[C] Glossary of Buddhist Terms - 4

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sad-ayatana The six sense-organs.
Sage of Illimitable Virtue An epithet of the Buddha.
Saha Lit. 'endurance, patience'; the name of this world, where people must endure various afflictions and pain.
Saicho The founder of the Japanese Tendai school; 766 or 767-822; he established the center of Tendai studies and practices on Mt. Hiei, which became the fountainhead of Pure Land thoughts in the later period.
shala tree The Bodhi-tree under which Vishvabhu became a Buddha.
samadhi A mental state of concentration and focussing of thought on one object; also a transcendent and trance-like state of mind attained by repeated practice of concentration.
Samadhi of Being in the Presence of All Buddhas The samadhi in which one stands face to face with all Buddhas; this samadhi has been widely practiced in India, China and Japan as a method of visualizing Amitabha.
samadhis of emptiness, non-form and non-desire The samadhi in which one realizes that the dharmas are empty and are not to be grasped as objects of perception and desire.
Samadhi of Extinction Skt. 'nirodha-samapatti'; the samadhi which an arhat frequently enters to enjoy the pleasure of no-thought.
Samadhi of Great Tranquility The samadhi which Shakyamuni entered prior to his deliverance of the Larger Sutra.
Samadhi of Recollection of Amida See Nembutsu Samadhi.
Samadhi of Tranquility A Pure Land samadhi mentioned by Vasubandhu in his Five Mindful Practices.
Samantabhadra A great bodhisattva who represents the ultimate principle, meditation and practice of all Buddhas; often portrayed mounted on a white elephant. Following his virtue, one who is born in the Pure Land is capable of coming back to this world of Samsara to save others.
Sambhogakaya, the body of recompense of a Buddha manifested as the result of his supreme merit.
Samghavarman An Indian monk or a monk from Samarkand who went to China in 254 and translated sutras at the White Horse Temple in Lo-yang; the Chinese translation of the Larger Sutra is traditionally ascribed to him but modern scholars doubt this ascription.
Samsara The cycle of birth-and-death to which living beings are bound as the result of their karma; the state of transmigration; Buddhism aims at delivering beings from this state and leading them to Nirvana; cf. birth-and-death.
samskara Blind volition or force; the second of the twelve causations.
Sangha The Buddhist order; originally, a company of monks but came to include all four groups of practicers of the Buddha's teachings: (1) monks, (2) nuns, (3) novices, and (4) female novices. In a wide sense of the term, it includes three other kinds of Buddhists: (5) female trainees, (6) laymen, and (7) laywomen.
Sanron school The Three-Discourse School; a Madhyamika school which developed in China based on two discourses by Nagarjuna and one by Aryadeva; this school was transmitted to Japan in the 7th century.
Sarvastivada School (of Hinayana) One of the Hinayana schools which developed some 200 years after the Buddha's death; this school holds the view that all things really exist.
Satavahana, the name of a dynasty in Southern India, under whose patronage Nagarjuna spread Mahayana.
School of Consciousness-Only The school of Mahayana thought founded by Vasubandhu; it teaches that all existences are transformations of consciousnesses, of which the most fundamental is Alaya. Based on Hsuan-tsang's Chinese translation of Vasubandhu's Thirty Verses and its commentaries, the Hosso (Fa-hsiang) school arose and was later transmitted to Japan.
School of the Middle Nagarjuna's Madhyamika school, which rejects two extreme views of 'existence' and 'non-existence' and claims that truth lies in the middle.
Sea of Perfume The sea from which grows a large lotus-flower, which produces Vairocana Buddha's land, called 'World of Lotus-store'.
Seishimaru Honen's name when he was a child.
'self' and 'mine' A wrong idea of holding oneself and one's possessions as really existing. Cf. 'I' and 'mine'.
self-attachment Innate and unconscious attachment to the false image of ego which is, in fact, non-existent.
self-power One's own power to perform Buddhist practices; it is limited and defiled by evil passions, and so, inefficient in achieving the Buddhist goal; see Other-Power.
Semblance Dharma (age of) The second of the three Dharma-ages; in this age, which lasted a thousand years after the end of the age of the Right Dharma, the Buddhist teachings existed and practices were possible but Enlightenment was no longer attainable due to the declining spiritual capacities of human beings.
Serene Faith Faith of the Other-Power; shinjin; originally, one of the three entrusting minds promised in the Eighteenth Vow.
Serene Faith of Joy Same as above.
seven acts for bodhisattvas of the First Stage 1. to forbear, 2. to avoid lawsuits, 3. to have much joy, 4. to have much happiness in the mind, 5. to seek purity of mind always, 6. to pity sentient beings, and 7. to bear no enmity toward them.
seven causes of awakening the Bodhi-mind 1. The Tathagatas lead one to awaken the Bodhi-mind, 2. on seeing perishing of the Dharma, one awakens the Bodhi-mind wishing to protect it, 3. out of compassion for sentient beings, one awakens the Bodhi-mind, 4. bodhisattvas teach one to awaken the Bodhi-mind, 5. on seeing the bodhisattvas' practices, one awakens toe Bodhi-mind, 6. after practicing Dana, one awakens the Bodhi-mind, and 7. on beholding the Buddha's physical characteristics, one awakens the Bodhi-mind.
seven disciplines The seven rules of acts for the bodhisattvas of the First Stage: 1. forbearance, 2. avoiding disputes, 3. joy, 4. happiness, 5. purity of heart, 6. compassion, and 7. not getting angry.
seven elements of Bodhi The seven factors for the attainment of Enlightenment: 1. distinguishing the true teaching from the false, 2. making efforts to practice the true teaching, 3. rejoicing in the true teaching, 4. eliminating indolence and attaining comfort and relaxation, 5. being mindful so as to keep the balance between concentration and insight, 6. concentration, and 7. detaching one's thoughts from external objects, thereby securing serenity of mind.
seven elements of evil The opposites of the seven elements of virtue.
seven elements of virtue Faith, repentance, shamefulness, hearing the Dharma, efforts, mindfulness and wisdom.
seven factors of wisdom The seven factors for cultivating superior wisdom: (1) distinguishing the true Dharma from false teachings; (2) making efforts in practicing the true Dharma; (3) rejoicing in the true Dharma; (4) eliminating indolence and attaining comfort and relaxation; (5) being mindful to keep the balance between concentration and insight; (6) concentration; and (7) detaching one's thoughts from external objects so as to secure serenity of mind.
seven evil acts 1. killing, 2. stealing, 3. committing adultery, 4. telling lies, 5. uttering harsh words, 6. uttering words which cause enmity between two or more persons, and 7. engaging in idle talk.
seven faults 1. many secular engagements, 2. chanting non-Buddhist scriptures, 3. coveting much sleep, 4. indulging in conversation with many, 5. attachment to personal riches and gains, 6. excessive eagerness to please people, and 7. being confused about the Buddhist Path.
seven jewels Gold, silver, beryl, crystal, rosy pearl, carnelian, and sapphire.
