially, the Eighteenth Vow in which the Nembutsu-Faith is presented as the cause of birth in the Pure Land.

betchi 別異 Difference; speciality. [An.]

betchi no gugan 別異の弘願 The very special great vow. Amida's vows distinguish themselves from those of other Buddhas in that they promise salvation for ordinary beings filled with evil passions. In this sense, the term specifically refers to his eighteenth vow. The term comes from Shan-tao's Commentary on the Contemplation Sutra, in the section on the "Essential Meaning" (Gengibun 玄義分). See hongan; hongan no mon. [AK.; KG.6]

beto 別当 The head priest of a large temple. See betto. [KN.]

betsubija 鼈鼻蛇 A turtle-nosed snake; a poisonous snake. [H.; Sh.]

betsugan 別願 The specific vow; the vow made specifically by a particular bodhisattva; opposed to tsugan 通願, general vow.

betsuge 別解 Different understandings; those with different understandings. [KG.3; IT.]

betsugedatsu 別解脱 See betsugedatsukai. Sk. pratimoksa. [Kusha.]

betsugedatsukai 別解脱戒 'Individually emancipating precepts'; Sk. pratimoksa, pratimoksa; also betsugedatsu ritsugi 別解脱律儀. A general term for ordinary precepts laid down for monks, nuns, novices, and laymen. They are prescribed for specific offenses, and those who have received precepts are delivered from the consequences of their offenses; hence, 'individually emancipating'. [Tai.15]

betsugyo 別行 Different practices; those who follow different practices. [KG.3; IT.]

betsuji 別時 Refers to betsuji nembutsu. [IH.; K.551]

betsuji-i 別時意 Allusion to a different time; Sk. kalantarabhipraya [Sutra.]; one of the four kinds of intention in preaching (shiishu 四意趣); for example, when a sutra says, "If one recites the name of the Buddha Prabhuta-ratna (Taho 多宝), one can immediately be settled in the realization of perfect enlightenment," or "If one recites the name of Amida Buddha, one can quickly attain birth in the Land of Utmost Bliss," the real intention of the sutra is simply to rouse people from a state of spiritual sloth and have them perform meritorious acts. The benefit promised in the sutra does not come straight away but at a distant time in the future. [An.]

betsujiishu 別時意趣 Same as above; Sk. kalantarabhipraya. [Sam.]

betsuji nembutsu 別時念仏 Recitation of the nembutsu for a fixed period of time, e.g., one day, seven days, ten days or ninety days. This is practiced at many temples of the Jodo school. Its origin is traced to the fudan-nembutsu.

betsuji no nembutsu 別時の念仏 See betsuji nembutsu. [S.IV-7]

betsuji no shomyo 別時の称名 'The nembutsu practice performed for a fixed period of time.' [Sane.]

betsuri 別離 Separation; Sk. vina-bhava, viyoga, viraha. [Yoga.]

betsuri no kugen 別離の苦患 Pain of separation (from one's beloved); one of the eight pains (hakku). See aibetsuriku. [S.III-1]

betto 別当 The title of the head priest of Kofukuji and some other big temples. Roben 良弁 (689-773) was the first to hold this title at the Todaiji Temple in 752. See beto. [KN.]

bettodai 別当代 A deputy superintendent of a temple. [Oku.]

bettoku 別徳 Distinguished virtue. [SS.]

bettoshiki Office of temple head.

Bhadrajit 'Gaining happiness'; one of the five earliest disciples of the Buddha.

Bhadrapala Lit. 'Gracious protector'; the foremost of the 16 lay bodhisattvas, to whom the Buddha addressed in the Pratyutpanna Samadhi Sutra.

Bhagavat 'Honorable One, Blessed One'; the World-Honored One; one of the ten epithets for a Buddha; see note 6 below.

bhiksu A monk

Bi 尾 Sk. Mula; one of the twenty-eight constellations (nijuhasshuku); corresponds to nine stars in Scorpio (the Scorpion). [KG.6]

bibaka 毘婆訶 Sk. vivaha; a high number; Mvy. 7722. [Sukha.]

bibasha 毘婆沙 Sk. vibhasa ('discourse'); translated as 論 ron. In contrast to upadesa (ubadaisha), which is a commentary of a sutra, this is mainly a Buddhist work explaining the ideas and meanings of the words of a Vinaya text and discourse. [Juju.]

Bibasharon 毘婆沙論 See Abidatsuma-daibibasharon.

bibashashi 毘婆沙師 Vibhasa masters; Sk. vaibhasika, vaibhasikiya [Kusha.]; those who participated in the compilation of the Daibibasharon or those who presented their views in this work; also those who abided by such views.

bibashana 毘婆舎那 Sk. vipasyana; prativipasya [Lanka.]; discernment, contemplation, visualization. This practice is performed side by side with shamata 奢摩他 (samatha). Chih-i's (Chigi) definition of this term is as follows [T.46, 21c]: 1) piercing (貫穿 kansen); destroying evil passions with wisdom; 2) penetrating insight (観達 kantatsu); penetrating through True Suchness (shinnyo) with the wisdom of insight, and 3) remedying non-contemplation (対不観観 taifukankan); removing ignorance by contemplating Dharma-nature. See shikan.

Bibashi 毘婆尸 Sk. Vipasyin ('Having insight'); the first of the eight Buddhas of the past and future. See kako shichibutsu. [Juju.; M.22]

bibutsuryaku 毘仏略 Sk. vaipulya [Sam.]; 'extensive'; translated as hoko 方広; a kind of scripture which presents extensive principles of truth; one of the nine and twelve kinds of scriptures (kubukyo and junibukyo).

Bidaronkyo 毘陀論経 A Vedic discourse; the four Vedas are well-known: Rg, Yajur, Atharva, and Sama; the reference mentioned in the Contemplation Sutra is not identified. See Beda. [Kan.]

bidon 毘曇 Ch. P'i-t'an; an abbreviation of abidon 阿毘曇, which is an older transcription of abhidharma 阿毘達磨.

Bidonshu 毘曇宗 The P'i-t'an school; the Chinese Hinayana school based on the translations of the earlier Abhidharma texts, including Samghadeva's translation of the Abidonshinron produced in 384. This was the precursor to the Chu-she 倶舎 or Kusha school. The name of this school was changed to Chu-she when Paramartha's (Shindai) translation of the Abidatsuma-kusharon (produced in 564) became popular. See Kushashu.

Bifurasen 毘富羅山 Mt. Vipula; a mountain located to the north-east of Rajagrha in central India. [An.]

Biji 毘時 Vajji; one of the sixteen great kingdoms (juroku-daikoku) in India at the time of the Buddha. [KG.6]

biku 比丘 Sk. bhiksu; a Buddhist monk.

bikuni 比丘尼 Sk. bhiksuni; a Buddhist nun.

bikuso 比丘僧 Sk. bhiksu-samgha; community of monks; a monk. [S.II-8]

biku 鼻孔 A nose; nostril; also, used in Zen to refer to one's original self.

Bimbisara 'The core of Bimbi fruit?'; the fifth king of the Shaisnaga Dynasty in Magadha and a follower of the Buddha; in his late years, he was imprisoned by his son Ajatashatru and died in jail.

birth-and-death The cycle of birth and death; Samsara.

birth on the highest level of the highest grade The highest mode of birth in the Pure Land of the nine grades distinguished in the Contemplation Sutra.

binaya 毘奈耶 The precepts; Sk. vinaya. [Kusha.]

Binaya-kyo 鼻奈耶経 Refers to Binaya 鼻奈耶, tr. by Chu Fo-nien (Jiku Butsunen 竺仏念); [T.24, No.1464]. [R.II-5]

binayazo 毘那耶蔵 Also binizo 毘尼蔵, ritsuzo 律蔵, etc. Sk. vinaya-pitaka, 'collection of precepts'; one of the three or five divisions of the Buddhist scriptures. It contains rules of conduct, disciplinary provisions, etc. See gozo, ritsuzo, sanzo.

binbara 頻婆羅 Sk. bimbara; eighteenth of the sixty numerical units. See sumoku.

Binbashara 頻婆娑羅 Sk. Bimbisara; the fifth king of the Saisnaga Dynasty in Magadha (Makada) and a follower of the Buddha. In his late years he was imprisoned by his son Ajatasatru (Ajase) and died in jail. [JW.; KG.3; S.Xa-2]

bingara 頻伽羅 Refers to karyobinga. [Tai.18]

bingu 貧窮 The poor and destitute; Sk. upakarana-vighata, vighata [Sutra.], daridra, daridrya. [Yoga.]

bini 毘尼 Sk. vinaya; precepts. [Lanka.]

bini no seimon 毘尼の制門 Prohibiting evil-doings in the precepts. [S.IV-1]

binizo 毘尼蔵 See binayazo.

binpatsu 鬚髪 Beard and hair.

binpatsu o teijo 鬚髪を剃除 To shave one's beard and hair (to become a monk); to take the tonsure.

Binzuru 賓頭盧 See Binzuruharada. [Ta.]

Binzuruharada 賓頭盧頗羅堕 Sk. Pindola-Bharadvaja (also, -Bharadvaja), 'Pindola, the skylark'; the Buddha's disciple and one of the sixteen arhats (arakan). In China and Japan his image is placed in the dining hall of a temple. It is believed in Japan that touching his image cures diseases. [Ami.]

biran 毘嵐 Sk. vairambhaka; also 毘藍, biranba 毘藍婆, etc., and translated as jinmofu 迅猛風 (a swift, violent wind), senpu 旋風 (a whirl wind), etc.; a very strong wind which blows at a time of cosmic change. See daisansai. [Tai.19]

birisha 毘利沙 Sk. Vrsa or Vrsabha; one of the twelve astrological houses; corresponds to Taurus (the Bull). [KG.6]

birishika 毘離支迦 Sk. Vrscika; one of the twelve astrological houses; corresponds to Scorpius (the Scorpion). [KG.6]

biriya 毘梨耶 Sk. virya; effort. [Lanka.]

biriya haramitsu 毘梨耶婆羅密 Sk. virya-paramita; perfection in making efforts; one of the Six Paramitas. See ropparamitsu. [Ni.46]

Biru 毘盧 Abbr. of Birushana; Vairocana Buddha. [S.I-3,II-5]

Birudaku 毘留荼倶 Sk. Virudhaka; one of the Four Great Heavenly Kings (Shidaitenno or Shitenno); translated as Zojoten 増長天; he is the guardian god of the southern direction. [KG.6]

Biruhakusha 毘留博叉 Sk. Virupaksa ('Deformed-eyed'); one of the Four Great Heavenly Kings (Shidaiten or Shitenno); translated as Komokuten 広目天; he is the guardian god of the western direction. [KG.6]

Biruri O 毘琉璃王 King Virudhaka; also Ruri O 瑠璃王; also called Akusho O 悪生王 'King Evil-Born'; a son of King Prasenajit (Hashinoku O) of Sravasti (Shae). He usurped the throne and killed his father. When he was a prince, he heard his mother being abused by the men of the Sakya clan's as being born of a low class. After he became the king, he attacked Kapilavastu (Kabirajo) and massacred the Sakya clan.

Birushana 毘盧舎那 Sk. Vairocana, 'illuminating'; the principal Buddha in the Garland Sutra. I. In the Garland Sutra, he is a Sambhogakaya Buddha dwelling in the Lotus-Repository World (Rengezo sekai 蓮華蔵世界) and emitting great floods of light to illumine countless worlds. II. In the Mahavairocana Sutra, he is a Dharmakaya Buddha in whom the highest wisdom and the ultimate principle are perfectly accomplished and who is capable of illumining the darkness of ignorance in living beings. III. In the Tendai and Hosso schools, Vairocana is a Dharmakaya Buddha, and his body of incarnation, Rocana (盧舎那 Rushana), is a Sambhogakaya Buddha. IV. In Zen, Vairocana is the Dharmakaya Buddha who embodies the principle of ultimate reality and pervades all existences.

Birushana gosho 毘盧遮那五聖 The five Buddhas, with Mahavairocana in the center, in the Vajra Realm Mandala (Kongokai mandara). See gobutsu. [K.64]

Biseshi gedo 峭世師外道 The non-Buddhist school, Vaisesika. [Kusha.]

bishaja 毘舎闍 Sk. pisaca; translated as jiki-ketsunikuki 食血肉鬼 (a demon that sucks blood and eats flesh), kanninseikiki 頁人精気鬼 (a demon that sucks man's vital energy), or tenkyoki 癲狂鬼 (a mad demon); said to be a hungry spirit of a higher rank or a kind of raksasa (rasetsu); also said to be one of the two groups of attendants of King Dhrtarastra (Jikokuten), the other group being gandharva (kendatsuba). [Lanka.]

Bishamon 毘沙門 Sk. Vaisravana ('Extensively Heard'); also Tamonten 多聞天, etc.; one of the four guardian gods of the four directions (shitenno). He protects the northern sphere. [K.565; KG.6; O.V; S.Vb-7; Tai.3,11,18,29]

Bishamondo 毘沙門堂 A Bishamon hall. [S.Vb-7]

Bishamon no ho 毘沙門の法 A ritual dedicated to Bishamon as a prayer for victory in war. See shogun Bishamon ho. [Tai.29]

Bishamonten 毘沙門天 Vaisravana God; also, Tamonten 多聞天 (God of Much Hearing) and Kubera (Kuvera) 金毘羅; one of the Four Guardian Gods (Shidaitenno or Shitenno). Dwelling at the fourth level of Mt. Sumeru (Shumisen), he protects the northern quarter of the world. Since he always tends the Dharma Hall and listens to sermons, he is called 'Much Hearing.' He is usually portrayed as stamping down two demons, having a gem tower in the left hand and holding up a gem stick with the right hand. Besides being worshiped as one of the twelve deities who protect Buddhism (juniten), he is a popular deity in Japan as one of the seven gods of good fortune (shichifukujin).

Bishamon tenno 毘沙門天王 The Deva King Vaisravana. See Bishamonten. [K.53,54]

Bisharikoku 毘舎離国 Sk. Vaisali, Pa. Vesali; one of the six or sixteen great kingdoms in ancient India; located in the central India. Inhabited by the Licchavi clan, it greatly flourished at the time of the Buddha. The Buddha frequently visited this kingdom to teach people Buddhism. One of the eight sacred stupas (hachidaireito) was located in this kingdom. The country is well known as the native place of Vimalakirti (Yuima) and also as the site of the second Buddhist council. Its capital is believed to lie 27 miles north of Patna in Bengal Province.

bishasha 毘舎遮 Sk. pisaca; a fierce-looking spirit like a raksasa (rasetsu). [KG.6]

bishiki 鼻識 Olfactory consciousness; Sk. ghrana-vijnana. [Hosso.]

Bishuba 毘首婆 Sk. Visvabhu ('All-arising'); the third of the eight Buddhas of the past and future. See kako shichibutsu. [Juju.]

Bishukatsuma 毘首羯磨 Sk. Visvakarman; a subject of Indra (Taishaku); a god of arts and architecture, and an object of worship among craftsmen in India. The Kise-inpongyo 起世因本経 (Sutra on the Origin of the World) has this description: "Once Indra, the Lord of Gods, wanted a bodily ornament. As soon as he thought of Visvakarman, this god produced an ornament made of various precious metals and gems and presented it to Indra. He also produced ornaments by transformation for family members and relatives of the other gods in the Heaven of Thirty-three Gods (Toriten). The most illustrious story of his craftsmanship is told in China (in the Shikan-bugyo 止観輔行): When the Buddha ascended to the Heaven of Thirty-three Gods and did not return for a long time, King Udayana and King Prasenajit (Hashinoku O) longed to see him and each prepared sandalwood and a lump of purple gold to have statues of the Buddha made. At that time, Visvakarman transformed himself into a man and produced statues as the kings wished. It is also said that when the Buddha returned to this world from the Heaven of Thirty-three Gods, Visvakarman constructed a jeweled staircase for him. [Ron.; Tai.11,14]

bishuku 繭胞 Sk. bhiksu; a monk. [Sukha.]

bishukuni 繭胞尼 Sk. bhiksuni; a nun. [Sukha.]

Bishunu ヴィシュヌ Sk. Visnu ('All-pervader'); transcribed in Chinese as 毘紐 or 毘繭怒;おone of the three highest gods in India, the other two being Siva (Shiba) and Brahma (Bonten 梵天). Counted as one of the sun-related gods in the Vedas, though holding a minor position, Visnu gradually became an important god from the Brahmanic period on. During the Upanisadic period, he was mentioned as Narayana, Narasimha, and Vasudeva. From the Epic and Purana periods onwards, he came to be regarded as the highest god side by side with Siva. Belief in Visnu spread quickly as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana became popular. Capable of traveling over the world in three steps, this god is responsible for maintaining and developing the world; on the other hand, he is considered as a god of love and benevolence who provides benefits to believers. He is believed to manifest ten incarnations (avatara); when the world is in confusion, he manifests himself in the form of an animal, a man, etc., to restore order. Among his ten incarnations are Rama, Krsna, and even the Buddha. His name appears in the Mahavairocana Sutra (Dainichikyo), Suvarna-prabhasa Sutra (Konkomyokyo), Peacock Sutra (Kujakukyo), etc. In the Hindu mythology, sleeps on the bed of Sesa, a thousand-headed serpent, while floating on the water. Together with many devas and asuras, he churned the ocean water and thus obtained amrta (elixir). At that time, the goddess of good fortune, Mahasri or Laksmi (Kichijoten 吉祥天), appeared from the ocean, and Visnu took her as his wife. Visnu rides the huge mythological bird Garuda (konjicho 金翅鳥).
The religious sect centering on Visnu, called Vaisnava, emphasizes bhakti (faith, devotion, love). The sect split into two schools, Bhagavata and Pancaratra, and each school further split into several subschools over the time. This and Saivism (Shibaha) form the two dominant religions in India. Vaisnava's influence on esoteric Buddhism was all the more marked as time went on; it is found in the works of the 'Mother tantra' (Haha tantora) and the 'Kalacakra tantra' (Jirin tantora).

Biyari 毘耶離 Vaisali; an ancient town in India. [H.84]

Black-bee Hill The mountain where Nagarjuna is believed to have spent the latter part of his life.

black hindrance The darkest spiritual obscurity which hinders visualization of the setting sun.

blind passions, mental functions which disturb and pollute the mind; in Shin Buddhism, all mental acts are considered evil passions which are the cause of the endless cycle of birth and death.

bo 坊 Refers to sobo 僧坊; a temple building where monks live.

bo 房 I. A monk's quarters. II. A name or a title of a monk ending in bo which is used side by side with his Dharma-name: e.g., Honen-bo Genku 法然房源空; Shinran's bo-name was Zenshin 善信.

Bo 房 Sk. Anuradha; one of the twenty-eight constellations (nijuhasshuku); corresponds to four stars in Scorpio (the Scorpion). [KG.6]

Bo 昴 Sk. Krttika; one of the twenty-eight constellations (nijuhasshuku); corresponds to Pleiades. [KG.6]

bo 謗 Abusing; Sk. apavada [Yoga.], avajnam prakaroti [Sutra.].

boaku 暴悪 A violent act; Sk. raudra. [Yoga.]

bodai 菩提 Sk. bodhi; also, para bodhih, bodha, sambodhi [Yoga.], abhisambodha, abhisambodhi, sambodha [Sutra.]. I. The highest wisdom; the state of the highest perfection of wisdom; the state of undefiled purity and eternal bliss. II. The repose or salvation of the dead. III. Sk. Buddhi* ('Wisdom'); the 61st of the 107 Buddhas mentioned in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

bodaibun 菩提分 Elements of enlightenment; Sk. bodhi-paksa [Sutra.], bodhi-paksya [Yoga.]; refers to the thirty-seven elements of enlightenment (sanjushichi-dobon).

