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Land in the Western Quarter Refers to Amida's Pure Land.

Land of Bliss Refers to Amida's Pure Land.

land of form Sodo 相土; one of the two aspects of the Pure Land distinguished by Tao-ch'o.

Land of Immeasurable Light Refers to Amida's Pure Land; muryôkômyôdo 無量光明土.

Land of Indolence and Pride Kemangai 懈慢界; the land of temporary habitation for those who aspire to the Pure Land but, being attached to their own power, cannot fully trust the Other-Power. See kedo.

Land of Infinite Light Refers to Amida's Pure Land; muryôkômyôdo 無量光明土.

Land of Naturalness Refers to Amida's Pure Land, which is perfectly in accord with the ultimate reality, or True Suchness; jinen no do 自然の土.

Land of Nirvana Amida's Pure Land is so called because it is above Samsara and is itself the sphere of Nirvana; see realm of Nirvana.

Land of Nirvanic Bliss Refers to Amida's Pure Land.

Land of Peace and Bliss Refers to Amida's Pure Land; Anraku (Kokudo) 安楽(国土).

Land of Peace and Provision A translation of 'Annyo', which is one of the names of Amida's Pure Land.
land of pure karmic perfection Refers to a Buddha's land.
Land of Recompense The land which comes into existence as the reward for the vows and acts of merits of a bodhisattva; especially refers to Amida's Pure Land.
Land of Unproducedness Refers to Amida's Pure Land, which is above all changes and is itself identical with Nirvana.
Land of Utmost Bliss 'Sukhavati' in Skt., meaning 'endowed with happiness'; Amitabha's land is so called because those living there are free of afflictions and enjoy the supreme bliss of Nirvana. His land, usually called 'the Pure Land,' is the reward for the long course of practice which he performed when he was a bodhisattva called 'Dharmakara' (Dharma-store). Although its glorious splendor is described in physical terms in the sutras, this land is above all forms and concepts. It is the sphere of pure spiritual activity; those born there are awakened to the ultimate reality and compassion spontaneously arises in them. In other words, having become bodhisattvas, they participate in Amitabha's endless work of delivering beings from delusions and sufferings.
land of no-birth The term used by T'an-luan to refer to the ultimate nature of the Pure Land, which is void and non-substantial.
land of non-form One of the two aspects of the Pure Land distinguished by Tao-ch'o.
Lankavatara Sutra A sutra which contains various Mahayana theories, such as eight consciousnesses, and is used by the Hosso and Zen sects as one of their canonical texts.
Larger Sutra Abbr. of the Larger Sukhavativyuha Sutra, or the Sutra on the Buddha of Infinite Life, which is the basic canon of Pure Land Buddhism.
last Dharma-age The last of the three Dharma-ages, i.e. the age of Decadent Dharma, in which there still exists the Buddha's teaching and no one practices it in the true sense of the term and attains emancipation; the duration of this age is ten thousand years.
law of karma The universal law that governs the relationship between one's acts and their effects; the law of cause and effect.
law of salvation Amida's saving activity does not deviate from the universal truth; it is perfectly in agreement with the law of karma.
li A Chinese measure of length equal to 360 paces, or about 1890 feet (Matthews). Used in the Larger Sutra to translate the Indian unit of measurement yojana; a comparison between the Chinese and the Sanskrit texts shows that one yojana is equivalent to 250 li in chapters 15 and 28, and to 2500 li in chapters 7 and 15.
Light Outshining the Sun and the Moon One of the twelve lights of Amida Buddha.
Light of Joy One of the twelve lights of Amida Buddha.
Light of Wisdom One of the twelve lights of Amida Buddha.
lineage of Dharma-transmission The line of transmission of a particular teaching of the Buddha.
Liturgy for Birth A work by Shan-tao; a collection of passages and hymns with comments from Pure Land sutras and discourses, arranged for chanting purposes.
Lokaksema A monk from Central Asia, who went to Lo-yang in 147 and produced Mahayana sutras, including the oldest Chinese version of the Larger Sutra.
Lokeshvararaja The name of the Buddha who led Dharmakara to awaken Bodhi-Mind.
long and broad tongue One of the physical characteristics of a Buddha; as described in the Smaller Sutra, numerous Buddhas in the ten directions recommend the teaching of this sutra, each extending his tongue and covering the whole universe with it; such hyperbolic metaphors are often found in the sutras; cf. thirty-two physical characteristics.
Lord of Saha world An epithet for Mahabrahma, who reigns over the First Dhyana Heaven in the realm of form.
loss of everything Falling into the stages of a shravaka and a pratyekabuddha is so described.
Lotus Sutra The common abbreviation of the Lotus of Wonderful Dharma Sutra; the fundamental scripture of the Tendai and Nichiren sects.
Luan Lit. phoenix; refers to T'an-luan.
Lung-men The name of a place in Ho-nan Province, well-known for its cave temples.