Seven Masters The Seven Patriarchs of Jodoshinshu: Nagarjuna, Vasubandhu, T'an-luan, Tao-ch'o, Shan-tao, Genshin and Honen.
seven prominences on the body n both feet, both hands, both shoulders and on the back; this feature is one of the 32 physical characteristics of the Buddha.
seven practices leading to Enlightenment The seven factors for the attainment of Enlightenment: (1) distinguishing the true teaching from the false, (2) making efforts to practice the true teaching, (3) rejoicing in the true teaching, (4) eliminating indolence and attaining comfort and relaxation, (5) being mindful so as to keep the balance between concentration and insight, (6) concentration, and (7) detaching one's thoughts from external objects, thereby securing serenity of mind.
seven treasures Gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, red pearls, diamond, and coral; there are, however, other versions.
Shakyamuni Shakyamuni; the seventh of the eight Buddhas of the past and future.
Seventeenth Vow In this vow Dharmakara promised that, when he became a Buddha, his Name would be glorified by all Buddhas, so that living beings who hear it might joyfully hold it; cf. Forty-eight Vows.
Shakra Generally known as Indra; the lord of the Heaven of Thirty-three Gods; originally a Hindu god but later considered as a protector of Buddhism and its followers.
Shakra's pendent mani-gem The gem on the top of Shakra's head; said to be the most precious gem in the world (M12,15).
Shakra's vase The vase which produces anything at will; said to be a possession of Shakra.
Shakyamuni Lit. 'a sage of the Shakya clan'; the founder of Buddhism, who appeared in India around the 6th-5th century B.C.
Shariputra One of the ten great disciples of the Buddha; he was well-known for his intelligence.
Shan-tao The fifth master in the tradition of Jodoshinshu; 613-81.
Shan-tao School One of the three Chinese Pure Land schools; the other two are Lu-shan school of Hui-yuan (334-416) and Tz'u-min school of Hui-jih (680-748).
Shao-k'ang A Chinese Pure Land master, renowned as an incarnation of Shan-tao; died in 805.
Shila Paramita The second of the Six Paramitas; observance of the precept.
Shin The popular name for Jodoshinshu.
Shin Buddhist system The doctrinal system of salvation of Jodoshinshu.
Shin Buddhist A follower of Jodoshinshu.
Shingon The esoteric Buddhism which originated in India, developed in China and was systematized in Japan by Kukai (774-835).
shinjin Faith of the Other-Power.
Shinran The founder of Jodoshinshu (1173-1262).
Shraddha Faith; pure faith.
shravaka 'A hearer'; originally, a disciple of the Buddha in general; later, a follower of Hinayana Buddhism who seeks to attain Nirvana and become an arhat.
Shravasti A kingdom in central India; at present, Sahetmahet in Gonda Province. The Buddha often stayed at the Jeta Grove monastery outside the capital.
shukuzen Karmic virtue; stored merits in one's past lives.
Shunyata Voidness or emptiness; non-substantiality of all that exists.
Sincere Mind One of the three entrusting minds promised in the Eighteenth Vow.
Single Path The single path leading to Buddhahood.
Single thought of Joy and Gratitude The first awakening of Faith, or shinjin, which is accompanied by great joy and gratitude to Amida.
Singleness of mind Whole-hearted trust in Amida's saving power.
six acts of accord and respect The six compassionate acts of a bodhisattva for approaching and saving others: (1) observing the same precepts as others, (2) sharing the same view as others; (3) performing the same practices as others, (4) kind acts to others, (5) kind speech, and (6) kind-heartedness.
six elements The six constituent elements of all existences: earth, water, fire, wind, wind and consciousness.
six elements of virtue They refer to the Six Paramitas.
six faults Stinginess, breaking the precepts, anger, indolence, confusion of mind, and ignorance.
six forms of mindfulness The practice of mindfulness among Buddhists since early days. They are: (1) mindfulness of the Buddha (2) of the Dharma, (3) of the Sangha, (4) of the precepts, (5) of the practice of renouncing, and (6) of the deities.
Six Heavens The six heavens in the world of desire: 1. the Heaven of the Four Guardian Kings, 2. the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods, 3. Yama, 4. Tusita, 5. Nirmana-rati, and 6. the Heaven of Free Enjoyment of Others' Manifestations.
six kinds of domestic animals Cows, horses, dogs, sheep, pigs and fowls.
six kinds of robes Robes made of: 1. cotton, 2. linen, 3. silk, 4. wool, 5. reddish hemp, and 6. white hemp.
Six Paramitas The six kinds of practices by which bodhisattvas reach Enlightenment: 1. dana (giving), 2. observance of the precepts, 3. perseverance, patient, 4. effort, 5. meditation, concentration, and 6. wisdom.
six realms The six realms in Samsara, i.e., hell, realms of hungry spirits, animals, asuras, humans and heavenly beings.
six sense-organs Eyes, ears, nose, tongue, tactile organ, and mind.
six supernatural powers See supernatural powers.
sixth blood-relative The six blood-relatives are: father, mother, brothers, sisters, wife, and children.
Sixth Heaven The highest heaven in the world of desire, known by the name of Heaven of Free Enjoyment of Others' Manifestations.
skillful means The skillful means employed by bodhisattvas to guide sentient beings to the Buddhist Path.
skandha 'Aggregate'; see five aggregates.
skillful means Sk. upaya; the method used by a Buddha or a bodhisattva to approach and save sentient beings.
slandering of the Dharma The act of the gravest offense which consigns the offender to the hell of uninterrupted pain (Avici); this act includes rejecting the existence of Buddhas and their teachings.
smaller kalpa Length of time used to explain the cosmic change; equivalent to the period during which man's average life-span, which is 10 at the worst time of the period of five defilements, increases by one in every 100 years, until it reaches 84,000; cf. period of cosmic change.
Small Shakyamuni The word of praise accorded Genshin by the Chinese monks who read his Ojoyoshu (Collection of Essential Passages Concerning Birth in the Pure Land).