Bodaidaruma 菩提達磨 Sk. Bodhidharma; the first patriarch of Zen in China. Originally, a man from south India, said to be the third son of a king. After studying Buddhism under Prajnatara (Hannyatara 般若多羅) and receiving from him the transmission of Zen, he propagated Mahayana in India. Later in 520, according to tradition, he went to China. After his interview with the Emperor Wu-ti 武帝 (Butei), he went to the Shao-lin-ssu Temple 少林寺 (Shorinji) on Mt. Sung 嵩山 (Suzan), where he sat unmoving day and night. There he took as his disciple Hui-k'o 慧可 (Eka), who thus became the Second Patriarch. He died in 528 or, according to another tradition, in 536, and was posthumously given the title of Yuan-chueh Ta-shih 円覚大師 (Engaku Daishi, Master 'Perfect Enlightenment') by Emperor Tai-tsung 代宗 (Daiso) of the T'ang dynasty (618-907).

bodaido 菩提道 The path to enlightenment. [Nimon.]

bodai dojo 菩提道場 The place or seat of enlightenment; the place where one becomes a Buddha.

bodaiji 菩提寺 'The bodhi temple'; the temple where prayers are offered for the repose or salvation of one's dead ancestors; a family temple, an ancestral Buddhist temple; also bodaisho 菩提所 (Bodhi place) and koge-in 香華院 (Incense and Flower Hall); see ujidera. [Tai. 36]

bodaiju 菩提樹 The bodhi tree; Sk. bodhi-vrksa [Sukha.; Sutra.]; the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment. The Sanskrit name of the tree is pippala, also known as asvattha, Ficus Religiosa (sacred fig-tree). [KG.3,6]

Bodaike 菩提華 'Flower of Enlightenment'; corresponds partly to Citta-dhara-buddhi-samkusumitabhyudgata ('Arising adorned with the wisdom possessing continuity of thought') in the Sanskrit text; the 39th of the 53 Buddhas of the past listed in the Larger Sutra. [Dai.]

bodai-ko 菩提講 Bodhi-gathering. The monthly gathering at the Unrin'in Temple 雲林院, Kyoto, at which the nembutsu was practiced and lectures given on sutras for the purpose of attaining birth in Amida's Pure Land and for the realization of Bodhi. [O.I.]

bodai no doka 菩提の道果 The fruit of the path of enlightenment; the ultimate state of enlightenment. [B.]

bodai no gokui 菩提の極位 The ultimate stage of enlightenment. [S.Xb-2]

bodai no gyo 菩提の行 Practices for attaining enlightenment. [Tai.37]

bodai no kakudo 菩提の覚道 The path to enlightenment of Bodhi. [Kiki.]

bodai no michi 菩提の道 The path to enlightenment. [K.500; KW.]

bodai no myoka 菩提の妙果 The wonderful fruit of enlightenment. [S.Xb-2]

bodai no tane 菩提の種 Seed of enlightenment. [SS.]

bodai o inoru 菩提を祈る To pray for the repose of the dead; to pray that the dead will be born in Amida's Pure Land. [Tai.4]

bodai o toburau 菩提を弔ふ To pray for the repose of the dead.

Bodairushi 菩提流支 Sk. Bodhiruci; an Indian monk who was invited to Ch'ang-an (Choan 長安) in 693. He produced translations of fifty-three scriptures, including Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land (Jodoron); he is said to have converted T'an-luan (Donran) to Pure Land Buddhism. [KG.3; KW.]

bodaisatta 菩提薩藉 Sk. bodhisattva; popularly abbreviated to bosatsu.

Bodaisatta shishobo 菩提薩多四摂法 'The four beneficial acts of a bodhisattva'; the title of the 45th chapter of the Shobogenzo. See shishobo.

Bodaisenna 菩提僊(or 仙)那 Sk. Bodhisena; see Baramon sojo.

bodaishi 菩提子 The name of a fruit produced in the Himalayas and called 'bo-di-ci' (or bo-dhi-rtsi) in Tibetan, which is used for making rosaries. The term is often incorrectly taken to mean the fruit of a bodaiju (Bodhi-tree). [Tai.35]

bodaishin 菩提心 Bodhi-mind; Sk. bodhi-citta, cittotpada [Sutra.]; the will to realize supreme enlightenment. The awakening of the Bodhi-mind is of utmost importance in ordinary Buddhist training and is the beginning of the bodhisattva's career. For the three kinds of Bodhi-mind in the Shingon school, see sanshu bodaishin.

bodaishin kisei 菩提心祈請 Praying for the (endowment of) Bodhi-mind. [S.I-8]

bodaishin no gyakuen 菩提心の逆縁 I. The adverse conditions for the Bodhi-mind (four); 1) not paying respect to the Dharma, 2) entertaining arrogance, 3) telling lies and being insincere and 4) not respecting teachers. [Juju.] II. Ten adverse conditions for the Bodhi-mind; 1) not sharing the supreme Dharma with others, 2) being attached to Hinayana ways, 3) abusing bodhisattvas, 4) despising those who practice meditation, 5) harboring a grudge and enmity towards one's teacher, 6) having the mind of flattery and crookedness, 7) hankering after riches and gains, 8) being unaware of maras' evil acts, 9) weakness of one's Bodhi-mind, and 10) one's karmic hindrances and pursuit of wrong teachings. [Juju.]

bodai shiryo 菩提資糧 Provisions for enlightenment; Sk. bodhi-sambhara. [Kusha.; Yoga.]

Bodaishin-ron 菩提心論 The Discourse on the Bodhi-mind, 1 fasc., attributed to Ryumyo 龍猛 and translated into Chinese by Amoghavajra (Fukukongo) [T.32, No.1665]. The full title is Kongocho-yugachu-hotsu-anokutara-sanmyaku-sanbodaishin-ron 金剛頂瑜伽中発阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心論; also, abbreviated to Hotsubodaishin-ron 発菩提心論 (Discourse on Awakening the Bodhi-mind) . This work first urges Shingon practitioners to awaken the three kinds of Bodhi-mind (sanshu bodaishin) and presents the principle of becoming a Buddha with the present body (sokushin jobutsu), fivefold meditation for realizing Buddhahood (goso-joshin), three mystic practices (sanmitsu), and meditation on the letter 'A' (ajikan). Because this work contains those essential elements of the Shingon teaching, Kukai considered it to be a highly important discourse. As for the authorship, Kukai followed the traditional ascription to Ryumyo but Enchin considered Amoghavajra (Fukukongo) as the real author because Subhakarasimha's (Zenmui) commentary on the Mahavairocana Sutra is quoted in the work.

bodaisho 菩提所 'A Bodhi place'; the same as bodaiji.

bodai soku jishin 菩提即自心 Enlightenment is (to know) one's own mind; the realization that the real essence of one's mind is Bodhi. [S.III-1]

bodaizo 菩提蔵 The collection of teachings leading to enlightenment; the term appears in Shan-tao's (Zendo) Hanjusan 般舟讃 (Hymns on the Pratyutpanna Samadhi). [KG.2]

Bodhi Enlightenment, the highest wisdom.

Bodhi-Mind Aspiration for Enlightenment.

Bodhi-tree The tree under which the Buddha attained Enlightenment; the Sanskrit name of this tree is pippala, also called ashvattha.

Bodhiruci An Indian monk who went to China in 508 and produced translations of Buddhist scriptures, including Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land; he is said to have given T'an-luan the Contemplation Sutra.

bodhisattva 'A being of enlightenment'; one who makes vows to attain enlightenment and to save suffering beings, and thus sets out on the long course of practice. One who has accomplished the bodhisattva practice is a Buddha; an enlightenment-being; a Buddha-to-be.

Bodhisattva ideal The Mahayana ideal that one should strive to perform various acts of merits and cultivate wisdom in order to save suffering beings and attain Enlightenment.

Bodhisattva Path The path to be followed by bodhisattvas whereby they benefit both themselves and other beings and realize Enlightenment; this path is fully explained in the Mahayana Buddhism.

Bodhisattva Phoenix The name of high praise and respect given to T'an-luan by the king of Liang, Hsiao-yen.

Bodhisattva practice Acts of merits to be performed by the bodhisattva for the attainment of Enlightenment; see Six Paramitas.

Bodhisattva Vehicle The teaching for the bodhisattvas.

Bodhisattvahood The state of a bodhisattva.

Body for the sake of beings One of the two kinds of Buddha's body, the other being Body of True Suchness; the body manifested by the Buddha for the sake of bodhisattvas and sentient beings.

Body of True Suchness The essential body of the Buddha, which is identical with the ultimate reality, True Suchness.

bombu An ordinary, unenlightened being; in Shin Buddhism, this term is used with deep awareness of one's evil passions and inability to attain salvation by one's own power.

bofu hakurei 亡婦魄霊 The soul of a deceased woman. [Izu.]

boge 妨碍 To obstruct. [An.]

bogo ritsugi 防護律儀 'Protection of the precepts'; after one has received the precepts, a certain substance is produced in one's body, which works to protect the precepts and keeps one from violating them.

bohi shiaku 防非止悪 Guarding against wrongdoing and stopping evils.

Bokamakada 傍伽摩伽陀 Sk. Vangamagadha; one of the sixteen great kingdoms (juroku-daikoku) in India at the time of the Buddha. [KG.6]

bokan 坊官 Also chomu 庁務 and zaicho 在庁; an attendant of an ordained member of the imperial family. Though shaven-headed and wearing the monk's robe, he marries, wears a sword and eats meat like an ordinary layman. [Tai.9,21]

bokon 亡魂 A dead person's soul.

bokusen 卜占 Divination, fortune-telling. [SW.]

bomori 坊守 'The caretaker of a temple'; the wife of a priest of the Honganji school of Jodo Shinshu is so called.

bomoriko 坊守講 A bomoris' gathering; a gathering at which bomoris listen to the Dharma, discuss ways of realizing the teaching in daily life, and so forth.

bon 凡 An ordinary, ignorant person; Sk. bala. [Yoga.]

Bon 梵 Brahman, Brahma; originally the ultimate principle of existence and the absolute reality in India; the creator god in Hinduism. In Buddhism, he is the lord of the First Meditation Heaven (Shozenten) in the world of form. [Dai.; Kan.; KG.3,6]

bonan 妨難 Finding fault with or criticizing other people's view.

bonan 防難 Protecting one's view by refuting other people's criticism.

bonbu 凡夫 An ordinary, unenlightened being; Sk. avidvat, prthag-jana, bala, bala-prthag-jana [Lanka.], balisa [Kusha.]; a foolish, ignorant person, as opposed to a sage (shoja 聖者).

bonbuho 凡夫法 The teaching for ordinary people; Sk. prthag-jana-dharma. [Sam.]

bonbai 梵唄 The chanting of hymns; bon 梵 means bondo 梵土 (India) and bai 唄 is an abbr. of bainoku. Also means nyoraibai.

bondo 梵土 Brahman's land; India.

bonga ichinyo 梵我一如 Oneness of Brahman and atman; the basic teaching of Hinduism as found in the Upanisad. It is the theory that the ultimate principle of one's existence (atman) and that of the universe (Brahman) are one and the same, and from this principle arise myriads of things, and the souls of individuals take various forms according to their karma and become subject to transmigration. And so it is taught that emancipation from transmigration is the objective of life, and in order to attain it, one must seek unity with Brahman.

bonge 凡下 The ordinary, lower order of people.

bongu 凡愚 An ordinary, ignorant person; Sk. avipascita, bala-prthag-jana, balisa [Lanka.], bala [Sam.].

bongyo 凡形 Appearance of an ordinary person. [R.III-30]

bonji 凡地 A short form for bonbu no jii 凡夫の地位 (the stage of an ordinary person) as contrasted with that of an enlightened sage. [JW.]

bonjo 凡情 Emotion of an ordinary man; delusions as conceived by an ordinary man.

bonju 凡住 The abode for ignorant persons; Sk. bala-vihara. [Yoga.]

bonkai 犯戒 Also honkai; breaking of the precepts; Sk. apatti, duhsila, dauhsilya [Yoga.], apattiko bhavati [Sam.].

Bonkyo ボン教 Tib. Bon-po; the ancient religion of Tibet based primarily on shamanism and concerned with worshiping souls that reside in everything. It was characterized by fetishism, demon worship and propitiation by means of incantations. After the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet in the 4th century onward, Bon has lost its power but still exists in various forms in the religious life of Tibetans.

bongyo 梵行 Brahman's acts; morally pure acts. I. In India, the religious practices performed by brahmins. II. Moral practices; practices which accord with the precepts, esp. chastity. III. Generally, in Buddhism, practices prescribed by the Buddha for attaining emancipation.

bonji 梵士 A brahmin; a worshiper of Brahma. [SW.]

bonju 梵住 'Brahman's abode'; Sk. brahma-vihara, brahmya-vihara; refers to shibonju 四梵住. [Sutra.]

bonmani 梵摩尼 Brahma's mani-gem; the wish-fulfilling mani-gem possessed by Brahma. [Kan.]

Bonmo 梵網 I. 'Brahma's Net'; one of the bodhisattvas in the Vimalakirti Sutra. II. Refers to the Bonmo-kyo. [S.I-9]

Bonmokyo 梵網経 I. The Brahma-net Sutta; the Brahma-jala-sutta; a Pali sutta corrresponding to the Bondokyo 梵動経, the fourteenth text of the Dirgha-nikaya Sutra (Joagongyo 長阿含経), and the Bonmo-rokujunikengyo 梵網六十二見経. The title means 'a net of views,' signifying that the Buddha takes up the sixty-two views and points out their mistakes just as a fisherman casts a net and catches fish. See rokujuniken. II. The Brahma-net Sutra; 2 fasc.; the full title, Bonmokyo rushanabutsu setsu bosatsu shinjikaihon 梵網経盧舎那仏説菩薩心地戒品 (Chapter on the "Precepts of Bodhisattvas' Mind-ground Expounded by Rocana Buddha" in the Brahma-net Sutra), 10th fascicle. Its Chinese translation has been traditionally ascribed to Kumarajiva (Kumaraju) [T.24, No.1484]. The first fascicle explains the forty stages of a bodhisattva's career, and the second, the precepts for bodhisattvas, i.e. the ten major precepts (jujukai 十重戒) and forty-eight minor ones (shijuhachikyokai 四十八輕戒). See Bosatsukai-kyo.

Bonmo no juju 梵網の十重 The ten major precepts presented in the Bonmo-kyo: 1) not to kill or induce others to kill; 2) not to steal or make others steal; 3) not to engage in or make others engage in sexual intercourse; 4) not to lie or make others lie; 5) not to sell or make others sell intoxicating liquors; 6) not to talk of or make others talk of a fault in a bodhisattva, monk, or nun; 7) not to praise oneself and abuse others or make others do so; 8) not to be stingy or make others be stingy; 9) not to give vent to anger and treat others harshly or make others do so; 10) not to abuse or make others abuse the Three Treasures (sanbo).

Bonno 梵王 The Brahma King; the king of the Brahma Heaven (Bonten); Maha-brahman [Sukha.]; the same as Bontenno 梵天王. [JW.; S.VII-4]

bonno 煩悩 Afflictions, evil passions, blind passions; Sk. adhi, klista, klesa, grantha [Sutra.]; mental functions which disturb and pollute the mind and body; the basic cause of transmigration in Samsara. Six major bonno are called 'konpon bonno' 根本煩悩 (root-klesa); they are: 1) ton 貪 (raga), attachment; 2) shin 瞋 (pratigha), anger, and hatred; 3) chi 癡 (mudha, moha), stupidity or ignorance about the Buddhist truth and reality; 4) man 慢 (mana), haughtiness; 5) gi 疑 (vicikitsa), doubt on and rejection of the Buddhist truth and 6) akken悪見 (drs, drsti), wrong views. By extinguishing evil passions, one becomes an arhat (arakan). In the Mahayana, by penetrating into the non-substantiality of evil passions, a bodhisattva attains emancipation and realizes bodhi. See Appendix A.

bonno akusho 煩悩悪障 Evil passions and evil hindrances (which obstruct realization of enlightenment). [Tan.14,15]

bonno bodai ichimi 煩悩菩提一味 Evil passions and bodhi are of one taste; from the viewpoint of the highest, non-dualistic wisdom, evil passions and bodhi are undifferentiated. [SW.]

bonnobuku 煩悩伏 Suppressing evil passions; Sk. jita-klesa. [Sam.]

bonno-go 煩悩業 Karma created by evil passions. [S.Vb-8]

bonno gusoku 煩悩具足 To be filled with evil passions. [KW.; Tan.14]

bonno honku 煩悩本空 Evil passions are originally void. [S.Va-5]

bonno jikke shoki 煩悩習気所起 Arising of the residue of evil passions; Sk. klesa-dausthulya-prabhavitatva. [Sutra.]

bonno joju 煩悩成就 Full of evil passions; burdened with evil passions. [KW.; MT.]

bonnojoku 煩悩濁 Defilement of evil passions; Sk. klesa-kasaya; one of the five defilements (gojoku). [Yoga.]

bonnojumetsu 煩悩習滅 Removing the residue of evil passions; Sk. klesa-vasana-prahana. [Sam.]

bonno kanetsu 煩悩火熱 Heat of evil passions; Sk. klesa-paridaha. [Sutra.]

bonno-ma 煩悩魔 'The demon of evil passions'; Sk. klesa-mara; one of the four demons (shima); evil passions are so called because they torment one's mind and body. [Yoga.]

bonnomo 煩悩網 The net of evil passions; ordinary beings are caught in the strong net of evil passions which they produce. [Juju.]

bonno mozo 煩悩妄想 Evil passions and delusory thoughts. [S.IV-9]

bonno netsu 煩悩熱 Heat of evil passions; Sk. klesa-paridaha. [Sutra.]

bonno no aka 煩悩の垢 The grimes of evil passions. [Hei.2]

bonno no churin 煩悩の稠林 The dense forest of evil passions. [Monrui.]

bonno no hayashi 煩悩の林 The forest of evil passions. [KG.3]

bonno no jokusui 煩悩の濁水 Muddy water of evil passions. [KW.]

bonno no kokuun 煩悩の黒雲 Dark cloud of evil passions. [Tan.15]

bonno no taiga 煩悩の大河 The great river of evil passions; an analogy to show that evil passions are boundless and engulf sentient beings. [Tai.33]

bonno oyobi zuibonno 煩悩及随煩悩 Evil passions and minor evil passions; Sk. klesa-upaklesa [Sam.]. See Appendix A.

bonno shijo 煩悩熾盛 Evil passions that rage furiously; fiery evil passions; Sk. klesa-pracurata. [Tan.1; Yoga.]

bonnosho 煩悩性 The (real) nature of evil passions. [S.Xa-6]

bonnosho 煩悩障 Hindrance of evil passions; Sk. klesavarana; evil passions which hinder the practice of the Buddhist path and the realization of Nirvana; one of the two kinds of hindrances (nisho); see shochisho. [Lanka.; Yoga.]

bonno shochisho 煩悩所知障 Hindrance of evil passions and hindrance concerning things to be known; Sk. klesa-jneyavarana. [Yoga.]

bonnosho chisho 煩悩障智障 Same as above; Sk. klesa-jneya-vrti. [Sutra.]

bonnosho chisho 煩悩障知障 Same as above; Sk. klesa-jneyavarana. [Sam.]

bonno soku bodai 煩悩即菩提 Evil passions are themselves enlightenment. According to the Mahayana principle of non-duality, the real essence of one's passions is the same as enlightenment. [S.Va-5]

bonno zoku 煩悩賊 The bandit of evil passions; Sk. klesa-gana. [Sutra.]

bonno zozen 煩悩雑染 Evil passions and defilements; Sk. klesa-samklesa. [Sam.: Yoga.]

bonnon 梵音 Brahma's voice. I. A Buddha or bodhisattva's voice preaching the Dharma. II. A voice of chanting a sutra. [Tai.24]

Bonnon 梵音 Brahmaghosa, 'Brahma's voice'; a Buddha in the zenith [Ami.];
also, the 39th of the 107 Buddhas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.].