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Madhyamika The School of the Middle; the Mahayana school founded on Nagarjuna's Verse on the Middle and other discourses, which teach that nothing really exists and no positive statement concerning the nature of things is possible.
Madhyamika doctrine The Madhyamika doctrine of total negativism does not teach simple negation as opposed to affirmation, but rejects all kinds of negation; such a standpoint is described as 'the Middle' or 'the Middle Path.'
Madhyamika-Pure Land master Refers to T'an-luan, who upheld the Pure Land teaching while maintaining the Madhyamika standpoint.
Magadha An ancient country in central India, in the present Bihar district.
Mahakashyapa The foremost of the Buddha's disciples; appointed by the Buddha as his successor; also renowned as the first patriarch of Zen and for his strict observance of the rules for frugal living.
Mahasattva A great being; used as a synonym of bodhisattva.
Mahasthamaprapta Lit. 'one who has great power'; a bodhisattva well-known as an attendant of Amida; he represents Amida's wisdom.
Mahavairocana The central Buddha in esoteric Buddhism.
Mahayana 'The Great Vehicle'; one of the two major schools of Buddhism, the other being Hinayana, or Theravada. Mahayana aims at bringing all sentient beings to Buddhahood. Followers of Mahayana are called 'bodhisattvas.' 'enlightenment-beings.' At the outset of their career, they make vows to save all beings, and in order to realize them, cultivate wisdom and accumulate merits. When their vows are fulfilled, they become Buddhas. Although historical evidence shows that Mahayana arose a few centuries after the Buddha's death, Mahayanists believe that the essential part of the Mahayana teaching was revealed by the Buddha.
Maitreya Lit. 'the friendly'; the bodhisattva of the highest stage now dwelling in the Tusita Heaven; after the end of his life there, he will appear in this world to become the next Buddha.
Majestically Flaming Light One of the twelve lights of Amida.
mandarava Also mandara; a kind of heavenly flower, beautiful to look at and pleasure-giving.
mani See the next entry.
Mani-jewel A precious gem of a globular shape with a short pointed top.
mara A devil, an adversary, a demon; there are four kinds of demons in Buddhism: (1) evil passions, (2) the five constituent elements of one's existence, (3) death, and (4) the king of maras inhabiting the Sixth Heaven in the world of desire.
Manjushri 'Beauty and glory'; a bodhisattva who represents the wisdom and enlightenment of all Buddhas. He is usually portrayed mounted on a lion attending on Shakyamuni's left hand.
maras' evil acts Various acts of the maras to cause hindrances to bodhisattvas and thwart their attempt to realize the Buddhist ideals.
mark of a thousand-spoked wheel One of the thirty-two physical characteristics of the Buddha; this mark is seen on the sole of his foot; cf. thirty-two physical characteristics.
Master of Discourse Especially refers to Vasubandhu, the author of the Discourse on the Pure Land.
material Dana Giving gifts to the needy; one of the two kinds of Dana, the other being Dharma Dana.
medicinal plant In practicing Dana, one should consider one's body as a medicinal plant and give away any part of the body as if every part of the medicinal plant could be used as medicine.
Meditation of Vast and Universal Tranquillity The samadhi which bodhisattvas of the ninth stage enter before preaching the Dharma.
method of concentration on visualizing the sun Shan-tao's explanation of the first of the thirteen contemplations presented in the Contemplation Sutra.
Mind of Great Joy Refers to Faith of the Other-Power, shinjin.
minor bodhisattvas Those bodhisattvas below the 7th stage, who have not yet attained unrestricted power to benefit themselves and others.
miscellaneous acts Various acts of merits done for the purpose of attaining birth in the Pure Land; since they are primarily non-Pure Land acts and are based on the practicer's impure motives, they are to be discarded in preference to the Five Right Acts.
miscellaneous acts of virtue Same as above.
miscellaneous practices Same as above.
mixed practice The term given to mixed practice of Right Acts and Auxiliary Acts.
Mleccha, a barbarian.
most excellent person, one of the five names used by Shan-tao to describe a person of Nembutsu.
Most Holy One of all Sages An epithet of the Buddha.
Most Honored One An epithet of the Buddha.
Most Honored One among human and heavenly beings, an epithet of the Buddha.
Most Honored One in the Three Worlds An epithet of the Buddha.
Most Revered One in the World An epithet of the Buddha.
Most Valiant One An epithet of the Buddha.
Mount Lanka The mountain where the Lankavatara Sutra was expounded; identified with Adam's Peak in south-western part of Sri Lanka.
Mount Sumeru The highest mountain rising from the center of the world; it has four sides and is narrowest in the middle; it is surrounded by eight mountain-ranges, and in the ocean between the seventh and the eighth there are four continents inhabited by humans.
Mt. Chung-nan The mountain in the outskirts of Chang-an where Shan-tao lived for several years.
Mt. Hiei The mountain to the north-east of Kyoto where there is the center of Tendai school.
Mt. Lu A mountain in Chiang-hsi Province where Hui-yuan formed the White Lotus Society to practice meditation on Amida.
Mt. T'ien-t'ai A mountain in Che-chiang Province well-known as the center of T'ien-t'ai school.
myoga Miraculous protection.
myokonin 'An excellent, wonderful man'; one of the five words of high praise used by Shan-tao for a Nembutsu follower; later in Japan, this word came to be used for devout Shin followers of distinguished acts but, frequently, of little education.
myokoninden Lives of Wondrous and Inspiring People.