Smaller Sutra One of the three basic sutras of Pure Land Buddhism; also known as the Smaller Sukhavativyuha Sutra, the Sutra on Amitayus Buddha and the Amida Sutra; the Chinese translation used in most of the Pure Land schools was produced by Kumarajiva (344-413) about 402.
Society of Twenty-five Samadhi The group of 25 monks formed in 986 in the Yokawa precinct of Mt. Hiei to meet regularly and practice the Nembutsu; Genshin laid down the rite for this and promoted its activity.
space-element One of the five constituent elements of one's existence.
sparsha Touch or contact with the external objects; sixth of the twelve causations.
special qualities Refers to the 18 special qualities of a Buddha. They are: (1) absence of imperfections in the body, (2) unmistakable speech in guiding beings to Enlightenment, (3) perfect concentration, (4) non-discriminative thought, (5) perfectly settled mind, (6) knowing and accepting all dharmas, (7) limitless desire to save sentient beings, (8) unceasing effort to save sentient beings, (9) spiritual correspondence with all the other Buddhas, (10) omniscience, (11) complete emancipation from all bondage, (12) complete knowledge of all aspects of emancipation, (13) manifestation of excellent physical forms to guide sentient beings to salvation, (14) employment of subtle words to teach sentient beings, (15) pure mental acts to teach sentient beings and remove their ignorance and passions, (16) complete knowledge of past lives of all beings, (17) complete knowledge of all future events, and (18) complete knowledge of all events in the present life (L16).
Ssu-chou The name of the place in the present An-hui Province where Shan-to was born.
sprinkling of nectar The sprinkling which bodhisattvas of the tenth stage receive from the Buddhas (L16).
Stage of a Non-returner The second highest stage of Hinayana sages attained by destroying subtle evil passions; one who has attained this stage is no longer subject to rebirth in the world of desire.
Stage of a Stream-Winner The first of the four stages of spiritual attainment leading to Arhatship; 'entering the stream' means attaining the stream of the sacred Dharma by destroying various wrong views.
Stage of Becoming a Buddha after One More Life The highest stage of a bodhisattva who will become a Buddha in the next life; Maitreya is such a bodhisattva; after his life in the Tusita Heaven he will come down to this world to become a Buddha.
Stage of Compassionate Guidance The stage in which a bodhisattva dwells after attaining Enlightenment; in this stage he manifests various forms and guides sentient beings along the Buddhist Path; this is the 'Returning' aspect.
Stage of Dharma-cloud The tenth stage of Bodhisattvahood.
Stage of Difficulty in Overcoming The fifth stage of Bodhisattvahood.
Stage of Glowing Wisdom The fourth stage of Bodhisattvahood.
Stage of Going Far The seventh stage of Bodhisattvahood.
Stage of Illumination The third stage of Bodhisattvahood.
Stage of Joy The first of the ten bodhisattva stages, in which one awakens the pure wisdom and becomes assured of attaining Enlightenment; those who reach this stage are no longer liable to falling back to insecure lower stages, and so this stage is called the Stage of Non-retrogression. Since they attain pure spiritual joy, this stage is also called the Stage of Joy.
Stage of Manifestation [of Reality] The Sixth Stage of Bodhisattvahood.
Stage of Non-defilement The Second Stage of Bodhisattvahood.
Stage of Non-retrogression The stage of a bodhisattva at which he realizes undefiled wisdom and is assured of attaining Enlightenment without falling back to a lower stage.
Suchness See True Suchness.
Stage of Right Assurance Same as the Stage of Joy.
stages of shravakas and pratyekabuddhas The stages of Hinayana practice at which one seeks to attain one's own salvation.
Stage of Wondrous Wisdom The Ninth Stage of Bodhisattvahood.
steadfast mind A firm resolution to pursue the Buddhist Way.
Suchness The ultimate reality of all that exists.
Suchness of all dharmas Things as they really are; in the eye of the Buddha all existing things are themselves ultimate reality.
Sukhavati 'Possessed of happiness or pleasure'; the name of Amida's Pure Land.
Summit of the Heavens The fourth and the highest heaven in the world of non-form.
Sunaksatra See Zensho.
superior supramundane path The path that transcends ordinary courses of action in the secular world and leads to Buddhahood; Buddhism is primarily the supramundane path whereby one is freed from Samsara and attains liberation.
supernatural powers The six transcendental powers attributed to a Buddha, bodhisattva or arhat. They are: (1) the ability to go anywhere at will and to transform oneself or any object at will, (2) the ability to see anything at any distance, (3) the ability to hear any sound at any distance, (4) the ability to know the thoughts of others, (5) the ability to know the previous lives of oneself and others, and (6) the ability to destroy all evil passions.
supramundane ways Methods of practice for transcending the Samsaric world and reaching Enlightenment.
Supreme Fruition The Buddha's Enlightenment; Bodhi; the final goal of spiritual pursuit in Mahayana.
Supreme King of the Dharma Refers to the Buddha.
Supreme One An epithet of the Buddha.
Supreme, Peerless Honored One An epithet of the Buddha.
supreme shila Realization of voidness of everything is called the supreme shila.
Supreme, Unsurpassed One An epithet of the Buddha.
Supreme Vehicle Refers to Mahayana.
sutra A Buddhist scripture containing the Buddha's teaching.
Sutra on Bodhisattvas' Dwelling in the Embryonic State The sutra describing the Land of Indolence and Pride The land situated in the west between this world and the Pure Land; those who aspire to be born in the Pure Land are often attracted to the pleasures in this land and stay there, unable to proceed to Amida's land.
Sutra on the Buddha's Visit to Lanka The Lankavatara Sutra; the sutra said to have been delivered by Shakyamuni in the island Lanka, the present Sri Lanka.
Sutra on the Samadhi of All Buddhas' Appearance The Pratyutpanna Samadhi Sutra; the sutra explaining the method of visualizing Amida and all the other Buddhas.
Sutra on the Samadhi of Contemplation of the Buddha One of the sutras explaining the method of contemplating Amida.

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tala-tree Palmyra tree or fan plam; Borassus flabelliformis. The tala-tree bears big white blossoms, and its fruits are red and resemble pomegranates; bigger ones grow 70 to 80 feet high; their broad leaves, about 2 to 3 inches by 15 to 20 inches, were used for inscribing sutras.
Tannisho "A Record in Lament of Divergences"; the work ascribed to Yuien which criticizes unorthodox views held by followers of Shinran's disciples and corrects them by quoting his sayings.
T'an-luan The third master in the tradition of Jodoshinshu; 476-542; the author of the commentary on Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land.