Bon'onjo-jizaio 梵音声自在王 'King who Controls Everything with the Voice of Brahma'; the name of a Buddha; corresponds to Sk. Brahma-svara-nada-abhinandita. [Sukha.]

Bonnon-ryuku 梵音龍吼 'Brahma's Voice and dragon's Roar'; the name of a Buddha; corresponds partly to Sk. Brahma-svara-nada-abhinandita. [Sukha.]

Bon'onzetsu 梵音説 'Expounding with Brahma's Voice'; Sk. Brahma-svara-nadabhinadita*; the 51st of the 107 Buddhas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

Bonpoten 梵輔天 Heaven of High Priests of Brahma; Sk. Brahma-prohita; part of the First Meditation Heaven (Shozenten)in the world of form [Yoga.] . See Appendix C 1.

bonryo 凡慮 An ordinary man's thought. [Tai.33]

Bonse 梵世 The world of Brahma; the Brahma Heaven in the world of form. [Juju.]

bonsei no gyogi 犯制の行儀 The procedure to be followed when one is found guilty of breaking the precepts.

bonseki 梵席 'Brahma's seat'; a Buddhist meeting. [Tai.24]

bonsetsu 梵刹 A Buddhist temple. [Sh.4]

bonshin 凡心 'An ordinary (man's) mind'; an unenlightened mind full of delusions and evil passions. [S.VI-16]

bonshin 凡身 The body of an ordinary man. [S.II-9]

bonsho 凡聖 A contraction of bombu and shoja, ordinary people and sages. [An.]

bonsho dogo 凡聖同居 Ordinary beings and sages live together. [H.35]

bonsho dogodo 凡聖同居土 The land where ordinary people and sages live together; one of the four kinds of lands (shido 四土) distinguished in the Tendai school.

bonsho funi 凡聖不二 Not discriminating between ordinary beings and sages. [S.Xb-3]

bonshu 凡衆 Ordinary, comman beings. [KW.]

Bonsho 梵書 The Brahmana; an Indian classical literature. See Burahumana.

Bonsho 梵声 Brahma's Voice; Sk. Brahma-ghosa*; the 79th of the 107 Buddhas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

bonsho 梵鐘 A sacred bell; see sho 鐘.

Bonshuten 梵衆天 Heaven of Councillors of Brahma; Sk. Brahma-parisadya; part of the First Meditation Heaven (Shozenten) in the world of form. See Appendix C 1.

bonso 凡僧 An ordinary priest; a priest of low rank. [K.520]

Bonso 梵相 I. 'Brahma's Banner'; Sk. Brahma-ketu; the 5th of the 107 Buddhas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.] II. 'Brahma's Ensign'; Sk. Brahma-dhvaja; the name of a Buddha. [Lotus.]

bonso 梵僧 An Indian monk. [Tai.24]

Bonten 梵天 I. The Brahma Heaven in the world of form (shikikai). [KG.6] II. Brahma, the King of the Brahma Heaven. As one of the twelve deities (juniten), he dwells in the zenith and oversees all the heavenly deities. See Burahuma. III. A god of the Brahma Heaven; Sk. brahma-kayika [Sukha.]. See Appendix C 1.

Bontenno 梵天王 The King of the Brahma Heaven; Sk. Maha-brahman. [Sukha.]

Bontenmonkyo 梵天問経 The Sutra on Brahma's Questions; Sk. Brahma-pariprccha(-sutra). [Sutra.]

bonwaku 煩惑 Affliction and delusion; Sk. klesa-mala. [Sukha.]

bonyaku bunin 傍若無人 'Behaving as if nobody were around'; an imprudent attitude. [M.6]

bonzei 梵砌 'Brahma's stone steps'; refers to a Buddhist temple. [Tai.15]

Border Region of the Pure Land Same as Transformed Land; the temporary abode for those who aspire to be born in the Pure Land but are still attached to their own power, and so unable to trust the Other-Power fully.

born by transformation The aspirants to the Pure Land who sincerely entrust themselves to Amitabha with clear cognition of his wisdom become fully enlightened as soon as they are born in the Pure Land; cf. embryonic state.

boru 瀑流 Flood, big stream, torrent; Sk. ogha [Hosso.; Yoga.]; augha [Lanka.]. See shiboru.

bosatsu 菩薩 I. Abbr. of bodaisatta 菩提薩藉, Sk. bodhisattva; also, sambodhisattva [Sukha.]; one who makes vows to attain enlightenment (bodai) and saves suffering beings, and thus sets out on the course of practice (known as ropparamitsu) which requires a long time to complete. He who has accomplished the bodhisattva practice is a Buddha. II. A title of respect given by the emperor to a monk of outstanding virtue. The first such instance in Japan occurred in 749 when Gyogi 行基 (668-749) was given the title of daibosatsu 大菩薩 by the Emperor Shomu 聖武.

bosatsu byodoshin 菩薩平等心 Bodhisattva's mind of equality; Sk. bodhisattva-samacitta. [Sam.]

bosatsudo 菩薩道 The Bodhisattva Path; Sk. bodhisattva-carya [Sukha.]; also, bodhisattva-marga [Yoga.]; the path to be followed by bodhisattvas whereby they benefit both themselves and other beings and realize enlightenment. This path is fully explained in the Mahayana Buddhism. [Juju.]

bosatsugyo 菩薩行 Bodhisattva-practice; Sk. bodhisattva-carya. [Sukha.; Sutra.; Yoga.]

bosatsu-issendai 菩薩一闡提 A bodhisattva-icchantika; a bodhisattva who remains in Samsara forever without realizing enlightenment while saving living beings; Sk. bodhisattva-icchantika. See issendai. [Lanka.]

bosatsuji 菩薩地 I. Stages of a bodhisattva; originally in India, ten stages were distinguished (see juji); later, the entire course of practice developed into fifty-two stages (see gojuni-i). [Kishin.] II. The ninth of the ten stages embracing the Three Vehicles (sanjo gu no juji 三乗共の十地; see juji II). III. Another name for Bosatsu-jijikyo; see next. IV. Stages of bodhisattvas' practice in general.

Bosatsu-jijikyo 菩薩地持経 The Sutra on Sustaining the Bodhisattva Stages; 10 fasc. [T.30, No.1581]; tr. by Dharmaksema (Donmushin); often abbreviated to Jijikyo 地持経; this is a different version of the Chapter on "Bodhisattvas" of the Yogacara-bhumi (Yugashijiron).

bosatsujo 菩薩乗 The bodhisattva vehicle; Sk. bodhisattva-yana; the teaching and system of practice for bodhisattvas. See gojo. [MT.]

bosatsu josho 菩薩定性 'The fixed nature of a bodhisattva'; the first of the five natures of sentient beings distinguished on the basis of their spiritual capabilities. See gosho kakubetsu. [Hosso.]

bosatsu jujizai 菩薩十自在 The ten controlling powers of a bodhisattva listed in the Garland Sutra. They are: 1) myojizai 命自在, the ability to live for innumerable kalpas in the world; 2) shinjizai 心自在, the ability to control one's mind with wisdom and expedient power, enter into inumerable samadhis and freely employ transcendent powers; 3) shigujizai 資具自在, the ability to produce immeasurable rare treasures with which to adorn the whole world; 4) gojizai 業自在, the ability to control one's karma so that one can manifest oneself in various forms; 5) jushojizai 受生自在, the ability to display the reception of various states of existence as one wishes; 6) gejizai 解自在, the ability to attain superior understanding of the Dharma and freely expound it; 7) ganjizai 願自在, the ability to make vows freely according to which one can manifest oneself in various worlds and display the attainments of Buddhahood; 8) jinrikijizai 神力自在, the ability to employ supernatural powers whereby one can manifest various forms in all worlds; 9) hojizai 法自在, the ability to freely expound innumerable Dharma-gates with extensive intelligence and eloquence; 10) chijizai 智自在, the ability to manifest, in a single moment, the Buddha's ten powers and four fearlessnesses through the employment of superior wisdom.

bosatsu juriki 菩薩十力 The ten powers of a bodhisattva; the ten spiritual powers attributed to a bodhisattva [Cf. BWD.912, Mvy. '&-769]. They are: 1) jinshinriki 深心力, the power of deep mind which is free of attachment and dedicated to the Buddha-dharma; 2) zojojinshinriki 増上深心力, the power of a deep mind and superior mind dedicated to the Buddha-dharma; 3) hobenriki 方便力, the power of employing expedient means to guide and embrace sentient beings; 4) chiriki 智力, the power of wisdom to know the activities of sentient beings' minds; 5) ganriki 願力, the power of vows fulfilling the desires of sentient beings; 6) gyoriki 行力, the power of performing practices without disruption; 7) joriki 乗力, the power of the vehicle which transcends all vehicles, i.e., the Mahayana; 8) jinpenriki 神変力, the power of the miraculous manifestations of the Tathagatas in all the worlds in the space of a single hair-follicle; 9) bodairiki 菩提力, the power of enlightenment which enables sentient beings to aspire for enlightenment and attain Buddhahood; 10) tenborinriki 転法輪力, the power of turning the Dharma-wheel by expounding a single phrase in accordance with the different capacities, natures, and desires of sentient beings. See juriki, riki-haramitsu no juriki.

bosatsukai 菩薩戒 The precepts for bodhisattvas; Sk. bodhisattva-sila [Sam.], bodhisattva(-sila)-samvara [Sutra.].

Bosatsukaikyo 菩薩戒經 The Sutra on the precepts for Bodhisattvas; refers to Bonmokyo Rushanabutsusetsu-bosatsu-shinjikaihon 梵網経盧舎那仏説菩薩心地戒品, usually abbreviated to Bonmokyo 梵網経 (Brahma-net Sutra) [T.24, No.1484]; see Bonmokyo.

bosatsu no shi 菩薩の死 'Death of the bodhisattva'; falling into the stages of a sravaka and a pratyekabuddha is so called, because the bodhisattvas who have fallen into such stages are content with the nihilistic Nirvana and would not aspire for Buddhahood. [Juju.]

bosatsu nyufuni homon 菩薩入不二法門 The teaching-gate through which the bodhisattva enters non-duality of all existence; the profound Mahayana principle mentioned in the Vimalakirti-sutra (Yuimagyo). [H.84; Sh.48]

Bosatsu-shotaikyo 菩薩処胎経 The Sutra on the Bodhisattvas Dwelling in the Womb; the full title is Bosatsu-jutojutsuten-gojinmotai-setsukofukyo 菩薩従兜術天降神母胎説広普経 [T.12, No.384]. According to this sutra, at a long distance to the west from this world, there is a land called 'Pride and Arrogance' (Kemangai 懈慢界), where there is plenty of happiness; the bodhisattvas born here are attached to it and are unable to advance. In the Jodoshinshu, this land is considered to be a kind of the Transformed Land (kedo 化土). [KW.]

Bosatsu-yorakukyo 菩薩瓔珞経 Refers to Bosatsu-yoraku-hongokyo 菩薩瓔珞本業経. [An.]

Bosatsu-yoraku-hongokyo 菩薩瓔珞本業経 The Sutra on the Bodhisattvas' Original Acts which Serve as their Ornaments; 2 fasc.; tr. by Chu Fo-nien (Jiku Butsunen 竺仏念) [T.24, No.1485]. This sutra explains, among other things, the forty-two stages of a bodhisattva, based on which T'ien-t'ai (Tendai) developed the theory of fifty-two stages (gojuni-i).

bosatsuzo 菩薩蔵 A collection of teachings for bodhisattvas; Sk. bodhisattva-pitaka. [Sutra.]

boshin 亡心 'A departed soul'; a ghost. [Yashi.]

bosho 傍生 'A living creature that walks sideways'; Sk. tiryanc, tairyak, tairyag-yonika [Yoga.]; refers to animals.

bosho sekai 傍生世界 The realm of animals; Sk. tiryag-loka. [Yoga.]

boshoshu 傍生趣 The realm of animals; Sk. tiryanc. [Yoga.]

Boundless Light One of the twelve epithets of Amida.

bozu 坊主 Also 房主; a bonzu; a resident priest of a temple; popularly, any priest or a monk. From the period of the shogunate government on, bozu were those who served tea and did miscellaneous works at the residences of government officials and feudal lords; they were called cha-bozu 茶坊主, tea-serving bonzu. [Basho.]

Brahma Originally the creator god in Hinduism; in Buddhism, he is the lord of the First Dhyana Heaven in the world of form.

Brahma Heaven The heaven in the world of form.

Brahma-net Sutra A Mahayana sutra that explains, among other things, stages of bodhisattvas and precepts for them.

Brahma-king The king of the Brahma Heaven in the world of form.

brahmin A follower of Brahmanism.

budda 仏陀 A Buddha; an enlightened one.

Buddabadara 仏陀跋陀羅 Sk. Buddhabhadra ('Enlightened and Wise'); Chueh-hsien 覚賢 (Kakuken) in Chinese; a native of northern India and a descendant of a royal family; especially conversant with meditation and the precepts. He came to Ch'ang-an 長安 (Choan) in 406, became Kumarajiva's friend, and lectured on a sutra of meditation to Hui-yuan 慧遠 (Eon) of Mt. Lu 廬山 (Rozan). Later he translated thirteen sutras and discourses, including the Mahasamghika's Vinaya text (Makasogi-ritsu), the Garland Sutra (60 fasc.), and the Sutra on the Buddha of Infinite Life (Muryojukyo) (2 fasc.). He died in 429 at the age of 71. It is presumed that he and a Chinese monk Pao-yun 宝雲 (Houn) were the real translators of the Sutra on the Buddha of Infinite Life (Larger Sutra) which has been traditionally ascribed to Samghavarman (Kosogai). See goson shichiketsu.

Buddadeba ブッダデーバ Buddhadeva; see Kakuten.

Buddagaya 仏陀伽耶 Buddhagaya; the place near Gaya in central India where the Buddha attained enlightenment. See Gayajo.

Buddagosa ブッダゴーサ P. Buddhaghosa; a great Buddhist master of about the 5th century; translated in Chinese as 仏音 Button ('Buddha's Voice') and 覚音 Kakuon ('Enlightened Voice'); originally a native of south India. While traveling in the country, he encountered a Buddhist monk named Revata, under whom he was ordained. Later he met Elders Buddhamitta and Jotipala of the Mahavihara school, which afforded him an opportunity to study Sinhalese Buddhism. In about the latter half of the 420's, he crossed to Sri Lanka and visited the Mahavihara Temple. He then studied classical Sinhalese commentaries and the doctrine of this school. He undertook to translate those texts into Pali. But, several years later, when King Mahanama died and there arose social unrest caused by the invasion of the Tamils, Buddhaghosa left Sri Lanka. It is not known how he spent the rest of his life but a large number of works, especially the commentaries of the Pali Tipitaka, known as atthakatha, have been ascribed to him. Seven works are reasonably attributed to his authorship, which include: 1) Visuddhi-magga (Path of Purity) and 2) Samantha-pasadika (Completely Serene), a commentary on the Vinaya Pitaka. His works have continued to represent the standard doctrines of the Theravada.

Buddhaguhuya ブッダグフヤ Sk. Buddhaguhya; also, Buddhagupta; the 8th to the 9th century; one of the three greatest masters of Indian esoteric Buddhism; well known as the commentator of the Mahavairocana Sutra and the first assembly of the Vajra Peak Sutra. When King Khri-sron-lde-btsan invited him to Tibet, the master was unable to accept the invitation because he was practicing the Way in Mt. Kailasa at that time. It is said that his teacher was Jnanapada who flourished in the latter half of the 8th century or Vimalamitra, in the early 9th century. His works include the following: 1) Vairocanabhisambodhi-tantra-pindartha (Compendium of the Tantra of Vairocana's Enlightenment), 2) Vairocanabhisambodhi-vikurvitadhisthana-mahatantra-bhasya (Commentary on the Great Tantra of Transformed Empowerment of Vairocana's Enlightenment), and 3) Tantrarthavatara (Entry into the Meaning of Tantra).

Budda sanzo 仏陀三蔵 Also 仏駄三蔵; Tripitaka master Buddha(santa); see Buddhasenta.

Buddasenta 仏陀扇多 Sk. Buddhasanta; 覚定 Kakujo in Chinese; a native of north India. He was well versed in several languages and also skilled in art. He came to China and translated the Discourse on the Ten-Stage Sutra (Jujikyoron) together with Bodhiruci (Bodairushi) and Ratnamati (Rokunamadai) in 511. Later, dwelling at the White-horse temple (Hakubaji) in Lo-yang, he translated the Sutra on the Lion's Roar of the Tathagata (Nyorai-shishikukyo) and the Compendium of Mahayana (Shodaijoron). After moving to the Golden-Flower Temple (Kinkaji 金華寺) in Yeh 屋 (Gyo), he continued his translation work.

Buddhashanta ブッダシャーンタ Buddhasanta; see Buddasenta.

Buddasinha ブッダシンハ Buddhasimha; see Shishikaku.