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naga tree The Bodhi-tree under which Maitreya will become a Buddha.
Na-mo-o-mi-t'o-fo The Chinese reading of the sacred Name of Amitabha, meaning 'Homage to Amita Buddha' or 'I take refuge in Amita Buddha'; cf. Amita.
Narayana 'The son of the original man'; a Vajra god with enormous physical power.
nayuta A high number said to be equal to 10 million, or 100 billion.
net of evil passions Ordinary beings are caught in the strong net of evil passions which they produce.
net of wrong views An intricate net of various wrong views in which ordinary beings are inescapably caught.
Nagarjuna (2nd to 3rd centuries); a great exponent of Mahayana and the founder of the Madhyamika School; the first of the seven masters of Shin Buddhism.
nama-rupa 'Name and form'; the fourth of the twelve causations; 'name' refers to immaterial elements of one's existence, and 'form', to material elements; together they constitute an individual existence.
Namo 'mitabhaya A Sanskrit phrase of adoration to Amida, meaning 'I take refuge in Amitabha' or 'Adoration to Amitabha.'
Name The Name in Shin Buddhism is not simply Amida's name, but 'Namu Amida Butsu.'
namu Originally a Sanskrit word meaning 'I take refuge in' or 'adoration to'; in the Name, this word refers to Faith awakened in the devotee's mind by the Other-Power.
Namu Amida Butsu 'I take refuge in Amida Buddha'; the most important element of salvation in Pure Land Buddhism; when vocally pronounced, this is the Nembutsu, and when received in the mind, it is Faith. In Shan-tao's interpretation, 'Namu' refers to the devotee's 'vow' (aspiration) and 'Amida Butsu', 'practice' (merits or saving power), the two pivotal elements required for one's salvation.
Nara period The period when Japan's capital was in Nara, 710-94; in this period Buddhism thrived under the protection of the state.
Naturalness (ultimate state of) Things as they really are; as-it-is-ness; True Suchness; the ultimate reality which is only intuitively known with the wisdom of Enlightenment.
Naturalness of the Way Spontaneity of Buddha-Dharma; the transcendent state and activity of True Suchness which are free of human calculations.
nayuta A high number said to be equal to 10 million, or 100 billion.
Nembutsu Recitation of the Name, 'Namu Amida Butsu'; meditation on Amida; Amida's saving activity which finds its expression in one's mind and body. In its relation to Faith, Nembutsu is spontaneous self-expression of Faith.
Nembutsu of the Best-selected Primal Vow The phrase used by Honen to refer to the Nembutsu of the Eighteenth Vow.
Nembutsu of the Other-Power The Nembutsu practiced in accord with Amida's Vow; the Nembutsu which spontaneously comes to one's lips from the depth of Faith; the Nembutsu as such is considered as an expression of one's gratitude to Amida.
Nembutsu Samadhi Concentrated practice of reciting the Nembutsu while thinking on Amida, through which one attains unity with Amida; also used in the sense of visualization of Amida in a trance-like state.
Nembutsu shoshin ge The title of the Hymn of Nembutsu and True Faith that is contained in Shinran's Collection of Passages Concerning the Pure Land (Jodo monrui jusho).
Nembutsu-Faith The Nembutsu and Faith are inseparable; they are given as one to the devotee.
Nembutsu-assisting actions (seven) They were established by Genshin in his Collection of Essential Passages Concerning Birth in the Pure Land.
nexus of causal relationships Refers to the twelve causations.
nine grades of aspirants They are distinguished in the Contemplation Sutra; in Shinran's view, they are provisional divisions, which cease to exist when the aspirants are born in the True Land of Recompense.