Tao-ch'o The fourth master in the tradition of Jodoshinshu; 562-645; the author of the Collection of Passages Concerning Birth in the Land of Peace and Bliss.
Taoism The Chinese religious-philosophical system founded by Lao-tze about the 4th century B.C.; later it absorbed various folk religions and mystical beliefs which were alien to Lao-tze's original thought.
T'ao Hung-ching A famous Taoist master from whom T'an-luan received some scriptures explaining the art of longevity.
Tathagata 'Thus-come (tatha-agata)' or 'thus-gone (tatha-gata)'; popularly construed as 'one who has come from Thusness or Suchness (ultimate reality)'; used as one of the ten epithets of the Buddha.
Tathagata of All-pervasive Unhindered Light Refers to Amida.
Tathagata of Infinite Life Refers to Amida.
Tathagata of Unhindered Light Refers to Amida.
Tathagata of Unhindered Light Shining throughout the Ten Directions The name of Amida used by Vasubandhu in the Hymn of Aspiration for Birth in the Pure Land.
Tathagatas' Family The abode of all Tathagatas; True Suchness.
Teacher of Gods and Men One of the ten epithets of the Buddha.
teacher of Omniscience An epithet of the Buddha.
ten acts Ten acts done by the body, speech and mind and distinguished into good or evil.
ten acts of virtue for purifying the First Stage Faith, compassion, love, abandonment, perseverance, thorough knowledge of the principles of truth, guiding sentient beings, feeling of shame, making offerings to Buddhas, and firmly abiding by their teachings.
ten advantages of wearing the prescribed robes 1. the robes exhibit one's feeling of repentance and shame, 2. they keep the body from heat and cold and keep away mosquitoes, gadflies and poisonous insects; 3. they show the proper manner of a monk, 4. devas and humans pay respect to them just as they worship stupas and temples, 5. they show the mind of detachment, 6. they are in accord with the way of extinction of evil passions, 7. any evil acts can be easily discovered when robes are worn, 8. those wearing the robes do not require any other ornaments, 9. those wearing the robes readily practice the Eightfold Noble Path, and 10. those wearing the robes diligently practice the Way without the impure minds.
ten benefits The ten benefits attending the observance of sila: 1. becoming a Cakravartin always, 2. not losing the mind of diligence when he becomes one, 3. becoming a Shakra always, 4. not losing the mind of diligence when he becomes one, 5. seeking the Buddhist Paths always, 6. always holding fast to the teachings of bodhisattvas, 7. not losing unhindered eloquence, 8. always fulfilling the aspiration to plant various roots of merit, 9. being always praised by Buddhas, bodhisattvas and other sages, and 10. quickly attaining all sorts of wisdom.
Ten Bodhisattva-stages Refers to Nagarjuna's Commentary on the Chapter Ten Stages of the Garland Sutra; this work contains his explanation of the first two stages. In the ninth chapter, Easy Path, he presents an easy way of reaching the Stage of Non-retrogression.
ten dark evil acts Same as the ten evil acts.
ten directions The four cardinal points, the four intermediate points, the zenith, and the nadir.
ten elements of virtue Same as the ten good acts.
ten epithets The ten epithets of the Buddha: 1. Tathagata, 'Thus-come', one who has come from Thusness, 2. Arhat, 'one worthy of alms-giving', 3. Samyaksambuddha, 'fully enlightened', 4. Vidya-carana-sampanna, 'one having wisdom and practice', 5. Sugata, 'well-gone', one who has attained emancipation, 6. Lokavid, 'the knower of the world', 7. Anuttara, 'the unsurpassed', 8. Purusa-damya-sarathi', 'the tamer of gods and men', 9. Shasta devamanusyanam, 'the teacher of gods and men', and 10. Buddha-lokanatha, 'the enlightened and world-honored one'.
ten evil acts 1. killing living beings, 2. stealing, 3. committing adultery, 4. telling lies, 5. uttering harsh words, 6. uttering words which cause enmity between two or more persons, 7. engaging in idle talk, 8. being greedy, 9. being angry, and 10. having wrong views.
ten faults Same as the ten evil acts.
ten fears 1. fear of falling into hell, 2. into the realm of animals, 3. into the realm of hungry spirits, 4. fear of poverty, 5. fear of being abused, rebuked or spoken ill of, 6. fear of being covered by evil passions, 7. fear of falling into the stages of a shravaka and a pratyekabuddha, 8. fear of harassment by devas, humans, dragon gods, and other demi-gods, 9. fear of attack by enemy soldiers, poisonous animals or insects, foods and fire, lions, tigers, wolves, and other people, 10. fear of being confused by wrong views.
ten good acts 1. not killing living beings, 2. not stealing, 3. not committing adultery, 4. not telling lies, 5. not uttering harsh words, 6. not uttering words which cause enmity between two or more persons, 7. not engaging in idle talk, 8. not being greedy, 9. not being angry, and 10. not having wrong views.
ten great vows The vows to be made by bodhisattvas who dwell in the First Stage: 1. to revere, make offerings to and serve all Buddhas, 2. to protect and uphold their teachings, 3. to praise and make offerings to them as they appear in the world, become Buddhas and preach the Dharma, 4. to teach and guide sentient beings so that they may attain higher spiritual states, 5. to guide all beings ultimately to the Buddha's Enlightenment, 6. to incorporate all the teachings and dharmas into the non-dual principle of equality, 7. to remove various evils in order to produce a pure land, 8. to do the same acts of merit with other people without a sense of rivalry, 9. to turn the wheel of the Dharma, remove evil passions of all beings and lead them to establish pure faith in the Dharma, and 10. to manifest attainment of Enlightenment in all the worlds.
ten minds to be cultivated in the Second Stage 1. sincere and straight mind, 2. fitness to act, 3. a soft and tender mind, 4. a mind to control sense-organs, 5. tranquillity, 6. a truly wonderful mind, 7. avoiding mixing with people, 8. absence of greed, 9. a delightful mind, and 10. a great mind.
ten powers The ten powers or abilities attributed to a Buddha: 1. distinguishing right from wrong, 2. knowing the karma of all sentient beings of the past, present and future, and their outcome, 3. knowing all forms of meditation, 4. knowing the superior and inferior capacities of sentient beings, 5. knowing what they desire and think, 6. knowing their different levels of existence, 7. knowing the results of various methods of practice, 8. knowing the transmigratory states of all sentient beings and the courses of karma which they follow, 9. knowing the past lives of all sentient beings and the nirvanic state of non-defilement, and 10. knowing how to destroy all evil passions.
ten precepts A Buddhist novice should abstain from the following: (1) killing living beings, (2) stealing, (3) sexual intercourse, (4) telling lies, (5) intoxicating drinks, (6) bodily decoration and perfume, (7) singing and dancing or going to see dances or plays, (8) sleeping in a big bed, (9) eating at wrong times, and (10) keeping money or jewels; cf. precepts for a novice.
ten ultimate ends The ten ultimate ends which bodhisattvas should seek to explore by making relevant vows: 1. the ultimate nature of sentient beings, 2. of universe, 3. space, 4. the ultimate Dharma-nature, 5. the ultimate nature of Nirvana, 6. of Buddhas, 7. of Buddhas' wisdom, 8. of all the objects of mind, 9. of the Buddhas' spheres of activity and wisdoms, and 10. of the evolution of the sentient world, the Dharma and wisdoms.