Buddayasha 仏陀耶舎 Sk. Buddhayasas; the 4th to the 5th centuries; translated as Kakumyo 覚明 and Kakusho 覚称; a master from Kashmir well-versed in both Hinayana and Mahayana; the teacher of Kumarajiva (Kumaraju) during the period of his stay in India. At the invitation of Kumarajiva, he came to Ch'ang-an in 408 and produced translations of the Dirgha Nikaya, Four-Part Vinaya, etc., and then returned to India. Because of his thorough knowledge of the Mahavibhasa-sastra (Abidatsuma-daibibasharon) he was called 'red-beard Bibasha master.'

bugyo 奉行 'Upholding and practicing'; upholding the teaching and practicing it; also, respectfully practicing the method of emancipation; this phrase is often placed at the end of a sutra.

bugyo dokkaku 部行独覚 'Pratyekabuddhas practicing in groups'; one of the two kinds of pratyekabuddhas, the other being rinkaku-yu dokkaku 麟角喩独覚 (pratyekabuddhas practicing on their own like the horn of a rhinoceros). They form groups in practicing the Way.

buha bukkyo 部派仏教 'Schismatic Buddhism.' About a hundred years after the Buddha's parinirvana, the Sangha split into two groups: the progressive Mahasamghika (Daishubu 大衆部) and the conservative Theravada (Sk. Sthaviravada, Jozabu 上座部). There are two traditions that account for the cause of the split: 1) according to the Ibushurinron by Vasumitra (Shou), the five 'heretical views' advocated by Mahadeva (Daiten no goji) brought about the schism of the Sangha; 2) according to a Vinaya text and the two Sinhalese chronicles of Buddhism, i.e., Dipavamsa (Toshi) and Mahavamsa (Daiotoshi), the schism was caused by the ten new theories proposed by monks of the Vajji clan about a hundred years after the Buddha's decease (juji no hiho). Yasa, a monk well-versed in the Vinaya, after witnessing in Vesali (Vaisali) that the ten unlawful acts were practiced, proposed to hold a convention at Vesali with the help of the Elder Revata. As seven hundred monk attended this convention, it was called 'Seven hundred (monks') Council' (shichihyaku ketsuju 七百結集). It was on this occasion that the authentic Vinaya rules were confirmed and the ten new theories were rejected as heretical. progressive monks who were against the decision of the elders formed a new school, Mahasamghika (Daishubu). During the period of a couple of hundred years following this schism, each school underwent a further split, each followed by yet another split in the course of time, until there were eighteen sub-schools in all by the 3rd century C.E. Including the two original schools, we speak of 'the twenty schools of Hinayana.'
[Twenty Schools] According to the Ibushurinron by Vasumitra which reflects the Sarvastivada's (Setsuissaiubu) view, after Mahadeva's revolutionary statement, the Sangha was divided into two, and further schisms occurred in succession until the following twenty schools were formed:
I. Mahasamghika (Daishubu 大衆部)
1. Ekavyavaharika (Issetsubu 一説部)
2. Lokottaravada (Setsushussebu 説出世部)
3. Kukkutika (Keiinbu 鶏胤部)
4. Bahusrtiya (Tamonbu 多聞部)
5. Prajnaptivada (Sekkebu 説仮部)
6. Caitika (Seitasanbu 制多山部)
7. Aparasaila (Seizanjubu 西山住部)
8. Uttarasaila (Hokusanjubu 北山住部)
II. Sthavira (Jozabu 上座部)
1. Haimavata (Sessenbu 雪山部)
= Purvasthavira (Hon-jozabu 本上座部)
2. Sarvastivada (Setsuissaiubu 説一切有部)
3. Vatsiputriya (Tokushibu 犢子部)
4. Dharmottariya (Hojobu 法上部)
5. Bhadrayaniya (Kenchubu 賢冑部)
6. Sammitiya (Shoryobu 正量部)
7. Sannagarika (Mitsurinsanbu 密林山部)
8. Mahisasaka (Kejibu 化地部)
9. Dharmaguptaka (Hozobu 法蔵部)
10. Kasyapiya (Onkobu 飲光部)
= Suvarsaka (Zensaibu 善歳部)
11. Sautrantika (Kyoryobu 経量部)
= Samkrantika (Settenbu 説転部)

buji 奉事 Revering, serving with respect; Sk. gaurava, pujayitva. [An.; Sukha.]

buji 奉持 Upholding; Sk. parigrhniyam. [Sukha.]

buji 無事 I. No problem; no trouble; without hindrance; free of obstruction. [Kiyo.] II. Having nothing to do; having nothing demanding to do before attaining enlightenment; the state of perfect freedom from troubles; no dealings with secular affairs; the state of tranquility and non-action; used to describe the state of satori.

buji kore kinin 無事是れ貴人 One who has nothing to do is the noble man, i.e., a man of satori. [Rin.]

buji no hito 無事の人 A man free of trouble; a man of satori free of all dealings with secular affairs.

bujo 奉請 Invoking the presence of the Buddhas, bodhisattvas, etc., at the Jodoshin service. See sanbujo, shibujo.

bujoyaku 奉詔訳 A translation produced by the emperor's order. In China, many translations of Buddhist texts were produced by emperors' order.

bukka 仏果 Fruition of Buddhahood; Sk. buddhatva [Sutra.]; a Buddha's enlightenment attained as the result of the practices performed when he was a bodhisattva.

bukka bodai 仏果菩提 The fruition of Buddhahood and enlightenment. [Tai.36]

bukkai 仏界 The Buddhas' realm; Sk. buddha...dhatu [Sutra.]; one of the ten states of existence (jikkai). [S.V-1,Xb-1]

bukkaku 仏閣 A general term for Buddhist buildings.

bukke 仏家 Also bukka; the Buddha family. I. Buddhists. II. Monks. III. Bodhisattvas of higher ranks. IV. A Buddha land.

bukke ni umareru 仏家に生まれる Born in the Tathagata's family; Sk. tathagata-kule janma. [Sutra.]

bukken 仏見 I. The Buddha's sight. II. A concept that Buddhas exist; from the Buddhist viewpoint of emptiness, it is a delusion to think that Buddhas exist in the relative sense. [En.; San.258]

bukki 仏旗 The Buddhist flag; see rokukonjiki no hata.

bukko 仏光 The light of the Buddha. [JW; San.173]

Bukkojiha 仏光寺派 The Bukkoji school; one of the ten schools of the Jodoshin sect (Shinshu jippa); its head temple, Bukkoji 仏光寺, is at Takakura-dori, Shimogyoku, Kyoto. This school is an off-shoot of the Takada school. Its founder Ryogen 了源 (1295-1336), a disciple of Myoko 明光 of the Takada school, moved a temple from Yamashina to Higashiyama, Kyoto, and named it Bukkoji; this school enjoyed some popularity but the 14th abbot Kyogo 経豪 (1451-1492) left Bukkoji, joined Rennyo's sangha with most of his members, and founded the Koshoji 興正寺. In 1586, the temple was moved to Takakura 高倉 in Gojo Street. The temple was destroyed by fire in 1788 and 1864; the Daishi-do 大師堂 and the main hall were reconstructed in 1884 and 1904, respectively. 'Bukkojiha' became the official name of this school in 1877. The number of temples belonging to this school is now 377 and it has 47,910 members,.

bukkoku 仏国 A Buddha's land; Sk. buddha-ksetra. [Sukha.]

bukku 仏供 Boiled rice offered at the Buddhist altar; same as buppan 仏飯.

bukkyo 仏教 The Buddha's teaching; Buddhism; Sk. buddha-vacana. [Yoga.]

bukkyo 仏経 I. A Buddhist sutra. II. 'Buddhist sutras'; the title of the 52nd chapter of the Shobogenzo.

bukkyo 仏境 The state of a Buddha; the Buddha's realm; Buddhahood. [K.64; Rin.]

bukkyo no igi 仏教の威儀 Buddhist rules of conduct. [SW.]

bukkyoku 仏曲 'Buddhist music'; ancient Buddhist music transmitted to China from Central Asia during the Sui and T'ang periods. It formed a kind of artistic music in the court of the T'ang dynasty. The names of a variety of such music include: Uten bukkyoku 于碇仏曲 (Khotan Buddhist music), Kiji bukkyoku 亀黙仏曲 (Kuccha Buddhist music), Miroku bukkyoku 弥勒仏曲 (Maitreya Buddhist music), and Rushana bukkyoku 盧舎那仏曲 (Vairona Buddhist music).

Bukugi 伏羲 Ch. Fou Hsi; one of the three Emperors in ancient China; having the body of a snake and human head, he is said to have invented writing from the mystic diagrams supposed to have been seen on the back of a tortoise; he also taught the people hunting and husbandry. See sanko. [An.]

bukunin 伏忍 The stage of patience through self-control. [TS.]

bukuzo 伏蔵 Hidden treasury; Sk. nidhana. [Sukha.]

bumo mishozen no menmoku 父母未生前の面目 One's original state even before one's parents were born; one's Buddha-nature. [Den.]

bumo shicho no onden 父母師長の恩田 The field of merit to be cultivated to repay the indebtedness to one's parents, teachers and elders; one of the three fields of merit; see onden, sanfukuden. [S.IV-9]

bunbetsu 分別 See funbetsu.

bundan 分段 Part, partition. I. Difference, distinction. [K.468] II. Refers to bundan shoji. Cf. bundanshin under nishin. [Tai.5]

bundan dogo 分段同居 States of existence with a limited life-span in which ordinary people and sages live together. [Tai.5]

bundan shoji 分段生死 States of existence in transmigration in which people have a limited life-span.

bundan-fuse 分檀布施 Making donations; Sk. dana. [Sukha.]

bunni 分位 Status, condition; Sk. avastha. [Yoga.]

bunni shabetsu 分位差別 Difference in status; Sk. avastha-bheda. [Yoga.]

bunshin 分身 One's counterpart, spiritual offshoot; refers to the many bodies of incarnation manifested by a Buddha or bodhisattva. [Tai.18]

bunzai 分斉 Degree, state, rank.

buppo 仏法 The Buddha-Dharma; Buddhist law; Buddhist teaching; Sk. buddha-desana [Sam.], buddha-dharma [Sam.; Sukha.], buddha-sasana [Sutra.].

buppo fushigi 仏法不思議 Inconceivable power of the Buddha-Dharma [KW.] . See goshu no fushigi.

Buppo-metsujin-kyo 仏法滅尽経 The Sutra on Extinction of the Buddha-Dharma; refers to Ho-metsujin-kyo. [Tai.24]

buppo no shishu 仏法の旨趣 The essence of the Buddha-Dharma. [D.]

buppo no taii 仏法の大意 The essential principle of the Buddha-Dharma; the essentials of Buddhism. [H.32; Rin.]

bupporiki 仏法力 Power of the Buddha-Dharma. [KW.]

bupposha 仏法者 One (engaging) in the Buddha-Dharma; one who studies and practices Buddhism; a good and true Buddhist. [SW.]

buppo tozen no reichi 仏法東漸の霊地 A holy place on the route of the gradual eastward transmission of the Buddha-Dharma. [Tai.18]

buppo to obo 仏法と王法 The Buddha-Dharma and the king's law. [H.]

Burahuma ブラフマー Sk. Brahma; Bonten 梵天; one of the three highest gods conceived in India, the other two being Visnu and Siva; the deification of the impersonal highest principle of the universe, Brahman (Bon 梵); the creator of the universe, commonly addressed 'Pita-maha' (paternal grandfather). Kubera (Bishamonten 毘沙門天), the god of fortune, is his grandson.

Burahumana ブラーフマナ Sk. Brahmana; an Indian classical literature; Fan-shu 梵書 (Bonsho) in Chinese; constitutes part of the Veda literature in the wide sense of the term; produced probably between 1,000 to 500 B.C.E. Each of the four Vedas has specific Brahmanas; the representative ones are as follows: those belonging to the Rg-Veda are Aitareya-B. and Kausitaki-B.; those belonging to the Sama-Veda are Pancavimsa-B. and Jaiminiya-B.; the Atharva-Veda has Gopatha-B. These Brahmanas are independent works separate from the Veda Samhita but those in the Yajur-Veda are different; the Satapatha-B. that belongs to the White Yajur-Veda is an independent work but those belonging to the Black Yajur-Veda, namely, Maitrayani-Samhita, Kathakam, Kapisthala-Katha-Samhita, and Taittiriya-Samhita, are contained in the Yajur-Veda proper. Contextually, the Brahmanas are divided into two divisions: 1) manuals of ritual (vidhi) and 2) an explanation of its significance (arthavada). The latter also contains mythological tales and philosophical speculations. They conceived of time (kala) as the highest principle of the universe, and Prajapati ('lord of creatures') as the highest deity. There are many kinds of rituals and ceremonial rules; the idea behind them was to overcome transmigration of the soul and attain the perfect spiritual state. Although there is no direct link between the Brahmanas and esoteric Buddhism, the use of spells and incantations and the theory of the five elements (godai 五大)―earth, water, fire, wind, and space―may have had some influence on the formation of esotericism in Buddhism.

Brahma-mani-gem The wish-fulfilling ma n}i-gem possessed by Brahma.

Buddha 'An enlightened one'; one who has attained the highest wisdom and thus realized the ultimate reality. According to the Mahayana, a Buddha has three bodies: (1) Dharmakaya, the body of ultimate truth and reality, (2) Sambhogakaya, the glorious body of bliss as reward for his supreme merits, and (3) Nirmanakaya, the body of manifestation in human and other forms. 'The Buddha,' mentioned without further specification, refers to Gautama, the historical Buddha, commonly known as Shakyamuni. The Mahayana conceives of innumerable Buddhas dwelling in transcendental realms, called 'Buddha-lands.'

Buddha of Accommodated Body One of the three bodies of the Buddha; this body is manifested in response to the needs of the beings

Buddha of Inconceivable Light One of the names of Amida originating from his twelve lights.

Buddha of Infinite Life Another name of Amida; Amitayus.

Buddha of Infinite Light and Life Refers to Amida who has the most distinctive attributes, infinite light and life, as promised in his Twelfth and Thirteenth Vows.

Buddha of Recompensed Body One of the three bodies of the Buddha which is manifested as the reward for his vows and practice of merits; as such, Amida displays his everlasting activities of salvation.

Buddha of transcendent Light Refers to Amida.

Buddha of Unhindered Light One of the names of Amida originating from his twelve lights.

Buddha of Unhindered Light Shining throughout the Ten Directions The name of glorification for Amida first used by Vasubandhu in his Hymn of Aspiration for Birth in the Pure Land.

Buddha Vehicle The Way of becoming a Buddha; the Buddha Path.

Buddha-Dharma Teaching of the Buddha; the truth realized and revealed by the Buddha.

Buddha-garland Samadhi The samadhi which Samantabhadra enters before preaching the Dharma.

Buddha-land The field of the Buddha's activity; the land which comes into existence as the reward for the Buddha's vows and acts of merits.

Buddha-land of Peace and Bliss Refers to Amida's Pure Land.

Buddha-Recollection Samadhi The state of concentration in which one visualizes Amitabha; also, a concentrated practice of repeating his name whereby one attains unity with him.

Buddha's children Refers to Buddhists, especially bodhisattvas.

Buddhas' Family Same as Tathagatas' Family.

Buddhabhadra A monk from north India who came to China in 406 and produced translations of a number of scriptures, including the Garland Sutra; he is believed to have translated the Larger Sutra in collaboration with Pao-yu"n in 421.

Buddhahood The state of the Buddha's Enlightenment.

Buddhas of the ten directions Buddhas dwelling the worlds of the ten directions, i.e. the four cardinal points, four intermediate directions, zenith and nadir.

Buddhist Path The way of attaining Buddhahood, and also Buddha's Enlightenment.

buritsu kenjo 扶律顕常 See furitsu kenjo.

bushi 部旨 Import; true meaning. [An.]

Buson 蕪村 A Japanese poet; 1716-83; one of the three most celebrated haiku poets, along with Basho and Issa. His family name is Yosa 与謝; a native of Settsu Province (Hyogo Prefecture). He was first fond of painting; went to Edo (Tokyo) to study painting and haiku poetry. When his haiku teacher Hayano Hajin 早野巴人 died in 1742, Buson left Edo and traveled around Northern Japan for several years. His painting advanced to a high artistic level, and his haiku began to be celebrated for its magnificent elegance. As Hayano Hajin's successor, he was called Yahantei 夜半亭, the second. Some 2,852 of his haiku are known to exist today. His paintings characterized by naturalistic classical beauty and continue to be a source of aesthetic inspiration.

bussetsu 仏刹 Buddha's land; Sk. buddha-ksetra. [An.; Sukha.]

bussetsu 仏説 The Buddha's teaching. [MT.; Tan.2]

Bussetsu amida san'yasanbutsu sarubutsudan kadonindokyo 仏説阿弥陀三耶三仏薩楼仏壇過度人道経, the Sutra on the Way of the Salvation of Humans by Amida, the Perfectly Enlightened One, that Transcends all Buddhas; the second oldest Chinese translation of the Larger Sutra, produced by Chih Ch'ien (Shiken) during the Wu dynasty, between 223 and 228. [KG.2,5]

Bussetsu Jizobosatsu hosshin innen juokyo 仏説地蔵菩薩発心因縁十王経 The Sutra Expounded by the Buddha on Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva's Awakening the Bodhi-mind and on the Ten Kings; see Juokyo.

bussha 仏舎 A Buddhist temple. [K.38]

busshari 仏舎利 The relics of the Buddha; Sk. jina-dhatu [Lanka.]; see shari.

busshi 仏子 I. The Buddha's children; refers to bodhisattvas; Sk. jina-putra, jinatmaja, jinauras, buddha-suta [Lanka.], jinatma-ja, buddhatma-ja [Sutra.]. II. The Buddha's disciple; a Buddhist. III. All living beings, who are regarded by the Buddha as his children.

busshi shihachi gyui rokusan shu 仏子四八及以六三種 'Four, eight, six, or three kinds of the Buddha's great disciples'; source unknown. [Juju.]

busshi 仏師 A Buddhist sculptor; also mokubusshi 木仏師; cf. ebusshi.

busshin 仏心 The Buddha's mind and heart; Sk. buddhasaya [Sutra.]. [SS.]

busshin-byodo 仏心平等 The Buddha's mind of equality; Sk. buddha-sama-citta. [Sam.]

busshin'in 仏心印 The Buddha-mind seal; see shin'in.

busshinshu 仏心宗 'Buddha-mind school'; refers to the Zen school. [Gu.; MT.; SS.]

busshin 仏身 The Buddha's body. [JW.]

busshin-ryo 仏神領 An estate belonging to a temple or shrine.

bussho 仏所 I. A place where a Buddha is located. II. The hall where a statue of a Buddha is enshrined. [K.441] III. The quarter in a town where Buddhist sculptors live. Cf. zobutsushi; zobutsusho.

bussho 仏性 I. Buddha-nature; one's true nature. In the eye of the Buddha, all beings have the Buddha-nature. [JW.; KG.1,2,3,5; MT.; YM.] II. The title of the 22nd chapter of the Shobogenzo.

bussho joju 仏性常住 The eternal presence of the Buddha-nature. [S.1-6]

bussho o genken 仏性を眼見 To perceive the Buddha-nature by sight; bodhisattvas are capable of directly perceiving the Buddha-nature. [B.]

bussho o monken 仏性を聞見 To perceive the Buddha-nature through hearing; lesser sages are only capable of indirectly perceiving the Buddha-nature. [B.]

bussho reiko 仏性霊光 The mystic radiance of the Buddha-nature; the mystic spirituality of the Buddha-nature inherent in each living being. [S.VIII-23]

busshobi 仏生日 The Buddha's birthday, i.e., the eighth day of the fourth month. [Tai.8]

busshoe 仏生会 The Buddha's birthday celebration, held on the eighth day of the fourth month in north Asian countries. A small statue of the baby Buddha (tanjobutsu) is the object of worship on this occasion, and hydrangea tea (amacha) is poured over the statue. Since 1901 'flower festival' (hana-matsuri) has largely replaced the traditional celebration.

busshu 仏種 The seed of Buddhahood. [Kishin.; Tai.29,30,39]

busso 仏祖 Buddha-patriarch. I. Buddha. II. The Buddha and patriarchs.

bussoku chorai 仏足頂礼 Prostrating oneself in worship at the Buddha's feet. [JW.]

butchi 仏智 The Buddha's wisdom; Sk. buddha-jnana. [Lanka.; Sukha.; Sutra.]

butchi fushigi 仏智不思議 The Buddha's inconceivable wisdom. [JW.; SW.]

butchi giwaku 仏智疑惑 To doubt the Buddha's wisdom. [SW.]

butchi muhen 仏智無辺 The Buddha's wisdom is boundless. [SW.]

butchiken 仏知見 The wisdom and insight of the Buddha; this term comes from the Lotus Sutra. [B.; Dan.35]

butcho 仏頂 The crown of the Buddha's head; Sk. usnisa; also nikkei 肉髻 ; one of the thirty-two physical characteristics of the Buddha (sanjuni-so).

Butchoju 仏頂呪 See Daibutchoju.