Tendai A Mahayana school transmitted to Japan from China by Saicho, who established its center on Mt. Hiei; see T'ien-t'ai.
ten titles The ten titles of the Buddha. These are: (1) Tathagata, 'thus-come,' one who has come from Thusness or Suchness; (2) Arhat, 'one worthy of receiving alms'; (3) Samyaksambuddha, 'fully enlightened'; (4) Vidya-carana-sampanna, 'one having wisdom and practice'; (5) Sugata, 'well-gone,' one who has attained emancipation; (6) Lokavid, 'the knower of the world'; (7) Anuttara, 'the unsurpassed'; (8) Purusa-damya-sarathi, 'the tamer of men'; (9) Shasta deva-manusyanam, 'the teacher of gods and men'; (10) Buddha-bhagavat or Buddha-lokanatha, 'the enlightened and world-honored one.'
Tendai-Pure Land master One who belongs to the Tendai school but holds Pure Land faith, like Genshin.
The Middle The Mahayana principle of the Middle; the ultimate truth lies in the negation of the two extreme views: existence and non-existence. Nagarjuna clarified this in his Verses on the Middle.
theory of universal Voidness The Madhyamika view that negates all kinds of existence and even negative propositions.
Theravada 'The school of the elders'; originally, one of the two major schools of Buddhism in the early period; Sk. Sthaviravada. Later, it came to be used as the general term for the earlier schools which Mahayanists called 'Hinayana'.
Third Gate The third of the Five Mindful Practices.
thirteen contemplations The thirteen contemplations in the Contemplation Sutra, beginning with that of the setting sun and culminating in clear perception of Amida and his two attendant bodhisattvas.
thirty-two physical characteristics The 32 marks of physical excellence of a Buddha. They are: (1) protuberance on the head, (2) hair of the head is blue-black and curling from left to right, (3) even and broad forehead, (4) white tuft of hair between the eyebrows, (5) blue eyes, (6) forty teeth, (7) even and orderly teeth, (8) teeth close together, (9) white teeth, (10) ability of tasting any food as the best, (11) jaw like a lion's, (12) long and thin tongue, (13) voice like Brahma's, (14) well-framed shoulders, (15) seven prominent parts (i.e. both hands, both feet, both shoulders, and the back), (16) both shoulders well filled out, (17) fine, golden skin, (18) arms reaching the knees when standing upright, (19) majestic upper part of the body like a lion's, (20) body like a Nyagrodha tree in circumference, (21) a hair growing from each pore, (22) hair growing upwards and its point bending towards the right, (23) male organ hidden in the foreskin, (24) well-rounded thighs, (25) unprotuberant ankle-bone, (26) soft and tender hands and feet, (27) hands and feet with webs between fingers and toes, (28) long fingers, (29) soles bearing the mark of a thousand-spoked wheel, (30) both feet standing firm, (31) long and broad heels, and (32) calves like the shanks of the king of black antelopes.
thirty-two rules of conducts Those who abide by the following rules are worthy of being called bodhisattvas: 1. to seek sincerely peace and happiness for the sake of all sentient beings, 2. to enter the Buddhas' wisdom, 3. to know whether one can become a Buddha or not, 4. not to bear enmity toward others, 5. to have the steadfast Bodhi-mind, 6. not to make friends with others under false pretense, 7. to become other beings' friends always until one enters Nirvana, 8. not to discriminate between close friends and strangers, 9. to set one's heart on doing good acts, 10. not to stop having great mercy for all sentient beings, 11. not to stop having great compassion for all sentient beings, 12. to seek always the Right Dharma untiringly, 13. to make efforts untiringly, 14. to hear much teaching and understand its meaning, 15. to reflect on one's own faults always, 16. not to criticize others' faults, 17. to cultivate one's Bodhi-mind whatever one sees and hears, 18. to give donations without expecting any reward, 19. to observe the precepts without seeking to attain some good state of existence, 20. to have the mind of forbearance with all sentient beings and not to bear enmity toward them, 21. to cultivate all the roots of goodness with diligence, 22. not to seek entry into the meditation of non-form, 23. to attain wisdom of skillful means, 24. to attain the skillful means of the four methods of approaching and embracing beings, 25. to have a compassionate heart equally for both those who observe the precepts and those who have broken them, 26. to listen to the exposition of the Dharma intently, 27. to dwell in the aranya with a serious intention, 28. not to enjoy secular engagements, 29. not to be attached to Hinayana, 30. to recognize Mahayana to be of great benefit, 31. to alienate oneself from bad friends, and 32. to become intimate with good friends.
those of the middle and lower stages The two kinds of Hinayana sages, i.e. pratyekabuddhas and shravakas.
thousand-spoked wheel One of the 32 physical characteristics of a Buddha; the mark of a wheel on the soles.
three aspects of Faith Also Three Minds; the three aspects of Faith of the Other-Power presented in the Eighteenth Vow: Sincere Mind, Joyful Faith and Desire for Birth.
three aspects of each physical characteristic of the Buddha 1. the essence of each characteristic, 2. reward of it, and 3. the karma which has produced it.
three aspects of faith of the Contemplation Sutra Sincere faith, deep faith, and faith that resolves to be born in the Pure Land.
three defilements The three evil passions: greed, anger and stupidity.
three distinct teachings The teachings for bodhisattvas, pratyekabuddhas and shravakas; the teachings for bodhisattvas are Mahayana, the Great Vehicle, and those for pratyekabuddhas and shravakas are called Hinayana, the Lesser Vehicle.
three elements of virtue Observance of the precept, samadhi and wisdom,
three evil realms Hell, the realms of hungry spirits and the realm of animals.
three faults 1. hating bodhisattvas, 2. hating their acts, and 3. rejecting Mahayana sutras.
three gates of emancipation The states attained by practicing the three samadhis.
three impediments Evil passions and various hindrances connected with meditation, and hindrance concerning all things and matters.
three insights The three insights into the nature of dharmas: (1) insight into reality through hearing the sacred sounds, (2) insight into reality by being in accord with it, and (3) insight into the non-arising of all dharmas.
three kinds of defilements Evils, karma and blind passions.
three kinds of sages Shravakas, pratyekabuddhas and bodhisattvas.
three meritorious actions Those acts which are conducive to one's birth in the Pure Land: (1) acts of moral good, (2) observance of the precepts, and (3) acts of Mahayana good.