Butcho osho 仏頂和尚 # Master Butcho; 1643-1715. Born in Hitachi Province (present-day Ibaragi Prefecture), he became the twenty-first head priest at the Konponji 根本寺 in Kashima Province (present-day Ibaragi Prefecture). While he was staying at the Rinsen-an Hall 臨川庵 in Tokyo, near where Basho 芭蕉 lived, Basho learnt Zen from him. See Basho. [Oku.]

butchoku 仏勅 The Buddha's edict. [S.VI-18]

butsu 仏 A Buddha; 'an enlightened one'; one who has attained the highest wisdom and thus realized the ultimate reality. According to the Mahayana, a Buddha has three bodies: 1) Dharmakaya, the body of ultimate truth and reality; 2) Sambhogakaya, the glorious body of bliss as the reward for his supreme merits; and 3) Nirmanakaya, the body of manifestation in human and other forms. 'The Buddha,' mentioned without further specification, refers to Gautama, the historical Buddha, commonly known as Sakyamuni. The Mahayana conceives of innumerable Buddhas dwelling in transcendent realms, called 'Buddha-lands.' For the ten epithets for the Buddha, see jugo; for various views of Buddha bodies, see nishin, sanshin, shishin, jusshin. See also hotoke.

butsuda 仏陀 Sk. Buddha; see butsu.

butsudan 仏壇 A household Buddhist altar for worshiping a Buddha; a family Buddhist shrine.

butsuden 仏伝 The Buddha's biographies.

butsuden kyoten 仏伝経典 Scriptures relating the Buddha's life stories and mythological tales. Examples are as follows: 1) the Mahavagga (Large Section) of the Vinaya collection; 2) the Nidanakatha (Discourse of the Relationship) placed as the preface to the Jataka; 3) the Mahaparinibbana-suttanta (Sutta on the Great, Complete Nibbana) of the Digha-nikaya (Long Discourses); 4) the Mahavastu (Great Matter); Daiji 大事 in Chinese; an account of the Buddha's life in Sanskrit which belonged to the Lokottaravadin school (説出世部) of the Mahasamghika (大衆部); 5) the Lalitavistara (Detailed Account of Sporting); there is a Chinese translation entitled Fuyokyo 普曜経, tr. by Dharmaraksa 法護, 8 fasc. [T.3, No.186]; a Mahayana version of the Buddha's biography from his birth to his return to Kapilavastu; 6) the Butsu-hongyojikkyo 仏本行集経 (Collection of the Buddha's Stories in the Past), tr. by Jnanagupta, et al, during 587-591 or 592, 60 fasc. [T.3, No.190]; 7) the Kakogenzai-ingakyo 過去現在因果経 (Sutra on the Cause and Effect of the Past and Present), tr. by Gunabhadra during 444-453, 4 fasc. [T.3, No.189]; 8) the Buddhacarita (Life of the Buddha), the Sanskrit verses by Asvaghosa 馬鳴; the Chinese translation, Butsushogyosan 仏所行賛, was translated by Pao-yun 宝雲 (Houn) in the 5th century, 5 fasc. [T.4, No.192]; 9) the Jataka (see Jataka). The Konjaku-monogatari 今昔物語 (Tales of the Past and Present) compiled in Japan by Minamoto Takakuni 源隆国 in the 12th century contains many stories from the above-mentioned scriptures.

butsuden 仏殿 A Buddha-hall; a hall where statues of a Buddha and bodhisattva(s) are enshrined. [Tai.24]

butsudeshi 仏弟子 A disciple of the Buddha.

butsudo 仏土 A Buddha's land; Sk. buddha-ksetra. [Sukha.; Yoga.]

butsudo shojo 仏土清浄 A pure Buddha-land; Sk. parisuddha-buddha-ksetra. [Sam.]

butsudo joju no daigaran 仏土成就の大伽藍 A great temple which is an earthly reproduction of the Buddha-land. [Oku.]

butsudo 仏道 I. The Buddhist Way; the path leading to enlightenment. II. The Buddha's enlightenment; Bodhi (bodai); Sk. bodhi-manda. [Sukha.].

butsu-e 仏会 The Buddha's teaching assembly; the place where the Buddha dwells; the Buddha-land. [Dan.7]

butsu-e 仏慧 The Buddha's wisdom; sometimes pronounced butte; Sk. buddha-jnana. [Sukha.]

butsugan no tai ni kaeru 仏願の体にかえる 'Returning to the essence of (Amida) Buddha's Vow'; Amida's Vow is the very essence or substance of the faith and practice for one's birth in the Pure Land. When one has attained the absolute faith, it does not stay in one's heart but returns to Amida's Vow from which it originated. [AK.]

butsugen 仏眼 I. Buddha-eye; Sk. buddha-caksus [Sukha.; Sutra.]. II. Refers to Butsugenson.

butsugen no ho 仏眼の法 The rite performed for Butsugen-son for the purpose of stopping calamities. [Tai.8]

Butsugen-son 仏眼尊 Revered One 'Buddha's Eye'; Sk. Buddha-locana; also translated as Kokugen 虚空眼, Butsugen-butsumo 仏眼仏母, etc.; a form of deification of the Buddha's eye worshiped in esoteric Buddhism; often referred to as 'Buddha's Mother' (Butsumo 仏母). She is depicted in the Matrix-store Realm Mandala (Taizokai Mandara).

butsugo 仏語 The Buddha's words; Sk. bauddha-pravacana, buddha-vacana. [Yoga.]

Butsugo 仏護 Sk. Buddhapalita; c. 470-540; a master of the Madhyamika school (Chugan-ha), regarded as the founder of the Prasangika ('deconstructive' reasoning) school.

butsugo 仏号 The Buddha's name. [KW.]

butsugu 仏具 Offerings to the Buddha, such as incense, flowers, and candles.

butsuhoben 仏方便 The Buddha's means of salvation; Sk. buddhatvopaya. [Sutra.]

butsui 仏意 Pronounced butchi; the Buddha's intention; Sk. buddha-asaya. [An.; Sutra.]

butsu ijin 仏威神 Buddha's divine power; Sk. buddha-anubhava. [Sukha.]

butsuin 仏印 Pronounced butchin; the Buddha-seal. I. Abbr. of busshin'in 仏心印. II. The distinctive mark or quality of the Buddha. III. The manual sign (inzo 印相) with which the Buddha conveys a specific meaning, such as 'turning of the wheel of the Dharma' and 'welcoming an aspirant at the deathbed.'

butsuji 仏地 The Buddha's stage; Sk. buddhatva, buddha-bhumi. [Lanka.; Sutra.]

butsuji no katoku 仏地の果徳 The virtue of the Buddha's fruition. [An.]

butsuji 仏事 I. The Buddha's activity; Sk. jina-kriya, buddha-karya [Sutra.], buddhanam karyam, buddha-kriya. [Sam.], buddha-karya [Yoga.]. II. Any deed which complies with the Buddhist Way. III. A Buddhist service, e.g., for the dead.

butsujimon 仏事門 The gate of Buddhist activity; the aspect of Buddhism in which verbal teachings are provisionally established. [S.IV-1,Va-6-1]

butsu jinriki 仏神力 Buddha's divine power; Sk. buddhanubhava. [Sukha.; Yoga.]

butsujin sanbo 仏神三宝 Buddhas, gods, and the three treasures (Buddha, dharma, and sangha); cf. sanbo.

butsujin sanbo mo sutehate tamo 仏神三宝も捨て果て給ふ 'Buddhas, gods, and the three treasures have forsaken me.' [Kiyo.]

butsujo 仏乗 The Buddha Vehicle; the Buddha Path; the Mahayana teaching that enables all to attain Buddhahood. [Juju.; KG.2]

butsuju 仏樹 Bodhi-tree; the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment; the Sanskrit name of this tree is pippala, also called asvattha; also bodaiju 菩提樹 and dojoju 道場樹. [Dai.]

butsuju 仏住 The Buddha's abode; Sk. buddha-vihara. [Sam.]

butsu kegen 仏化現 Buddha's apparitional appearance; Sk. buddha-nirmita. [Sukha.]

Butsu-kegon Zanmai 仏華厳三昧 Buddha-garland Samadhi; popularly, abbreviated to Kegon Zanmai (Garland Samadhi); the samadhi which Samantabhadra (Fugen) enters before preaching the Dharma. The bodhisattvas who follow the virtues of Samantabhadra preach the Dharma for sentient beings after entering this samadhi. [Dai.]

butsukudoku 仏功徳 The Buddha's merits; Sk. buddha-guna. [Sutra.]

butsukyogai 仏境界 The Buddha's realm; Sk. buddha-visaya. [Yoga.]

butsuma 仏魔 I. Buddha and Mara. [Rin.] II. The Buddha-mara; the Mara in the guise of a Buddha. [Rin.]

butsumetsu 仏滅 Passing of the Buddha; the Buddha's passing into Nirvana. [KW.]

butsumetsu nendai 仏滅年代 The year of the Buddha's passing. Based on the number of the dots marked on a Vinaya text, it was long believed that the Buddha passed into parinirvana in 485 B.C.E. According to Junjiro Takakusu, the Buddha's dates were 565-486 B.C.E. Hakuju Ui advanced a theory that the Buddha passed away in 386 B.C.E. His student, Hajime Nakamura, who determined the year of the Buddha's passing as 383, amended this theory. Recently, H.W. Schuman proposed 563-483 B.C.E. were the probable dates of the Buddha's parinirvana. During the Sui and T'ang dynasties in China and also in the Heian and Kamakura periods in Japan, the Buddha passed away in the 7th century B.C.E.

butsumo 仏母 'Buddha's mother.' I. Refers to the Dharma because Buddhas are produced from the Dharma. II. Refers to Prajna-paramita because it produces all Buddhas. III. Refers to Sakyamuni's mother, Queen Maya. IV. Refers to Butsugenson 仏眼尊 (Buddha-locana, Buddha's Eye) who is depicted in the Matrix-store Realm Mandala (Taizokai Mandara).

butsumotsu 仏物 Offerings made to the Buddha. [Hei.3; S.IX-8; Tai.20]

butsumyo 仏名 I. The Buddha's name; Sk. buddha-nama [Sukha.]. II. 'Buddhas' names'; the annual ceremony of chanting the Sutra of Buddhas' Names for three days beginning on the 19th day of the 12th month for the purpose of annulling the evils committed during the past year; this ceremony was held widely at laypeople's homes as well as the imperial court. See butsumyo-e. [KN.]

butsumyo-e 仏名会 The annual ceremony of reciting the names of Buddhas of the past, present, and future at the imperial palace in order to expunge past evil karma. It originated from the expiation ceremony held by Kobo Daishi and others at the imperial palace on the 23rd day of the 12th month in 824. From 853, the ceremony was held from the 19th to the 21st days of the 12th month. From the 12th century, the ceremony was held for only one day or one night, and was finally discontinued from about the Eiwa era (1375-1379). The names of the Buddhas that were recited at first numbered 13,000, but from 918 they were reduced to 3,000. See gobutsumyo.

butsumyo sange no ho 仏名懺悔の法 The rite of repentance through (reciting) Buddhas' names; refers to butsumyo-e. [Tai.35]

butsu nehan no hi 仏涅槃の日 The memorial day of the Buddha's passing into Nirvana; the 15th of the second month. See nehan-e. [R.III-30]

butsunichi 仏日 The sun-like Buddha. [Juju.]

butsuniku 仏肉 The Buddha's flesh; the Buddha's body. [Tai.8]

butsuriki 仏力 The Buddha's power; Sk. buddhanubhava [Sutra.]. [FK.]

butsuriki juji 仏力住持 Sustained by the Buddha's power. [An.]

butsu seson 仏世尊 Buddha, the World-Honored One; Sk. buddha [Sukha.]; also, bhagavat [Yoga.]. See jugo.

butsushari 仏舎利 See busshari.

butsu shogyo 仏所行 The Buddha's act; Sk. tathagata-gocara. [Yoga.]

butsushogyo 仏聖教 The Buddha's sacred teaching; Sk. buddha-vacana. [Yoga.]

butsu shoju 仏所住 The Buddha's state; Sk. buddha-vihara. [Sukha.]

butsu shosaji 仏所作事 The Buddha's act; Sk. buddha-karya. [Yoga.]

butsu shusho 仏種性 The Buddha's seeds; the Buddha's family; Buddha-nature; Sk. buddha-gotra. [Yoga.]

butsuzen butsugo no doshi 仏前仏後の導師 The teacher before and after the Buddha; the teacher after the Buddha Sakyamuni passed away and before Maitreya (Miroku) appears in the world to become the next Buddha; refers to Jizo, who saves living beings during the period when there is no Buddha in the world. [Tai.20]

butsuzen ni shozu 仏前に生ず To be born in the presence of a Buddha. [Kishin.]

butsuzo 仏像 An image of the Buddha; Sk. buddha-bimba. [Lanka.; Sutra.]

Butsuzokyo 仏蔵経 The Buddha Repository Sutra; 3 or 4 fasc., tr. by Kumarajiva (Kumaraju) [T.15, No.653]. The sutra emphasizes the importance of being mindful of the Buddha, Dharma, Sangha, etc., and of the observance of the precepts, etc. [S.IV-1,VI-17,Xa-6]

buttai 仏体 The Buddha's essential nature; Sk. buddhatva. [Sutra.]

Buttocho 仏図澄 Ch. Fu T'u-ch'eng, Sk. Buddhacinga?; 235-348; a monk from Kucha. He entered the priesthood when young and studied Buddhism in Kashmir and elsewhere. He is said to have memorized a few million words from the sutras. He came to Lo-yang in 310 and engaged in spreading the Dharma. At first, he was not very successful but, after converting the first king of the Later Chao (後趙 Gocho) dynasty, Shih Le 石勒 (Sekiroku) (273-332), and becoming his advisor, Fu T'u-ch'eng's missionary work became fruitful. Under the patronage of the third emperor, Shih Hu 石虎 (Sekiko) ( -349), he participated in government administration. When spreading Buddhism, he is said to have displayed miraculous powers. In 38 years, he constructed 892 temples. Through his effort, native Chinese were allowed to become monks. He had several hundred disciples, including Tao-an 道安 (Doan), Chu Fa-t'ai 竺法汰 (Jiku Hota), Fa-he 法和 (Howa), and Fa-ch'ang 法常 (Hojo), who contributed a great deal to the development of Buddhism during the Eastern Tsin (東晋 Toshin) dynasty (317-420).

buttoku 仏徳 The Buddha's virtue; Sk. buddha-guna. [Lanka.]

Button 仏音 See Buddagosa.

button 仏恩 The Buddha's benevolence; one's indebtedness to the Buddha. [JW.; KW.; SW.; Tan.6]

button hozuru 仏恩報ずる To acknowledge the Buddha's benevolence; to repay one's indebtedness to the Buddha. [SW.]

butsu 物 An object, thing, being; Sk. artha, upadhi, vastu, sattva. [Sutra.]

byakudo 白堂 Announcing the wishes of a devotee to the inner sanctuary. [R.III-3]

byakudo 白道 'A white path'; the white path leading to the Pure Land; see niga byakudo.

byakue 白衣 White clothes. I. In India, laymen wore white clothes. II. In China, a sign of mourning; a man who had not yet gained any post in the government wore white clothes. [S.III-31; Sh.56]

byakue jobu 白衣丈夫 A man in white clothes; Sk. avadata-vasanah purusah. [Kusha.]

Byakue Kannon 白衣観音 Kannon Wearing a White Robe; Sk. Pandara-vasini; also Byakusho Kanjizai 白処観自在; one of the twenty-one principal bodhisattvas in the Avalokitesvara Hall (Kannon-in 観音院) in the Matrix-store Realm Mandala (Taizokai Mandara).

byakugo 白業 white karma; good karma. [KG.3]

byakugo(so) 白亳(相) The white curl of hair between the eyebrows; one of the thirty-two physical characteristics of a Buddha. [Juju.]

byakuho 白法 The pure Dharma; Sk. sukla-dharma [Sam.; Sukha.; Sutra.; Yoga.], sukla-gana [Sutra.].

byakuho ontai 白法隠滞 The Buddha's pure Dharma is hidden and obscured. [An.]

Byakukozo 白香象 'White Scented Elephant'; Sk. Sveta-gandha-hastin*; the 129th of the 143 bodhisattvas listed in the Jujubibasharon [Juju.]; also, one of the bodhisattvas in the Vimalakirti Sutra.

byakuren 白蓮 A white lotus; Sk. pundarika. See Byakurensha; fundarike.

Byakuren no majiwari 白蓮の交 The White Lotus Association; see Byakurensha. [Tsu. 108]

Byakurensha 白蓮社 Ch. Pai-lien-she; the White Lotus Society; established by Hui-yuan (Eon) in 402 with 123 members on Mt. Lu (Rozan); they practiced meditation on Amida Buddha in accordance with the Pratyutpanna-samadhi Sutra (Hanju-zanmaikyo) in order to visualize Amida and attain birth in the Pure Land. Hui-yuan did not leave the mountain for thirty years; during that time, he concentrated on the nembutsu samadhi and thus inaugurated the tradition of Chinese Pure Land Buddhism. The mystic experience of visualization of Amida by one of the leading members, Liu I-min 劉遺民 (Ryu Imin) (c. 354-410), is recorded in the Wider Collection of Passages Disseminating the Way and Clarifying the Teaching 広弘明集 (Kogumyoshu) by Tao-hsuan 道宣 (Dosen). This type of nembutsu samadhi flourished most toward the end of the T'ang dynasty through the Sung dynasty.
At the beginning of the Southern Sung dynasty (1127-1279), Tz'u-chao Tzu-yuan 慈照子元 (Jisho Shigen) took refuge in the Pure Land teaching. He built a White Lotus hermitage near the Lake Tien-shan 澱山湖 (Densanko) in Chiang-su Province (江蘇省 Kososho, Jiangsusheng), where he practiced nembutsu samadhi and promulgated the teaching extensively. He was invited by the emperor to lecture on the nembutsu teaching in 1166 and was given the title "Master of Tz'u-chao school" (慈照宗主 Jishoshushu). His tradition was called "White Lotus Teaching " (白蓮教 Byakurenkyo) or "White Lotus school" (白蓮宗 Byakurenshu). This school made a new development in the 14th century by introducing the theory of Maitreya's appearance in the world. A clandestine religious group formed by Han Shan-tong 韓山童 (Kan Zando) (d.1351) proposed to change the political regime and realize the ideal world through Maitreya's advent from the Tusita Heaven. In 1351, he mobilized his 3,000 followers in his uprising against the government but was captured by the army and killed in the same year. This incident, however, triggered off the "crimson-scarfed disturbance" (紅布の乱 Kokin no ran) which lasted for more than ten years. Understandably, this and similar groups associated with 'White Lotus sect' were prohibited at the beginning of the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368).

Byakusangai-butcho-ju 白傘蓋仏頂呪 See Daibutcho-ju.

byakushibutsu 辟支仏 Sk. pratyekabuddha; one of the two kinds of Hinayana sages, the other being shomon 声聞 (sravaka, 'hearer'); also engaku 縁覚 and dokkaku 独覚; sometimes translated as 'a solitary Buddha.' Pratyekabuddhas attain emancipation from Samsara by observing the principle of twelve causations (juni-innen) without a teacher's guidance. See engaku.

byakushibutsuji 辟支仏地 The stage of a pratyekabuddha. [Juju.]

byakushi konma 白四羯磨 'One announcement and three requests for approval'; Sk. jnapti-caturthena karmana [Yoga.]. At the ceremony of conferring the precepts to a candidate monk or a nun, one of the ritual masters makes an announcement about the candidate's qualification and suitability; then he requests the approval of the seven witnesses three times. See jukai.

byo 瓶 A jar, pitcher; Sk. ghata. [Hosso.]

byodo 平等 Non-dual equality; sameness; non-discrimination; evenness; Sk. samata; in the eye of the Buddha's wisdom, all existing things, animate as well as inanimate, have the absolute value and so are undifferentiated. [Hosso.; Juju.; KW.]

byodochi 平等智 Wisdom of equality; Sk. samata-jnana. [Lanka.; Sam.; Sutra.]

byodo daie 平等大慧 The great wisdom which works without discrimination; the Buddha's unbiased wisdom. [Yori.]

byodo daihi 平等大悲 The great compassion which extends to all beings without discrimination; Sk. sama-karunya [Yoga.]

Byodogakkyo 平等覚経 The Sutra on the Equal Enlightenment; the earliest of the five extant Chinese translations of the Larger Sutra, produced by Lokaksema (Shirukasen) during the Later Han dynasty, between 147-186. See goson shichikietsu. [KG.1,5,6]

byodogaku 平等覚 Equal enlightenment; one who has been enlightened to the ultimate equality and sameness of all existence; one of the thirty-seven names of Amida (Amida sanjushichigo). [JW.]

byodo hosshin 平等法身 The Dharma-body of equality; uniformal Dharma-body; Sk. sama-dharma-kaya [Sam.]; the body of the Buddha or bodhisattva which is undivided and is free of differentiations. [KG.4; Kishin.]

Byodo-in 平等院 'Equality Hall'; originally, a villa of Fujiwara Michinaga 藤原道長 (966-1027). His son Yorimichi 頼通 (990-1074) converted it to a temple in 1052, the year when the mappo period began. Although many buildings in the temple were destroyed by fire several times, the surviving fine buildings include Hoodo 鳳凰堂 and Kannondo 観音堂. Formerly the temple belonged to the Tendai and Jodo schools but now constitutes an independent religious organization.

byodo-ishu 平等意趣 'An allusion to sameness'; Sk. samatabhipraya [Sam.]; one of the four kinds of the Buddha's intention in preaching. See shiishu.

byodo ittai 平等一体 Sameness and oneness; complete identity and non-discrimination.

byodo muni no chie 平等無二の智慧 The equal and non-dual wisdom; the wisdom of realizing absolute reality; the undifferentiated wisdom. [S.Xa-5]

byodo muso no chie 平等無相の智慧 The wisdom of equality and non-characteristics; the wisdom of seeing things in their ultimate reality of non-discrimination and non-characteristics. [S.Va-6]

byodo no isshin 平等の一心 The equal One Mind; the absolute mind-nature which is undifferentiated and pervasive to all beings. [S.III-8]

byodo no jihi 平等の慈悲 Impartial compassion. [S.IX-10]

byodo no ri 平等の理 The principle of equality; the reality-principle that all that exist are, in their essential nature, equal and indistinguishable. [S.Vb-9]

byodo no shinji 平等の心地 The equal mind-base; the original mind-nature which is universal and undifferentiated. [S.IV-1]

byodoriki 平等力 Equal power; equalizing power. Refers to Amida, for he makes those born in his land attain the equal qualities in mind and body. This is one of the thirty-seven names of Amida (Amida sanjushichigo). [JW.]

byodo (sanmajimon) 平等(三摩地門) 'Equality' (samadhi); Sk. samantanugata. [Sukha.]

byodoshin 平等心 Even-mindedness, mind of equality, non-discriminative mind. One who has attained enlightenment is above discrimination and looks upon all living beings with compassion in a spirit of complete equality; Sk. cittasaya-visuddhi-samata, sama-cittata [Sutra.], sama-citta, sama-cittata [Sam.], sama-citta [Yoga.], samata-citta [Lanka.].

byodosho 平等性 The nature of equality; refers to the ultimate reality, for it is above all discriminations. [B.]

byodoshochi 平等性智 The wisdom of (observing the ultimate) equality (of all things); Sk. samata-jnana; the wisdom to which the seventh consciousness develops when one's practice matures; it sees the ultimate sameness of all things; one of the four wisdoms (shichi) and the five wisdoms (gochi). [Hosso.]

byojoshin 平常心 See heijoshin.

Byokutsuge 廟窟偈 The Verse Received at the Entrenched Mausoleum; see Shinaga.

Byokyu 瓶宮 Sk. Kumbha; one of the twelve astrological houses (juniku); corresponds to Aquarius (the Water Carrier). [KG.6]


Cakravartin 'Wheel-turning Monarch'; the ideal king conceived in India who rules the world with the wheel (cakra), which crushes the enemy.

chakue kippan 著衣喫飯 Wearing a robe and eating a meal; routine acts in the daily life. In Zen, these should not be different from the Buddha-Dharma. [B.]

chakuetsu 適悦 Pleasing, causing delight, refreshing; Sk. ahladaka [Hosso.]; tusti, sata [Yoga.].

chakuho 択法 Discernment of dharmas; discerning true dharmas from false ones; Sk. vicaya [Sutra.]; dharma-pravicaya; one of the seven elements leading to enlightenment. See shichikakushi.

Chakuka koku 遮拘迦国 Takka?; an ancient country in Central Asia, located more than 2,000 li south-east of Khotan. According to a record in the Sui dynasty, the king of this country upheld only Mahayana; he is said to have kept the Prajnaparamita Sutra, the Garland Sutra and the Mahasannipata Sutra (Daishukyo) in his palace. He guarded them himself and made offerings to them.

chakumaku 適莫 Intimate and alienated. [An.]

chakumetsu 択滅 'Extinction through deliberation'; see chakumetsu mui; Nirvana to be attained through the power of deliberation; Sk. pratisamkhya-nirodha [Kusha.; Yoga.], visamyoga [Kusha.]; one of the three non-created dharmas in Kusha and one of the six uncreated dharmas in Hosso. See mui.

chakumetsu mui 択滅無為 The uncreated dharma realized through the power of deliberation

Ch'ang-an The site of the capital in ancient China; present Xi'an.

Chapter on the Easy Practice The 9th chapter of the Commentary on the Chapter Ten Stages of the Garland Sutra, written by Nagarjuna; in this work he presents recitation of the names of Buddhas and bodhisattvas as an easy and effective way of attaining the Stage of Non-retrogression. Cf. the editor's translation, Igyohon.

Charioteer of Men One of the ten epithets of the Buddha.

chi 知 Knowledge; Sk. vidya. [Hosso.]

chi 智 Knowing; higher knowledge, wisdom; Sk. jnana; see nichi; sanchi [Hosso.]; also, jnana-darsana [Sukha.].

chi 癡 Folly, stupidity; Sk. mudhi. [Hosso.]

chiai 癡愛 Short for guchi 愚痴 (ignorance and stupidity) and ton'ai 貪愛 (greed and attachment). [S.IV-9,IX-10.]

chian 癡闇 Darkness of ignorance; Sk. sammoha. [Kusha.]

chiben 智弁 Intelligence and eloquence. [Tai.24.]

Chibetto zokyo チベット蔵経 The Tibetan Tripitaka. The work of translating Buddhist texts into Tibetan began in the 8th century at the time of King Khri-sron-lde-btsan and was further carried on in the 9th century by the King Ral-pa-can. By the middle of the 13th century, the Tripitaka had been nearly completed in its present form. Bu-ston (1290-1364) compiled all the scriptures and published them as the older Narthan Temple edition. He divided the Tripitaka into two categories: 1) Bkah-hgyur (Kanjur, 甘珠爾) comprising sutras and Vinaya rules and 2) Bstan-hgyur (Tanjur, 丹珠爾) comprising discourses and works on miscellaneous subjects. At present, the following three editions produced in the 18th century are commonly used: Peking, Derge, and Narthan. Cf. daizokyo.

chibon 智品 Level of wisdom; wisdom; intellect. [S.I-3.]

chichi tantora 父タントラ 'Father tantra'; one of the three divisions of the anuttara-yoga tantra (mujoyuga tantora 無上瑜伽タントラ); this group of tantra texts emphasizes Upaya (skillful means); see Tantora bukkyo.

Chidaichi 知大地 'Knowing the Great Earth'; Sk. Mahaprthivi-jna*; the 6th of the 143 bodhisattvas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

chido 智度 I. Perfection of wisdom; Sk. prajnaparamita; one of the Six Paramitas; see hannya-haramitsu [Juju.]. II. Also, refers to Chidoron [KW.].

Chidoron 智度論 The Perfection of Wisdom Discourse; see Daichidoron. [KW.]

chidon 遅鈍 'Slow and dull'; foolish; Sk. jada, dhandha. [Yoga.]

chie 智慧 I. Knowledge, wisdom [Hosso.]; Sk. buddhi; also, jnana. [Sukha.]. II. 'Wisdom'; Sk. Jnana; the 52nd of the 143 bodhisattvas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

chie daiichi 智慧第一 Foremost in wisdom; Sk. matimat. [Sukha.]

chiegen 智慧眼 The eye of wisdom; Sk. suruciram visala-netram [Sukha.]; prajna-caksus [Lanka.]

chieko 智慧光 Light of wisdom. [JW.; KW.]

chiemuge 智慧無碍 Unhindered wisdom; Sk. asanga-jnanin. [Sukha.]

chie myoryo 智慧明了 Clear wisdom; Sk. prajnabha. [Sukha.]

chie no komyo 智慧の光明 Light of wisdom. [JW.]

chie no nembutsu 智慧の念仏 'The nembutsu of wisdom'; the nembutsu which is endowed by Amida and contains his wisdom. [SW.]

chie no myogo 智慧の名号 The Name embodying Amida's wisdom. [YM.; Yuishin.]

Chiekobutsu 智慧光仏 The Buddha of the Light of Wisdom; one of Amida's twelve names; cf. junikobutsu. [JW.; IT.]

chieriki 智慧力 Wisdom-power; Sk. prajna-bala. [Sutra.]

chigan 智願 'Vow of wisdom'; the vow that arose from Amida's wisdom. [SW.]

chigankai 智願海 The ocean-like vow that arose from Amida's wisdom. [YM.]

chigankaisui 智願海水 The ocean water of the vow that arose from Amida's wisdom. [SW.]

chige 智解 Intellectual understanding.

chige joryo 智解情量 Intellectual understanding and calculation. [S.Va-5.]

chigen 智眼 The eye of wisdom. [SW.]

chigi 地祇 An earth deity. See tenjin chigi. [JW.; SW.; Tan.7]

Chigi 智沮 Ch. Chih-i (538-597), Master of the T'ien-t'ai School. Born in Ching-chou 荊州 (Keishu) in Hunan Province (湖南省 Konansho, Hunansheng), he entered the priesthood at the age of eighteen. In 560, he went to Mt. Ta-su 大蘇山 (Daisozan) and met Hui-ssu 慧思 (Eji), under whose guidance he diligently practiced the Way and finally attained the 'Dharma-Lotus Samadhi' (Hokke-zanmai). Later he went to Mt. T'ien-t'ai in Chechiang Province (浙江省 Sekkosho, Zhejiangsheng), where he built a temple called Hsiu-ch'an 修禅 (Shuzen). By imperial order, he went to Chin-ling 金陵 (Kinryo) to give a series of lectures on the Lotus Sutra, the Benevolent King Prajnaparamita Sutra (Ninno-hannyakyo), the Perfection of Wisdom Discourse (Chidoron), etc. His lectures on the Lotus Sutra and his discourse on Mahayana meditation delivered at the Yu-ch'uan Temple 玉泉寺 (Gyokusenji) were later edited by his disciples, and became the fundamental texts of the T'ien-t'ai School. Chih-i systematized the T'ien-t'ai doctrine which centered on the Lotus Sutra. The following works are celebrated as the Three Great Works (sandaibu 三大部): Essentials of the Lotus Sutra (法華玄義 Hokkegengi), Commentary on the Lotus Sutra (法華文句 Hokkemongu), and Mahayana Practice of Cessation and Contemplation (摩訶止観 Makashikan). His critical classification of the Buddhist teachings, known as 'Five periods, eight teachings' (goji hakkyo 五時八教) had a great influence on the doctrinal formations of various other schools. As a practical method of salvation, Chih-i had deep devotion to Amida and practiced the 'Constant Walking Samadhi' (jogyo-zanmai) based on the Pratyutpanna Samadhi Sutra (Hanju-zanmaikyo). According to his biography, at his death he lay facing west, repeating the names of Amida, Prajnaparamita, and Kannon. Then he had a disciple recite the titles of the Lotus Sutra and the Larger Sutra. Having heard them, he composed a verse, urging his disciples to aspire for birth in the Pure Land, and said that his dead teachers and friends all came with Kannon to welcome him to the Pure Land.

chigo 児 Also 稚児; 'a child.' I. A servant-boy in a temple. [Tai.21.] II. A boy or girl who, dressed in ornamental clothes, participates in a parade on the day of a special Buddhist or Shinto service or festival. [K.573.]

chigoe tonafuru 千声となふる Reciting (the name of Kannon) a thousand times. [Basho.]

Chigon 智儼 Ch. Chih-yen (602-668); the second patriarch of the Chinese Kegon school; popularly called Master Shih-hsiang 至相大師 (Shiso Daishi) and Yun-hua Tsu-che 雲華尊者 (Unke Sonja); he was born in Kan-su Province (甘粛省 Kanshukusho, Gansusheng). At the age of 12, he became Tu-shun's 杜順 (Tojun) disciple, and also learned various Buddhist traditions under different teachers. He attained deep understanding of the Garland philosophy, especially the infinite, universal co-relatedness, and perfect fusion of all existence, and, at the age of 27, under the instruction of a divine sage, wrote a celebrated commentary on the Garland Sutra: Commentary Revealing the Essentials of the Garland Sutra (華厳経捜玄記 Kegongyo-sogenki). Dwelling at Shih-hsiang Temple 至相寺 (Shisoji) on Mt. Chung-nan 終南山 (Shunanzan) and Yun-hua Temple 雲華寺 (Unkeji) in Lo-yang 洛陽, he propagated the Garland teaching on which he wrote more than twenty works, including An Inquiry into the Garland Sutra (華厳孔目章 Kegon-kumokusho), which consolidated the foundation of the grand doctrinal system accomplished by the third patriarch, Fa-tsang 法蔵 (Hozo). At the time of death, he said to his disciples, "I will go to the Pure Land now, and later visit the Lotus-Store World. You should all follow me."

chigu 馳求 'Running about and seeking'; chasing after; self-effort pursuit of the Way, hence, useless effort.

chigushin 馳求心 The delusory mind which runs about, chasing after objects; pursuit of satori with delusory thought. [Rin.]

chigyo 智行 Wisdom and practice; wisdom and virtue. [KW.]

chigu 値遇 Pronounced chigu; 'rare encounter'; used to describe an encounter with a Buddha or the Buddhist teaching.

chigu ketsuen 値遇結縁 Pronounced chigu kechien; to do something as it presents itself and, thereby, provide an opportunity for other people to come to Buddhism. [IH.]

chigyo 智行 Wisdom and practice.

chigyo kenbi 智行兼備 Possessed of both wisdom and practice; possessed of both outstanding wisdom and the merit of correct practices. [Tai.15.]

Chihonzai 知本際 'Knowing the Original End'; Sk. Ajnata-kaundinya; a disciple of the Buddha. [Sukha.]

Chiin 智印 'Seal of Wisdom'; Sk. Jnana-mudra; the name of a samadhi. [Lotus.]

chiji 知事 Administrative officers at a Zen monastery; see rokuchiji.

chiji no so 知寺の僧 A priest supervising all the temple business. [R.II-32.]

chijoso 智浄相 The aspect of pure wisdom; one of the two aspects of manifestations from enlightenment distinguished in the Daijokishinron; it is the purity of wisdom developed by sustained practice. See fushigigoso; hongaku zuizen. [Kishin.]

chikai 智海 Ocean of wisdom; boundless wisdom. [KW.]

chikai no ami 誓ひの網 The net of the vow; Amida's vow of salvation. [Sane.]

chikaku 知覚 Perception, ascertainment, knowledge; Sk. pratipatti. [Hosso.]

chikakusha 知覚者 One who perceives or comprehends; Sk. pratipattr. [Hosso.]

Chikaku Zenji 智覚禅師 Master Chih-chueh; see Eimin Enju.

chikan 智鑒 'Mirror of wisdom'; metaphorically, superior wisdom. [R.I-22.]

Chike 智華 'Wisdom-Flower'; Sk. Kusumabhijna; the 18th of the 107 Buddhas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

chiken 知見 I. Knowing and seeing. II. Insight and thought.

chiken joryo 知見情量 Thinking and calculating. [S.Va-5.]

chiken mushoge 知見無所碍 Unhindered wisdom; Sk. asanga-jnana-darsin. [Sukha.]

Chiko 智光 I. Jnanaprabha; an Indian master who dwelt at Nalanda. One of the chief disciples of Silabhadra (Kaigen 戒賢), and well-known for his extensive knowledge of Buddhism and non-Buddhist teachings. When Hsuan-tsang (Genjo) visited Nalanda, he studied under Jnanaprabha, and after returning home to China, he corresponded with him to ask him questions about the Buddhist doctrine.

Chiko 智光 II. A Sanron master of the 8th century; c.709-780; a native of Kawachi Province (present-day Osaka Prefecture); he learned the Sanron teaching under Chizo 智蔵 of the Gangoji Temple 元興寺, and was celebrated as one of his two leading disciples, along with Raiko 礼光 (also 頼光). He wrote a commentary on Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land (Jodoron), but this commentary has been lost; we can find pieces of information about its content from quotations in the works of Ryogen 良源, Genshin 源信, and others. After Raiko's death, Chiko had a dream that Raiko had been reborn in Amida's Pure Land. Thereupon, he had an artist paint a picture of the Pure Land he had seen, built a hall in the premises of the Gangoji and placed the picture in it. This painting came to be known as the 'Chiko mandara.' [R.II-7.]

Chiko Mandara 智光曼陀羅 According to the Records of the Japanese who Attained Birth in the Land of Utmost Bliss (Nihon-ojo-gokuraku-ki) Chiko was dwelling at the Gangoji Temple 元興寺, Nara, with his fellow-monk Raiko 頼光. During the last few years of his life, Raiko spoke no words and apparently practiced no method of salvation. After Raiko's death, Chiko visited him in a dream and was told that Raiko had already been born in the Pure Land because of the merit acquired in his later years by contemplating Amida's figure and Land. Then in the same dream, Chiko went to see Amida and asked him what he should do in order to attain birth in his land. The Buddha told him to practice contemplation of Amida and his Pure Land. When Chiko remarked that the Pure Land was far too sublime and vast for an ordinary person like himself, the Buddha raised his right hand and manifested a small Pure Land on the palm. When Chiko awoke, he had an artist paint that Pure Land. In this picture, Amida and his two attendant bodhisattvas are depicted at the center, with various adornments around them. For the rest of his life, Chiko contemplated this picture and finally attained birth in the Pure Land. Ever since then, this picture has been known as the 'Chiko Mandara.' Though the original painting has been lost, some copies made in later periods have been preserved.

Chikurin shoja 竹林精舎 'Bamboo-grove monastery'; Sk. Venu-vana; the first Buddhist monastery and one of the five monasteries in India (goshoja); located to the north of Rajagrha (Oshajo) in Magadha; the monastery built by King Bimbisara (Binbashara) in the bamboo-grove owned by a wealthy man Kalandaka.

chikusho 畜生 Animals, creatures; Sk. tiryanc ('moving sideways'); also bosho 傍生 (living creatures that walk sideways) and osho 横生 (living creatures that walk sideways); one of the three evil realms (sanmakudo), six realms of samsara (rokudo) and ten realms (jikkai); this class of creatures includes birds, animals, fish, and insects. According to the Sutra on the Buddha's Traveling for Twelve Years (Juniyugyo 十二遊経) [T.4, No.195], there are 6,400 species of fish, 4,500 species of birds, and 2,400 species of animals. Those who have committed evil acts and are full of stupidity are reborn in this realm.

chikushodo 畜生道 The realm of animals; one of the ten realms (jikkai).

chikushoshu 畜生趣 The realm of animals; Sk. tiryag-yoni. [Sukha.]

chiman 痴慢 Stupidity and conceit. [Kishin.]

chimoku gyosoku 智目行足 'The eye of wisdom and the legs of practice'; the cultivation of wisdom and the performance of meritorious practices are compared to the eye and legs, for together they lead to enlightenment. [AK.]

chimon 智門 Wisdom-aspect; one of the two aspects of the Buddha's virtue, along with himon 悲門 'compassion-aspect'. [S.I-3.]

chin-cho 鴆鳥 A chin bird: a poisonous bird that feeds on snakes; if one of its green feathers is soaked in wine, poisonous wine is produced. [An.; KG.5]

chingo kokka 鎮護国家 Protecting the state.

chingo kokka no kyoo 鎮護国家の経王 The king of the sutras which protect the state; here refers to the Daihannya-kyo. See gokoku sanbukyo. [Tai.23.]

chingu 沈空 I. 'Sinking into emptiness'; at the seventh bhumi, i.e., the forty-seventh stage in the 52-stage scheme, bodhisattvas are in danger of clinging to emptiness which they contemplate and giving up their efforts to strive for Bodhi. This state of dormancy in emptiness is often called 'the death of a bodhisattva' (bosatsu no shi 菩薩の死). II. Attachment to a wrong notion of emptiness. [Dan.20]

chinin 智人 A wise, learned person; sage. [SW.]

chinju 鎮守 'Keeping peace and protection'; a tutelary god; a guardian god of a village. See chinjusha.

chinjusha 鎮守社 A shrine housing a local guardian god; local guardian gods became popular in the Middle Ages and took the place of ujigami 氏神 ('a guardian god of a clan'). Several types of such shrines are distinguished: 1) shrines for state guardian gods; large shrines of higher class; 2) ojo chinjugami 王城鎮守神; shrines for the guardian gods of the imperial household; they refer to the Twenty-one Special Shrines (Nijuissha 二十一社); 3) goin chinjugami 後院鎮守神; a shrine for the guardian god of the ex-emperor's residence; 4) jinja chinjugami 神社鎮守神; a shrine for the guardian god of a large shrine; for example, one in the precincts of the Ise Grand Shrine; 5) jiin chinjugami 寺院鎮守神; a shrine in the precincts of a temple where a Shinto god is enshrined to keep devils away; e.g., Chinju Hachimangu 鎮守八幡宮 in the precincts of the Todaiji Temple.