Three Minds See three aspects of Faith.
three minds with which one should practice Dana 1. Bodhi-mind, because one pities all sentient beings, 2. keeping the Buddha Dharma close to one's heart, and 3. not seeking any reward.
three misconducts committed by those who live in the aranya with a false motivation 1. lacking in wisdom if one does not practice diligently, 2. liable to have a sexual intercourse upon meeting a woman and thus face the penalty of expulsion from the Sangha, and 3. liable to break the precepts and return to secular life.
three objectives with which one should practice Dana 1. to learn the Buddha Dharma, 2. to expound the Dharma, and 3. to lead all beings to attain the supreme happiness.
three pains The three kinds of pain which we experience are: (1) physical and mental pain caused by illness, thirst, hunger, etc., (2) pain of losing something or some living thing one is attached to, and (3) pain caused by vicissitudes of the world.
three poisons Three evil passions, i.e., greed, anger and stupidity.
three realms The three lowest realms, i.e., hell, the realm of hungry spirits and that of animals.
three refuges Taking refuge in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha.
three samadhis Samadhis of emptiness, non-form and non-desire; in these samadhis one realizes that the dharmas are empty and are not to be grasped as objects of perception and desire.
three supernatural powers 1. knowledge of the former lives of oneself and others, 2. ability to know the future destiny of oneself and others, and 3. ability to know all about the miseries of the present life and to remove their root-cause, i.e., evil passions.
three things one should be mindful of 1. to be mindful of True Reality when one reads or hears written scriptures, 2. to be mindful of the Bodhisattva Sangha when one sees shravakas, and 3. to be mindful of True Buddha when one sees the Buddha's image.
three transcendent knowledges See transcendent knowledge.
Three Treasures The Buddha, Dharma and Sangha.
Three Vehicles The teachings for shravakas, pratyekabuddhas and bodhisattvas.
three vows which one should make when one worships Buddhas 1. "I shall receive offerings from the eight kinds of Buddhists," 2. "I shall leave my sharira when I die," and 3. "I shall make great efforts, attain the highest Bodhi and pass into Parinirvana."
three worlds The three levels of the state of existence in Samsara: (1) the world of desire, which comprises hell, the realms of hungry spirits, animals, humans and some of the heavens; (2) the world of form, which comprises some higher heavens; and (3) the world of non-form, which consists of supernal heavens.
threefold three thoughts which bodhisattvas should entertain about their wives 1. think that your wives are impermanent, liable to be lost, and liable to decay; 2. think that they are merely companions to talk and laugh with but not those of the next life, that they are companions to eat with but not those who share your karmic reward, and that they are companions at the time of happiness but not those at the time of misery; and 3. think that they are impure, defiled and detestable.
T'ien-t'ai The name of the Mahayana school founded by Chih-i (538-597), who was himself called Master T'ien-t'ai; it was transmitted to Japan by Saicho.
tranquil and extinct Said of the Nirvanic state where there is no arising and perishing of existences.
Transformed body One of the three bodies of the Buddha; Nirmanakaya.
Transformed Land The land inhabited by a transformed Buddha; those who seek birth in the Pure Land but fail to perceive Amida's Compassion and Power are born in the Transformed Land. In accordance with different degrees of understanding and merit, they see different manifestations of the land and the Buddha. Those who follow the 19th and 20th Vows are led to the Transformed Land, where they are unable to see the true Buddha, Dharma or Sangha for a long time.
transcendent knowledge The three kinds of transcendent knowledge attained by a Buddha, bodhisattva or arhat: (1) knowledge of the former lives of oneself and others, (2) ability to know the future destiny of oneself and others, and (3) ability to know all the miseries of the present life and to remove their root-cause, i.e. evil passions.
Tripitaka Three collections of writings; the three divisions of the Buddhist scriptures: (1) sutras, the Buddha's teachings, (2) precepts, and (3) commentaries or discourses on the Buddha's teachings.
Tripitaka master A master well-versed in the Buddhist scriptures; used in China as a title of respect for a monk with an extensive knowledge of Buddhism. 'Tripitaka' means 'three baskets,' or the three collections of Buddhist scriptures: sutras, rules of conduct and discourses.
triple-thousand great-thousand worlds A thousand worlds make a small one-thousand world; a thousand of these make a medium one-thousand world; and a thousand of these make a great one-thousand world. This is said to be the region which comes under the care of one Buddha and its extent is as large as the Fourth Meditation Heaven.
trisna Desire for pleasure; the eighth of the twelve causations.
True Aspect A synonym of True Suchness or Dharma-nature; the ultimate reality.
True Enlightenment The title of the fourth chapter of the Kyogyoshinsho.
True Pure Land Way The true teaching of attaining birth in the Pure Land and realizing Enlightenment; the teaching of Jodoshinshu.
True Suchness The ultimate reality.
True Teaching The true, i.e., not provisional, teaching of the Buddha, which, according to Shinran, is the Larger Sutra.
True Way Same as True Pure Land Way.
true entrusting Heart Refers to shinjin, or Faith of the Other-Power.
Ts'ao-Wei dynasty The Chinese kingdom of Wei founded by Ts'ao Ts'ao.
turn the wheel of the Dharma To preach the Dharma.
Tusita Heaven The fourth of the six heavens in the world of desire; in this heaven the future Buddha Maitreya is expounding the Dharma.
Twelve Adorations A hymn in praise of Amida composed by Nagarjuna.