Chinsei 鎮星 Saturn; one of the eight major heavenly bodies; see hachidaisei.

chinsu 枕子 A pillow.

Chinzeiha 鎮西派 The Chinzei school; one of the schools of the Jodo sect, founded by Bencho 弁長 (1162-1238). After receiving the Pure Land teaching from his master Honen, Bencho returned to his native place in Kyushu in 1204 and built the Zendoji Temple 善導寺 there. While he extensively propagated the nembutsu teaching in Kyushu, his chief disciple Ryochu 良忠 engaged in spreading the teaching in the Kanto area and also in Kyoto. This school developed into six subschools, of which the Shirahata-ryu 白籏流 has thrived most and is now considered to be the orthodox school of the Jodo sect. The general head temple (sohonzan 総本山) of the Shirahata-ryu is the Chion-in 知恩院; the Zojoji Temple 増上寺 in Tokyo is one of the major head temples (daihonzan 大本山). When we speak of 'Jodoshu' without further specification, we usually mean the Chinzei school. There are 6,917 temples belonging to this school and 6,021,900 members.

Chinzei Shonin 鎮西上人 See Bencho.

chinzo 頂相 I. The mound on top of the head; the protuberance on the head of the Buddha; also, nikkei 肉髻; Sk. usnisa; one of the thirty-two physical characterics of the Buddha (sanjuniso). II. A portrait painting of the upper half of a Zen master's body.

chinzukaju 鎮頭迦樹 A persimmon tree. [KG.6]

Chio 癡王 'Ignorant King'; a disciple of the Buddha; Sk. Amogha-raja. [Sukha.]

chion 知恩 Acknowledging benevolence; gratefulness for kindness; Sk. krta-jna, krta-jnata. [Yoga.]

chion hotoku 知恩報徳 Gratefulness for (the Buddha's) benevolence and repayment for it. [KS; Ronchu.]

Chion-in 知恩院 The general head temple (sohonzan 総本山) of the Jodoshu located in Higashiyama, Kyoto; the name with the mountain title is Kachozan Otaniji 華頂山大谷寺; also called Yoshimizu zenbo 吉水禅房. After Honen converted to the nembutsu teaching and descended to Kyoto from Mt. Hiei in 1175, he lived in a hermitage at the Yoshimizu area for nearly thirty years. When he returned to Kyoto after his exile to Shikoku in 1211, he lived at the Nanzen-in 南禅院 (Otanizenbo 大谷禅房) and died there. His tomb-stone was built to the east of this site, where his disciples held services every year on his memorial day, the 25th day of the 1st month; this memorial service was called Chionko 知恩講 (Dharma-gathering to repay indebtedness). In 1234, Genchi 源智 built a temple at the site of the Otanizenbo and received from Emperor Shijo the plaque bearing the name of the temple: Kachozan Otaniji Chionkyoin 華頂山大谷寺知恩教院. In the Edo period (1603-1867), Tokugawa Ieyasu resolved to construct a large temple for the repose of the soul of his deceased mother and designated the Chion-in as his family temple. In 1607, it was decided that an ordained prince of the Imperial Family should successively dwell there as the head priest. After a fire in 1633, buildings were restored to the present arrangement. The main gate is the largest in Japan, and the gallery upstairs is richly colored. The gate and the main hall are national treasures.

Chirei 知礼 Ch. Chih-li; Ssu-ming Chih-li 四明知礼 (Shimei Chirei); 960-1028; the seventeenth patriarch of the T'ien-t'ai school; the most distinguished T'ien-t'ai monk in the Sung dynasty, celebrated as the one who revived the T'ien-t'ai school. Born in Ssu-ming 四明 in Chechiang Province (浙江省 Sekkosho, Zhejiangsheng) and bereft of his mother at the age of seven, he became a monk. At twenty, he studied T'ien-t'ai under I-t'ung (義通 Gitsu) and became an intimate friend of Tsun-shih (遵式 Junshiki). In 991 he was given the Ch'ien-fu Temple 乾符寺 (Kenfuji), where he taught students of T'ien-t'ai. Later, he moved to the Yen-ch'ing Temple 延慶寺 (Enkeiji) and extensively propagated the teaching of the Mountain-family school (Sangeha). Before he died, he assembled his disciples and gave them his last sermon. After reciting the nembutsu a few hundred times, he passed away. He wrote many works, including a commentary on the Contemplation Sutra. Cf. Shimei Chirei.

chiriki 智力 Power of wisdom; Sk. jnana-bala. [Yoga.]

Chiron 智論 The Wisdom Discourse; refers to Daichidoron. [S.IV-1.]

chisan 馳散 Distracted. [An.]

chisha 智者 A wise person; Sk. vidu [Sukha.], vidvams [Kusha.], jnatra, pandita, sat [Yoga.].

Chisha Daishi 智者大師 Master Chih-che; the title given to Master T'ien-t'ai 天台大師 (Tendai Daishi) or Chih-i 智沮 (Chigi) by Emperor Yang-ti 煬帝 (Yodai) in 591. [S.I-3.]

Chishaku 智積 'Store of Wisdom'; Sk. Jnanakara; the eldest son of a former Buddha. [Lotus.]

Chishakuin 智積院 Chishaku-in Temple; the head temple of the Chizan 智山 subschool of Shingi Shingon 新義真言, the 'new school of Shingon' originated by Kakuban 覚鑁 (1095-1143); located in Higashiyama Ward in Kyoto and also called Negoroji 根来寺. The temple, founded by Chosei 長盛 during the Southern and Northern dynasty (1336-1392), was originally in Wakayama Prefecture. After the temple was burnt down by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1585, the two leading scholarly monks, Sen'yo 専誉 and Gen'yu 玄宥, fled to Mt. Koya but were not allowed to stay there. Gen'yu eventually moved to Kyoto. With the donation of a piece of real estate by Tokugawa Ieyasu, the present temple was constructed. As the seventh abbot, Unsho 運敞, encouraged Buddhist studies, many students gathered at the temple; their number was said to have reached 3,000. Apart from the Shingon doctrine, studies in the Hosso and Kusha teachings were eagerly carried out there. See Kakuban; Shingi Shingon.

chishiki 知識 I. Sk. vijnana; consciousness. [Hosso.] II. Knowledge; a good teacher; cf. zenjishiki. [KW.; S.I-10; SW.; Tai.24,27; Tan. Preface]

chishin 智心 An enlightened mind. [S.II-4.]

chishin 智身 Wisdom body; the body possessed of wisdom. [An.]

chisho 智性 Wisdom-nature; one's innate wisdom. [Kishin.; S.II-4.]

Chisho 智昇 Ch. Chih-sheng: a Vinaya master in the T'ang dynasty; well-known as the compiler of the K'ai-yuan Era Catalog of Buddhist Teachings (Kaigen-shakkyoroku). [KG.3]

Chisho 智証 See Enchin. [S.Xb-3.]

Chisho Daishi 智証大師 Master Chisho. See Enchin. [Tai. 15.]

chisho 智障 Hindrance to (the correct knowledge of) objects; Sk. jneyavarana [Sutra.]. See shochisho.

chishojo 智清浄 Purity of wisdom; Sk. prajna-parisuddhi. [Sutra.]

chiso 智相 I. The aspect of discernment; the aspect of mental activity which distinguishes objects which are pleasing to the mind and those which are not. The first of the six aspects of mental activity distinguished in the Daijokishinron. [Kishin.] II. Manifested form of wisdom; the Buddha's light is the manifestation of his wisdom. [KW.]

chisoku 知足 I. Contented, contentment; Sk. samtusta [Kusha.; Sukha.], samtusti [Kusha.]. II. Refers to Chisokuten. [S.II-5,8.]

Chi-tsang of San-lun School (549-623); a master of San-lun school, whose parents came from Parthia; he extensively lectured on Madhyamika literature and wrote commentaries on them, thereby consolidating the foundation of the San-lun school.

Chih-i (538-97); popularly Master T'ien-t'ai; the third patriarch of the T'ien-t'ai school in China, who systematized the T'ien-t'ai teaching and is regarded as its founder; the author of many works, including the three-volume commentary on the Lotus Sutra compiled by his disciple.

Chisokuten 知足天 Contentment Heaven; refers to the Tusita Heaven (Tosotsuten). [S.II-5.]

chiwaku 癡惑 Ignorant and deluded; Sk. visammudha. [Lanka.]

chizo 智増 'Predominance of wisdom'; used to describe the spiritual quality of a type of bodhisattva in whom wisdom is predominant and compassion is less obvious; the opposite of hizo 悲増. [S.Xa-1.]

cho 頂 'Top'; Sk. murdhana; the Hinayana stage in which the practitioner rises to the top of the experience of feeling the 'warmth' of the undefiled wisdom. See shizengon.

Cho 張 Sk. Purva-phalguni: one of the tweny-eight constellations (nijuhasshuku); corresponds to five stars in Hydra (the Water Monster). [KG.6]

chobuku 調伏 See jobuku.

chobutsu osso 超仏越祖 'Transcending the Buddha and surpassing the master'; a Zen phrase emphasizing the absolute experience of satori. [H.77; Sh.78; Tai.24.]

Chodatsu 調達 See Jodatsu.

choetsu 超越 Having passed or surpassed; transcending; Sk. atikranta. [Hosso.]

chofuku 調伏 See jobuku.

choga 超過 Surpassing, transcending; Sk. samatikranta. [Sam.]

choga ninden 超過人天 Surpassing the heavenly and human states; Sk. divya-samatikranta. [Sukha.]

choga shiku 超過四句 Going beyond the four-phrase discrimination; Sk. catus-kotika-bahya. [Lanka.]

Chogen 重源 Shunjobo Chogen 俊乗房重源; (d. 1195 or 1205); one of the leading disciples of Honen; his Buddhist name is Namuamidabutsu 南無阿弥陀仏. First he learnt esoteric Buddhism at the Daigoji Temple 醍醐寺, and later received the Pure Land teaching from Honen. He went to Sung China in 1167 and brought home the images of the five Pure Land masters. When the Todaiji Temple was destroyed by fire in 1180, he was recommended by Honen to assume the post of promoter to reconstruct the temple. Traveling around the country to raise the funds for this purpose for more than ten years, he achieved his goal and the reconstruction project was accomplished in 1195.

chogen 塚間 Cemetary, crematory; Sk. smasana. [Lanka.; Yoga.]

chogo 長講 See jogo.

choi 頂位 'The top stage'; one of the four preparatory stages leading to the attainment of the stage of a 'Stream-Winner'; Sk. murdha-avastha [Sutra.]. See shizengon.

choja 長者 I. The head of a household; a layman; Sk. grha-pati. [Sukha.; Yoga.] II. A rich, elderly man of virtue; Sk. sresthin [Yoga.]. III. The title of the head priest of the Toji Temple 東寺 in Kyoto.

chojakoji 長者居士 A layman; Sk. grha-pati. [Yoga.]

choja gujiyu 長者窮子喩 A parable of a rich man and his poverty-stricken son; one of the seven parables in the Lotus Sutra. A rich man's son left home when young and, after many years, came back. He stood at the door of his house but did not know it was his house. Knowing that his son had come home, the rich man sent his servant to fetch him but the son was so terrified that he tried to run away. His father devised a plan; he first offered him a menial job and then a little better work. The son gradually learnt to do an important job and held a high position in the house. Realizing that the time had come, the father told him the truth and made him inherit all the property. In this parable, the rich man is the Buddha and the son is a practitioner of the Two Vehicles (nijo). The property is the Mahayana truth. See Hokke shichiyu.

chokei 頂髻 Head; Sk. murdhan. [Sukha.]

chojo 澄浄 Also, tojo; serene and pure mind; Sk. prasada [Yoga.]

chojo-nikkei 頂上肉髻 A fleshy protuberance on the head of the Buddha; one of the thirty-two characteristics of a great man (sanjuniso); Sk. urna-kosa, [Lanka.]; cf. choso.

choju 聴受 Hearing and accepting; Sk. sravanata, srotavya. [Yoga.]

chojun 調順 Trained, controlled; Sk. danta. [Sutra.]

Choju O 長寿王 'King Long-Life'; King Dirghiti* or Dirghila*; the 14th of the 143 bodhisattvas listed in the Jujubibasharon [Juju.]; also, a king mentioned in the Sutra on the King Long-Life (Chojuogyo), who was a former incarnation of Sakyamuni [T.3, No.161].

Choka 鳥剪 'A bird's nest'; Ch. Niao-k'e; a nickname for Tao-lin (Dorin). [S.Va-5.]

choken 塚間 See chogen.

chokkan 直感 Intuitive perception; Sk. saksatkarana. [Hosso.]

choko 長講 See jogo.

chokuganji 勅願寺 A temple (erected) at the emperor's decree; also chokuganjo 勅願所; a temple erected by the emperor to offer up a particular prayer; cf. goganji. [Tai.24,40.]

chokuganjo 勅願所 The same as chokuganji.

chokumei 勅命 I. The emperor's order. II. Amida's call summoning people to take refuge in him. See nigahi. [SS.]

chokusen 勅宣 (The Buddha's) command. [SS.]

chokusetsu 直接 Before one's eyes; manifestly; actually; Sk. saksat. [Hosso.]

chomon 聴聞 Listening to a sermon; Sk. anusrava, sravana, sruta [Yoga.], susrusati [Sam.].

chomon no me 頂門の眼 'The eye in the forehead'; originally, the third eye of Mahesvara (Daijizaiten 大自在天). [H.; M.]

Chonichigakko 超日月光 Light outshining the sun and the moon; one of Amida's twelve names; Sk. abhibhuya-candra-surya-jihmikarana-prabha. [Sukha.]; cf. junikobutsu; Amida sanjushichigo.

cho niken kyogai 超二見境界 Transcending the state of dual (wrong) views; Sk. drsti-dvayatikranta-gocara. [Lanka.]

chonyu 超入 Leaping into; Sk. avakramana. [Lanka.]

chorai 頂礼 Worshiping with one's head touching the ground; the most reverential form of worship; Sk. namas-/kr [Kusha.], pranamya [Sukha.], nipatya [Yoga.].

chorai sosoku 頂礼雙足 Worshiping with one's head touching the feet and holding them from below; Sk. padayor nipatya. [Yoga.]

Chorin 張魂 Ch. Chang-lun: a military officer at the time of Kao Tsung in the Southern Sung dynasty (1127-1279); in his later years, he built a hall in his residence, where he practiced the nembutsu with his family. [KG.2]

choro 長老 Elder. I. A title of respect for a monk of wisdom and virtue who has been in the Sangha for many years; Sk. ayusmat [Sukha.]. II. A title of respect for a Zen monk, especially the head of a large temple.

Choroge 長老偈 The Verses of Theras; P. Thera-gatha, a collection of 1,279 verses by monks and three prefatory verses; presumably compiled during the sixth to the third centuries B.C.E.; well known for their high literary and spiritual value. The sister collection of verses by nuns is Choronige.

Choronige 長老尼偈 The Verses of Theris; P. Theri-gatha, a collection of 522 verses by nuns, presumed to have been compiled during the sixth to the third centuries B.C.E.; equally well known for their high literary and spiritual value like the Verses of Theras. The sister collection of verses by monks is Choroge.

chosai yoko 兆載永劫 An incalculable number of kalpas; cho 兆 and sai 載 are large numbers said to be equal to a million and to one followed by 44 zeros, respectively. The term refers to the length of time during which Amida performed his bodhisattva practices for the sake of all living beings. [AK.]
chose 超世 'Beyond the world'; above all things in the world; extraordinary; description of Amida's vows as being beyond comparison with other Buddhas'. [SW.; YM.]

chosei fushi no shinpo 長生不死の神方 The divine prescription for a long life and immortality; describes the Faith of Other-Power in the Jodoshin school. [KG.3]

chosho 徴祥 An auspicious sign. [An.]

Chosho O 頂生(or 上)王 'Head-born King'; King Mandhatr. I. a universal monarch in ancient times, born from an eruption on his father's head. He had conquered all the four continents (shishu) but, not content with that, he attempted to conquer the Trayastrimsa Heaven (Toriten) but failed and died. It is said that the king was one of Sakyamuni's previous incarnations. [S.Xa-8.] II. The 10th of the 143 bodhisattvas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

choshugen 超数限 Beyond measurement; immeasurable. [JW.; MT.]

choshu okkaku 超宗越格 Beyond the cardinal principle and the rules; describes the Zen tradition which is beyond the ordinary rules for human actitivies. [Ju.]

choshutsu 超出 Going beyond, transcending; Sk. niryata. [Yoga.]

Choso 頂相 'Peak-Characteristics'; Sk. Kuta-nimitta*; the 121st of the 143 bodhisattvas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

Choso biku 鳥鼠比丘 'A bat monk'; a derogatory term for a monk who has broken the precepts. [S.IV-1.]

Choso Tendai 趙宋天台 Ch. Chao-sung T'ien-t'ai; the Tendai school during the Chao-sung period (960-1278). The Tient-t'ai school declined toward the end of the T'ang dynasty (618-907) but flourished again from the period of five dynasties (907-979) onwards with the appearance of such eminent scholars as I-chi 義寂 (Gijaku) (919-987) and Chih-li 知礼 (Chirei) (960-1028). See Tendaishu.

Choyu 超勇 'Exceedingly Heroic'; Sk. Vikranta* or Atisura*; the 22nd of the 107 Buddhas listed in the Jujubibasharon. [Juju.]

chozen 調善 Well trained, fit, healthy, good; Sk. kalya, danta. [Yoga.]

chozo 雕造 Carving, engraving (a sutra on a woodblock).

chu 中 Middle; the principle of the Middle; see chudo. [An.]

chu 肘 A unit of measurement equal to the length of one's elbow, said to be equal to 18 inches. [An.]

Chu-agon-gyo 中阿含経 The Middle-Length Agama Sutras; Sk. Madhyam Agama-sutra; one of the four collections of sutras in the Agama (agon) division belonging to Hinayana; 60 fasc., tr. by Samghadeva (Sogyadaiba 僧伽提婆) about the beginning of the fifth century [T.1, No.26]. This collection contains 222 sutras. See Agon-gyo.

Chudai hachiyo-in 中台八葉院 The Central Eight-petal Hall; the central part of the Matrix-store Realm Mandala (see Chart under Taizokai mandara) where nine deities are portrayed - Mahavairocana sitting in the center and eight Buddhas and bodhisattvas sitting on the eight petals of a lotus. See taizokai gobutsu; taizokai kuson.

chudan 中壇 'The central platform' for the fierce-looking spirit Fudo in the Five-Platform Ritual (Godan-ho). [S.I-3.]

chudo 中堂 Refers to the Konponchudo. See Enryakuji. [K.52.]

chudo 中道 The Middle Way; Sk. madhyama pratipad; the principle of non-duality; the principle of ultimate reality which lies beyond existence and non-existence, hence, 'middle.' [S.IV-1]

Chuganha 中観派 The Madhyamika school; one of the two Mahayana schools in India, along with the Yogacara (Yugagyoha). This school, based on Nagarjuna's (Ryuju) Verses on the Middle (Churonju 中論頌), emphasizes the voidness of all existence. He distinguishes two levels of reality: ultimate, absolute reality (paramartha-satya, daiichigitai 第一義諦 or shogitai 勝義諦) and relative, conventional reality (samvrti-satya, sezokutai 世俗諦). The former is beyond relative concepts and expressions, while the latter belongs to the world of verbal expressions or the world of dependent co-origination (pratitya-samutpada, engi 縁起). Nagarjuna holds a view that things that have come into existence through dependent co-origination are devoid of substantiality, hence void (sunya, ku 空). The truth of the Middle lies in the fact that things are neither existent nor non-existent. Furthermore, his verse on the Eightfold Negation (happuge) provides the basic standpoint of this school. The method which he adopted in polemics to prove the voidness of all things is called 'prasanga-vakya' (deconstructive reasoning), according to which the opponent's argument is proved groundless. Nagarjuna's basic standpoint is, therefore, establishing 'no standpoint,' which means that his central theme that everything is void is not a positive statement but the conclusion attained by negating all possible propositions regarding the nature of existence.
Nagarjuna's prasanga stance was further developed by Buddhapalita (Butsugo 仏護, c. 470-540). Against this, Bhavaviveka or Bhavya (Shoben 清弁, c. 500-570) proposed that one should have a positive stance when engaging in disputes. His view, however, was opposed by Candrakirti (Gessho 月称, c. 600-650). The Indian Madhyamika school, thus, split into two traditions: Prasangika (kibu-ronshoha 帰謬論証派, school of deconstructive reasoning) and Svatantrika (jiryu-ronshoha 自立論証派, school of self-sufficient arguments).
When the Madhyamika literature was transmitted to China, there arose a strong school called San-lun (Sanron), which had a great impact on various aspects of Chinese Buddhism and whose tradition finally found its way to Japan early in the 7th century. See Sanronshu.

Chuganron 中観論 The Discourse on Contemplation of the Middle; see Churon.

chuge 中下 Those of the middle and lower stages; the two kinds of Hinayana sages, i.e., pratyekabuddhas and sravakas. [Dai.; KG.2]

chugen 中間 Refers to chugen hosshi. [K.601.]

chugen hosshi 中間法師 See shimo hosshi. [Hei.2; K.228,549,604.]

Chuhen funbetsuron 中辺分別論 The Discourse Distinguishing the Middle and the Extreme Views. See Benchubenron.

chuin 中陰 'Intermediate shadowy state'; an intermediate state between death and the next life; also chuu 中有; a period of seven weeks after death, during which a dead person stays in this suspended state; Sk. antara-bhava. [Lanka.; Sutra.]

chuin no hikazu 中陰の日数 The chuin period of (forty-nine) days. [Tai.18]

chuji 中時 Midday; Sk. madhyahna. [Sukha.]

chuki 中機 A man of mediocre capability. [Tai.24.]

chuko 中劫 Medium kalpa; Sk. antara-kalpa. See ko. [Kusha.]

churin 稠林 A dense forest, jungle; Sk. gahana [Lanka.; Yoga.], vana-gahana [Kusha.], vanatha [Yoga.]; often used as an analogy for intense evil passions and false views from which it is difficult to free oneself; cf. shoji no churin.

Churon 中論 The Discourse on the Middle. The central part containing 448 verses (Sanskrit text) or 445 verses (Chinese and Tibetan texts) composed by Nagarjuna (Ryuju) is called Mula-madhyamaka-karika (Fundamental Verses on the Middle), on which Pingala (青目 Shomoku) wrote a commentary. Popularly, Churon or Chuganron 中観論 translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva (Kumaraju), 4 fasc. [T.30, No.1564], refers to Pingala's commentary. The following commentaries are known to exist: 1) one by Nagarjuna himself, entitled Mula-madhyamaka-vritti-akuto-bhaya (Fundamental Commentary on the Middle which Knows no Fear) which exists in Tibetan translation, 2) Pingala's commentary mentioned above, 3) one by Buddhapalita (仏護 Butsugo), entitled Buddhapalita-mula-madhyamaka-vrtti (Fundamental Commentary on the Middle Protected by Buddhas), which exists only in Tibetan translation, 4) one by Bhavaviveka or Bhavya (清弁 Shoben), entitled Prajna-pradipa (Lamp of Wisdom), which exists in Tibetan and Chinese translations, the latter being Hannyatoron 般若灯論 [T.30, No.1566], 5) one by Asanga (無著 Mujaku), entitled Madhyamaka-sastrarthanugata-mahaprajna-paramita-sutradiparivarta-dharmaparyaya-pravesa, which exists only in Chinese translation, Junchuron 順中論 (Discourse in Conformity to the Middle) [T.30, No.1565], 6) one by Sthiramati (安慧 Anne), which exists in Chinese translation, entitled Daijo chugan shakuron 大乗中観釈論 (Mahayana Commentarial Discourse on Contemplation of the Middle) [T.30, No.1567]; its Sanskrit title, according to Tibetan tradition, is Mula-madhyamaka-sandhinirmocana-vyakhya; 7) Candrakirti's (月称 Gessho) Prasannapada (Pure Footing), the only extant Sanskrit commentary.
This is considered to be a work composed by Nagarjuna in his early years. He focused on the dependent orgination of all existence and, hence, the absence of any substantiality in it, which he called voidness (sunyata). He also developed a logical system of total negation. This work became the basic text of the Sanron (Three-Discourse) school. See Sanronshu.

Churon 註論 Also, Ronchu 論註; 'the commentary'; refers to T'an-luan's Commentary on Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land. See Ojoronchu. [SS.]

chuten 中天 Central India; ten is an abbr. of Tenjiku 天竺 'India.' [S.IV-1.]

chuto 偸盗 Stealing; Sk. caurya [Yoga.]. See gokai; hassaikai; jikkai.

chuu 中有 'An intermediate state'; Sk. antara-bhava; the state of existence between death and a new life; the same as chuin; one of the four stages of a sentient being's existence. See shiu 四有. [S.IV-9; Tai.6]

chuu no shiryo 中有の資糧 Provisions offered to a deceased person during the intermediate state (between death and a new life). [S.IV-9.]

chuu no tabi 中有の旅 'Traveling in the intermediate state' between death and a new life. [S.IV-9,VII-11.]

chuya rokuji 昼夜六時 Six times during the day and the night; Sk. aho-ratram sat-krtvah, sat-krtvo ratrin-divena. [Sutra.]

chuyo 中夭 Untimely death; Sk. antara marana, antara mrtyu [Kusha.], antare kala-kriya. [Yoga.]

chuzon 中尊 Also chuson; the central deity. [O.V.]

cosmic fire The fire said to occur at the end of the cosmic period of destruction; the fire destroys all the worlds up to the Brahma Heaven.

clear understanding of the one hundred dharmas There are two interpretations: (1) clear understanding of the 100 principles of truth in the Stage of Joy and (2) wisdom of clearly discerning the 100 constituent elements of all that exists, as taught in the School of Consciousness-Only.
Cliff of Master Phoenix (Luan) The name of the place where T'an-luan lived.
Collection of Essential Passages Concerning Birth in the Pure Land Ojoyoshu; the work of great celebration by Genshin, in which he presents various systems of Pure Land practice, both meditative and non-meditative, and concludes that the Nembutsu is the essential practice.
Collection of Passages Concerning Birth in the Land of Peace and Bliss An-le-chi a work by Tao-ch'o expounding the Pure Land teaching based mainly on the Contemplation Sutra.
Collection of Passages Concerning the Nembutsu of the Best-Selected Primal VowSenjakushu or Senchakushu; a work written by Honen in 1198, in which he justifies the Nembutsu as the most effective method of salvation; the publication of this work marked the independence of the Jodo sect.
Commentary on the Chapter Ten Stages of the Garland Sutra A work by Nagarjuna; the ninth chapter of this commentary, entitled "Path of Easy Practice," is an important text in Pure Land tradition.
Commentary on the Contemplation Sutra The four-fascicle commentary on the Contemplation Sutra by Shan-tao, which became the standard interpretation of the Pure Land thought and practice in China and Japan.
Commentary on the Discourse on the Pure Land Wang-shen lun-chu; T'an-luan's commentary on Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land (cf. Jodoron), an important work that explains the fundamental ideas of Pure Land Buddhism; Shinran highly valued this work and derived from it the basic Shin teaching.
Commentary on the Prajnaparamita Sutra A work by Nagarjuna that exhaustively presents various Mahayana thoughts while explaining terms and ideas of the Prajnaparamita Sutra.
complete precepts of a monk or a nun The precepts prescribed for a monk or a nun; there are 250 precepts for a monk to observe, and 348 for a nun.
Consciousness-Only The Mahayana doctrine that explains all phenomena as manifestations of one's consciousnesses, of which the eighth, Alaya, is the basic one; this doctrine was systematized by Vasubandhu and transmitted to China where it became known as Fa-hsiang (Hosso) school.
Contemplation Sutra Abbr. of the Sutra on Visualization of the Buddha of Infinite Life; one of the three basic canons of Pure Land Buddhism; translated into Chinese by Kalayashas during 424-53; it explains the method of visualizing Amida, his two attendant bodhisattvas, and his Pure Land, and also the way of attaining birth there.

Cakravartin 'Wheel-turning Monarch'; the ideal king conceived in India who rules the world with the wheel (cakra), which crushes the enemy.
Ch'ang-an The site of the capital in ancient China; present Xi'an.
Chapter on the Easy Practice The 9th chapter of the Commentary on the Chapter Ten Stages of the Garland Sutra, written by Nagarjuna; in this work he presents recitation of the names of Buddhas and bodhisattvas as an easy and effective way of attaining the Stage of Non-retrogression. Cf. the editor's translation, Igyohon.
Charioteer of Men One of the ten epithets of the Buddha.
cosmic fire The fire said to occur at the end of the cosmic period of destruction; the fire destroys all the worlds up to the Brahma Heaven.
Chi-tsang of San-lun School (549-623); a master of San-lun school, whose parents came from Parthia; he extensively lectured on Madhyamika literature and wrote commentaries on them, thereby consolidating the foundation of the San-lun school.
Chih-i (538-97); popularly Master T'ien-t'ai; the third patriarch of the T'ien-t'ai school in China, who systematized the T'ien-t'ai teaching and is regarded as its founder; the author of many works, including the three-volume commentary on the Lotus Sutra compiled by his disciple.
clear understanding of the one hundred dharmas There are two interpretations: (1) clear understanding of the 100 principles of truth in the Stage of Joy and (2) wisdom of clearly discerning the 100 constituent elements of all that exists, as taught in the School of Consciousness-Only.
Cliff of Master Phoenix (Luan) The name of the place where T'an-luan lived.
Collection of Essential Passages Concerning Birth in the Pure Land Ojoyoshu; the work of great celebration by Genshin, in which he presents various systems of Pure Land practice, both meditative and non-meditative, and concludes that the Nembutsu is the essential practice.
Collection of Passages Concerning Birth in the Land of Peace and Bliss An-le-chi a work by Tao-ch'o expounding the Pure Land teaching based mainly on the Contemplation Sutra.
Collection of Passages Concerning the Nembutsu of the Best-Selected Primal VowSenjakushu or Senchakushu; a work written by Honen in 1198, in which he justifies the Nembutsu as the most effective method of salvation; the publication of this work marked the independence of the Jodo sect.
Commentary on the Chapter Ten Stages of the Garland Sutra A work by Nagarjuna; the ninth chapter of this commentary, entitled "Path of Easy Practice," is an important text in Pure Land tradition.
Commentary on the Contemplation Sutra The four-fascicle commentary on the Contemplation Sutra by Shan-tao, which became the standard interpretation of the Pure Land thought and practice in China and Japan.
Commentary on the Discourse on the Pure Land Wang-shen lun-chu; T'an-luan's commentary on Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land (cf. Jodoron), an important work that explains the fundamental ideas of Pure Land Buddhism; Shinran highly valued this work and derived from it the basic Shin teaching.
Commentary on the Prajnaparamita Sutra A work by Nagarjuna that exhaustively presents various Mahayana thoughts while explaining terms and ideas of the Prajnaparamita Sutra.
complete precepts of a monk or a nun The precepts prescribed for a monk or a nun; there are 250 precepts for a monk to observe, and 348 for a nun.
Consciousness-Only The Mahayana doctrine that explains all phenomena as manifestations of one's consciousnesses, of which the eighth, Alaya, is the basic one; this doctrine was systematized by Vasubandhu and transmitted to China where it became known as Fa-hsiang (Hosso) school.
Contemplation Sutra Abbr. of the Sutra on Visualization of the Buddha of Infinite Life; one of the three basic canons of Pure Land Buddhism; translated into Chinese by Kalayashas during 424-53; it explains the method of visualizing Amida, his two attendant bodhisattvas, and his Pure Land, and also the way of attaining birth there.
cosmic body Lit., 'body of the Dharma-realm'; a Buddha's body manifested in correspondence to the meditating mind of a sentient being; see dharma-realm body.
Cosmic Buddha A popular epithet given to Vairocana because he embodies the ultimate reality of the universe.

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dana An act of giving; charity; one of the Six Paramitas.
day of abstinence According to Nagarjuna's own explanation, the days of abstinence are six days of the month, i.e., 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th and 30th, and also 45 days following the winter solstice.
death of the bodhisattva Falling into the stages of a shravaka and a pratyekabuddha is so called, because the bodhisattvas who have fallen into them would be content with the nihilistic Nirvana and would not aspire to Buddhahood.
Decadent Dharma (age of) The last of the three Dharma-ages which lasts for ten thousand years; during this period, the Buddha-Dharma exists but no one can effectively practice the method of salvation by self-power and attain Enlightenment.
deep faith (two aspects) One of the three aspects of faith presented in the Contemplation Sutra; Shan-tao interpreted deep faith as having two aspects: (1) deep awareness of oneself as full of evil passions and incapable of salvation and (2) absolute trust in Amida's salvation.
definitely assured of Enlightenment When one reaches the First Stage, one is definitely assured of attaining Enlightenment; cf. Stage of Non-retrogression.
Definitely Assured Stage The stage of spiritual attainment in which one becomes assured of reaching Enlightenment.
dependent origination The Buddhist truth that all things come into existence depending on each other; pratitya-samutpada.
Desire for Birth One of the three aspects of the Other-Power Faith that appear in the Eighteenth Vow.
deva A divinity or god; a heavenly being. Devas, including Hindu gods, are believed to inhabit the heavens above the human realm, but are still unenlightened and bound to samsara (cycles of birth and death). Many such beings have already been converted to Buddhism and become its protectors.
Devadatta 'God-given'; a cousin of Shakyamuni and a follower of his teaching, he attempted to take over the leadership of the Buddhist order and even to kill the Buddha; incited Ajatashatru to kill his father and usurp the throne. Because of his grave crimes, he is said to have fallen into hell while still alive.
Dharma (1) Truth, law; the Buddha's teaching. (2) N. of a Buddha in the nadir. (3) An existent, thing, element, constituent, etc.; often used in plural; cf. insight into the non-arising of all dharmas.
Dharma-Body Dharmakaya; the body of the ultimate truth and reality; the quintessential body of the Buddha..
Dharma Dana Teaching the Dharma to others to remove their suffering, resolve their spiritual problems and lead them to Enlightenment.
Dharma-body One of the three bodies of the Buddha; the body which is identical with the ultimate truth or reality; Sk. dharmakaya.
Dharma-body (two kinds of) According to T'an-luan, Buddhas and bodhisattvas have two kinds of Dharma-body.
Dharma-body of Dharma-nature One of the two kinds of Dharma-body distinguished by T'an-luan; this is the essential reality-body of Buddhas and bodhisattvas; cf. dharmata-dharmakaya.
Dharma-body of Expediency One of the two kinds of Dharma-body distinguished by T'an-luan; this is the body of manifestation for the sake of guiding sentient beings; cf. upaya-dharmakaya.
Dharma Prince Refers to a Bodhisattva because he will become a Dharma King, i.e. Buddha; especially used as the honorific title for Manjushri.
dharma-realm body Tentatively translated as 'cosmic body'. 'Dharma-realm' (dharma-dhatu; hokkai) has two usages: (1) The essence (dhatu) of all things (dharmas), a synonym of Dharma-nature or True Suchness and (2) the sphere of mental objects. T'an-luan interprets 'dharma-realm' as an object of the mind, such as an idea or image; it arises from the mind, just as a visual form arises as an object of the eye. In correspondence with the six sense-organs there are six kinds of object, of which 'dharma-realm' is one. As he explains next, just as the image of an object is seen reflected in the clear water, so the Buddha's image is perceived by the meditating mind; thus the Buddha's glorious body is inseparable from one's meditating mind, and so the Buddha does not exist apart from one's mind.
Dharma-nature The essential nature of all that exists; same as True Suchness.
Dharma-store The treasury of Dharma; a metaphorical expression of the boundless Dharma.
Dharmakara The name of the bodhisattva who later became Amida; literally, Dharma-store.
Dharmata-dharmakaya A reconstructed Sanskrit for the Chinese word 'hossho hosshin', which means 'Dharma-body of Dharma-nature'.
dhuta rules The twelve rules of frugal living for Buddhist mendicants: 1. living in the forest or fields (aranya), 2. living on alms alone, 3. begging alms from house to house without discriminating between rich and poor, 4. eating food at only one place, 5. eating from only one vessel, 6. not eating after noon, 7. wearing only discarded clothes, 8. wearing only three robes, 9. living in a cemetery, 10. living at the foot of a tree, 11. living in the open air, and 12. sleeping in a sitting posture.
Dhyana Heaven There are four Dhyana Heaven in the world of form where practicers of meditation (dhyana) are born.
Diamond Samadhi The samadhi in which one attains freedom in penetrating everything.
Diamond Faith Refers to the Other-Power Faith, shinjin, because it is as indestructible as diamond.
Diamond Mind Same as Diamond Faith.
Diamond-like Mind Same as Diamond Faith.
Difficult Practice One of the two kinds of Buddhist practice distinguished by Nagarjuna, the other being Easy Practice; self-power practice is difficult to perform and less efficacious than recitation of the names of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, which is called Easy Practice.
Dipankara 'Making Light'; n. of a Buddha of the past.
Discourse on the Pure Land with Hymn of Birth An important Pure Land work by Vasubandhu, which, together with T'an-luan's commentary on it, supplied Shinran with the basic idea of the Other-Power teaching; cf. Discourse on the Pure Land.
Discourse on the Repository of Abhidharma Discussions 'Abhidharma-kosha' in Sanskrit; a comprehensive treatise discussing the doctrines of Hinayana Buddhism composed by Vasubandhu.
Divine Phoenix The title of respect given to T'an-luan by the king of Eastern Wei, Hsiao-ching T'i.
dogyo/dobo Fellow believer.
Dragon Palace A mythical place inhabited by dragons.
Dragon-Arjuna The literal meaning of 'Nagarjuna'.

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