Twelve Lights Amida's Light is distinguished into twelve according to its different qualities and functions.
twelve causations One of the basic teachings of Buddhism; the 12 links of causes and effect which explain the samsaric state of birth-and-death.
twelve dhuta practices See dhuta rules.
twelve distinctions to be made to show how a good or an evil act arises, and so on 1. from what it arises, 2. to whom it arises, 3. by what cause it arises, 4. with whom it becomes the cause, 5. what is the condition, 6. for whom it becomes the cause, 7. what is its object, 8. for whom it functions as the condition, 9. what increases by it, 10. with whom it increases, 11. what loss it brings about, and 12. what effect it brings about.
twelve divisions of the scriptures The 12 kinds of Buddhist scriptures distinguished according to different styles of exposition: (1) the Buddha's exposition of the Dharma in prose (sutra), (2) verses which repeat the ideas already expressed in prose (geya), (3) verses containing ideas not expressed in prose (gatha), (4) narratives in the past which explain a person's present state (nidana), (5) narratives of past lives of the Buddha's disciples (itivrittaka), (6) narratives of past lives of the Buddha (jataka), (7) accounts of miracles performed by the Buddha or a deva (adbhuta-dharma), (8) an exposition of the Dharma through allegories (avadana), (9) discussions of doctrine (upadesha), (10) an exposition of the Dharma by the Buddha without awaiting questions or requests from his disciples (udana), (11) an extensive and detailed exposition of principles of truth (vaipulya), and (12) prophecies by the Buddha regarding his disciples' attainment of Buddhahood (vyakarana).
twelve epithets (Amida's) The twelve epithets of Amida corresponding to his Twelve Lights.
twelve links of causations Same as twelve causations.
twelve names (Amida's) Same as twelve epithets of Amida.
twelve sense-fields The six sense-organs and their corresponding objects.
twenty headings under which each of the path of good and evil acts is distinguished 1. whether a certain act is good or evil, 2. to which of the three world it belongs, 3. whether it is defiled or not, 4. whether it is a mental function or not, 5. whether it is a mental act or not, 6. whether it arises in conformity with the mind or not, 7. whether it takes place simultaneously with the mind or not, 8. whether it is a bodily act or not, 9. whether it is a manifest act or not, 10. whether it takes something as its object or not, 11. whether it is a karmic act or not, 12. whether it a karma-related act or not, 13. whether it is an act following some karmic act or not, 14. whether it is an act of common karma or not, 15. whether it is an effective karmic act or a causal karmic act, 16. whether it is to be done or not, 17. whether it should be known well or not, 18. whether it is verified by intellect or by the body, 19. whether it is to be severed or not, and 20. whether it is to be known or not.
twenty wrong views concerning the existence of self There are four wrong views concerning the relationship between the physical body and self: 1. the body is the self, 2. the self has the body, 3. the self is in the body, and 4. the body is in the self. There are four similar wrong views concerning the relationship between the self and the rest of the five aggregates, i.e., perception, conception, volition and consciousness.
twenty-five states of Samsara See Rite for the Samadhi for (Transcending) Twenty-five (States of Samsara).
twenty-nine aspects of the Pure Land, etc, Vasubandhu in his Discourse on the Pure Land distinguished 17 aspects of the Pure Land, 8 aspects of the Buddha and 4 aspects of bodhisattvas.
two bindings 1. being bound to various wrong views and 2. being bound to fame and profit.
two burnings 1. wearing the Buddhist robe with impure mind and 2. receiving services from those who observe the pure precepts.
two defilements 1. enjoying various evil passions and 2. seeking to be known to many donors.
two elements of virtue Diligence and wisdom,
two faults Falling into the stages of a shravaka and a pratyekabuddha.
two hindrances 1. associating with laypeople and 2. dissociating oneself from good people.
two illnesses 1. arrogance and 2. discouraging those who seek Mahayana.
two kinds of benefit Worldly and supraworldly benefits.
two kinds of pure acts of Dana One should perform either of the following two acts: 1. both the donor and the recipient are pure and 2. the donor is pure but the recipient is impure.
two kinds of robe 1. robes donated by laypeople and 2. robes made from discarded rags, with pieces of cloth patched together.
two objectives with which one should practice Dana 1. to acquire great wealth and 2. to accomplish the Dana Paramita.
two pits 1. abusing and destroying the Right Dharma and 2. receiving offerings even though one has broken the precepts.
Two Rivers of Greed and Anger Shan-tao's famous parable which illustrates how one awakens Faith in the midst of evil passions.
two tumors 1. finding others' faults and 2. hiding one's own faults.
two vain attachments 1. to cling to the scriptures, such as the Lokayata sutra, and 2. to decorate one's begging bowl and clothes.
Two Vehicles The teachings for two kinds of Hinayana sages, namely, shravakas and pratyekabuddhas.
twofold reality When Faith is awakened in us, we realize that we are full of evil passions, karma-bound and incapable of salvation with our own power and that Amida with boundless saving power embraces and never forsakes us.

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udumbara The tree Ficus Glomerata; the tree said to bloom only once in 3,000 years.
udumbara tree, the Bodhi-tree under which Kanakamuni became a Buddha.
Ultimate Teaching of Great Compassion Refers to the teaching of salvation by the Other-Power.
Unconditioned Dharmakaya a synonym of True Suchness.
unconditioned Nirvana
Nirvana free of all conditionings; the ultimate reality and non-activity.
Unequaled Light One of the twelve lights of Amida.
Unhindered Light One of the twelve lights of Amida.
Unhindered Light Shining throughout the Ten Directions See Tathagata of Unhindered Light ...
universal equality Name of the samadhi in which one can see innumerable Buddhas.
Universal Light Amida's Light which reaches everywhere universally.
Universal Vow Amida's Vow of salvation which aims at delivering all beings from Samsara.
universe of a thousand million worlds Literally, 'triple thousand great one-thousand world.' A thousand worlds make a small one-thousand world; a thousand of these make a medium one-thousand world; a thousand of these make a great one-thousand world. The universe of a great one-thousand world, i.e. a thousand million worlds, comes under the care of one Buddha.
Unsurpassed One of the ten epithets of the Buddha.
unsurpassed Great Path The supreme Enlightenment; Buddhahood; also, the path leading to it, namely, Mahayana teaching.
Unsurpassed Nirvana A synonym of True Suchness.
unsurpassed Way The highest, perfect Enlightenment.
upadana An act of grasping what one desires; the ninth of the twelve causations.
upaya Skillful means.
upaya-dharmakaya A reconstructed Sanskrit word for the Chinese phrase 'hoben hosshin', which means 'Dharma-body of Expediency', one of the two kinds of Dharma-body distinguished by T'an-luan.
Urabe Genshin's family name.
Uruma Honen's family name.
Uruvilva-kashyapa 'Kashyapa of Uruvilva'; the eldest of the three brothers of the Kashyapa family; originally a brahmin engaged in fire worship; converted to Buddhism along with his 500 disciples.

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Vaidehi The wife of King Bimbisara of Magadha in the time of the Buddha; in her later years, she was imprisoned by her son Ajatashatru. As she requested the Buddha to teach her the way of salvation, he preached the Contemplation Sutra.
Vajra god A kind of deva with enormous physical power; a pair of such gods are often placed at the entrance of a temple; cf. Narayana.
Vairocana The central Buddha in the Garland Sutra.
vajra The most precious substance and the hardest material; adamant or diamond.
various other good acts They come under the following four headings: 1. not to show an abnormal behavior when practicing in a quiet place, 2. to practice the four methods of winning people over without expecting any reward, 3. to protect the Right Dharma even at the sacrifice of one's life, and 4. to place the Bodhi-mind above any other good acts.
Vasubandhu The second of the seven masters in the tradition of Jodoshinshu, who thrived about 320 to 400; the founder of the Consciousness-Only school.
vedana Sensations; the seventh of the twelve causations.
Vedic discourse The four Vedas are well-known: Rig, Yajur, Atharva and Sama; the reference mentioned in the Contemplation Sutra is not identified.
Verses on the Middle The fundamental text of the Madhyamika philosophy composed by Nagarjuna; it negates all kinds of affirmative or negative propositions and clarifies the truth of the Middle.
Verses on the Visits of Bodhisattvas to the Pure Land, The verses contained in the second fascicle of the Larger Sutra.
vijnana Consciousness; the third of the twelve causations.
Vikramaditya (King) A contemporary of Vasubandhu and his patron.
Vilincivatsa Vasubandhu's younger brother, who is said to have reached Arhatship.
Vimalakirti Sutra A popular Mahayana sutra which contains anecdotes of the lay-bodhisattva, Vimalakirti.
vipashyana A practice of contemplation.
Vipashyin The first of the eight Buddhas of the past and future.
virtues of Mahasattva Samantabhadra See virtues of Samantabhadra.
Virtue of Samantabhadra Since Samantabhadra represents the bodhisattva practice, all bodhisattvas follow his virtue to accomplish the Buddhist practices.
Vishvabhu The third of the eight Buddhas of the past and future.
Voidness Shunyata in Sanskrit; that there is nothing in the world which has some permanently unchanging substance is a basic principle of Buddhism; all existences are temporary phenomena arising from causes and conditions.
Vow of Sincere Mind and Joyful Faith One of the names for the Eighteenth Vow.
Vow of Three Minds Another name for the Eighteenth Vow.
Vow of Universal Salvation Refers to the Eighteenth Vow.
Vulture Peak The mountain near Rajagriha, capital of Magadha in the time of the Buddha; the present Rajgir.

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water of eight excellent qualities The seven oceans surrounding Mt. Sumeru are also filled with such water. According to the Abhidharmakosha, the eight qualities are as follows: (1) sweet; (2) cool; (3) soft; (4) light; (5) pure; (6) without smell; (7) when one drinks it, it does not harm the throat; and (8) after one has drunk it, it does not harm the stomach.
water-element One of the five elements.
Way The Buddhist Way; Enlightenment.
Way of the Nembutsu-Faith The way of salvation through the Nembutsu-Faith.
webs between the fingers and toes One of the thirty-two physical characteristics of the Buddha.
welcome (Amida's) Amida's coming to welcome a dying person.
Well-Gone 'Sugata' in Skt.; a Blessed One; an epithet for a Buddha.
wheel of the wonderful Dharma The Buddha Dharma keeps moving endlessly like a wheel; also, like the Cakravartin's wheel treasure which crushes enemies, it destroys wrong views.
wheel-turning monarch The ideal king conceived in India, who rules the world with a special kind of wheel that flies in the air and destroys the enemy.
wheel with a thousand spokes See thousand-spoked wheel; one of the thirty-two physical characteristics of a Buddha.
white curl of hair between the eyebrows One of the thirty-two physical characteristics of a Buddha.
White Lotus Society The group of more than a hundred twenty men formed by Hui-yuan to practice meditation on Amida.
white hindrance A slight hindrance to successful visualization of the setting sun.
white lotus Pundarika in Sanskrit; a person of Nembutsu is compared to a white lotus.
white path, a symbolic illustration of Faith which is awakened in the midst of evil passions.
white twist of hair between the eye-brows, one of the thirty-two physical characteristics of the Buddha.
wind-element One of the five elements.
Words on the Dharma at Yokawa A short but pithy exposition of the way of birth in the Pure Land by Genshin; cf. Yokawa-hogo.
world of Brahma The Brahma Heaven in the world of form.
World of Lotus-store Originally Vairocana's land; used for Amida's Pure Land.
world of form One of the three worlds of Samsara.
World of Lotus-store Originally the land of the Buddha Vairocana, but Vasubandhu and Shinran identified it with Amida's Pure Land.
world of non-form The state of existence above the world of form.
World-Honored One 'Bhagavat' in Skt.;an epithet of the Buddha.
World-Sovereign-King The literal meaning of 'Lokeshvararaja,' Amida's teacher when he was a bodhisattva.
worldly path Ordinary courses of action in the secular world which are the cause of transmigration of Samsara.
wrong views on 'existence' and 'non-existence' The two extreme views which Nagarjuna rejected.
Wu-chen Temple The temple on Mt. Chung-nan where Shan-tao lived for several years.
Wu-ti The king of Liang who venerated T'an-luan.

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Yama 'Well regulated'; the third of the six heavens in the world of desire.
Yao-Ch'in dynasty The Later Ch'in dynasty ruled by the Yao family, 384-417.
yellow hindrance The second of the three hindrances which appear when one practices visualization of the setting sun.
Yogacara One of the two major Mahayana schools in India, the other being Madhyamika. This school, founded by Maitreya and developed by Asanga and Vasubandhu, emphasizes meditation on conceivable objects which represent the reality-principle.
Yogacara-Pure Land practice The system of Pure Land practice devised on the basis of the Yogacara practice; specifically refers to Vasubandhu's Five Mindful Practices.
yojana A unit of distance in India, said to be equal to 7 miles, or 9 miles; also the distance which the royal army could march in a day.
Yokawa precinct One of the three centers of Tendai practice on Mt. Hiei; first founded by Ennin (794-864), who lived in Shuryogon'in Hall; Genshin lived in Eshin'in Hall there.


zenjushonin Previous Head Priest.
Zensho Was a disciple of the Buddha. He destroyed the passions belonging to the world of desire, and attained the fourth meditation in the world of form. But by the influence of a wicked friend, he held a wrong view and abused the Buddha. As a result of that, he fell into Avici hell while alive.
zenzenju shonin,Previous-Previous Head Priest.

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