nigrodha tree The Bodhi-tree under which Kashyapa became a Buddha.
nine elements of virtue 1. forbearance, 2. great mercy, 3. great compassion, 4. wisdom, 5. mindfulness, 6. resolute mind, 7. absence of greed, 8. absence of anger and 9. absence of stupidity.
nine faults 1. not wishing to hear the teaching of Bodhi, 2. not believing in it even if one hears it, 3. not accepting it in mind even if one believes in it, 4. not chanting it even if one accepts it, 5. not understanding the meaning of it even if one chants it, 6. not expounding it to others even if one understands the meaning of it, 7. not practicing the teaching as prescribed even if one expounds it to others, 8. not practicing it continuously even if one practices it, and 9. not practicing it well even if one practices it continuously.
nine kinds of karma Evil acts by the body, speech and mind produce three kinds of retribution: retribution in the present life, in the next life and in the life after next.
Nirmanakaya 'Transformed body' of the Buddha.
Nirvana The final goal of Buddhist aspiration and endeavor, where evil passions are extinguished and the highest wisdom attained; often translated as 'Extinction' or 'Tranquility'; in the Mahayana, Nirvana is not a nihilistic or static state, but is the state of eternity, bliss, freedom and purity; it is the sphere of activities of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.
Nirvana Sutra The popular title of the Sutra on the Great Extinction; the Mahayana account of the Buddha's passing away. The sutra also explains the eternal presence of the Buddha and the inherence of Buddha-nature in every living being.
Nirvanic Bliss The state of the highest bliss that attends Nirvana.
Nirvanic Dharma-body of true wisdom The term used by Vasubandhu in his Discourse on the Pure Land to describe the ultimate reality into which all the glorious manifestations of Amida, his Pure Land and bodhisattvas enter.
Nirvanic Pure Land Amida's Pure Land which is perfectly in accord with Nirvana.
non-dual equality In the eye of the Buddha's wisdom, all existing things, animate or inanimate, have the absolute value and so are undifferentiated.
non-meditative acts of merits Meritorious acts done in the ordinary state of mind which is not concentrated on a particular object.
Non-retrogression See Stage of Non-retrogression.
non-retrogressive bodhisattvas The bodhisattvas in the Stage of Non-retrogression.
nyagrodha The Banyan or Indian fig-tree, Ficus Indica; fibers descend from its branches to the earth and there take root and form new stems.

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okite Rules of conduct.
Omniscience All-knowing wisdom of the Buddha.
On the Meaning of Meditative Good Acts The third fascicle of the four-fascicle commentary on the Contemplation Sutra by Shan-tao.
One Mind The single-minded trust in Amida which Vasubandhu professed in his Hymn of Aspiration for Birth in the Pure Land; in Shinran's interpretation, the One Mind is the same as the Three Minds, or the three aspects of Faith of the Eighteenth Vow.
One Thought and Many Callings A work by Shinran when he was 85 years of age, in which he quotes from Ryukan's work to show that one should not be attached to either one thought of Faith or many sayings of the Nembutsu.
One-Vehicle teaching The single path to Enlightenment for all living beings; ekayana in Sk.; this is the supreme teaching of all Mahayana ways; the Lotus Sutra has been widely accepted as the sutra that sets forth the One-Vehicle teaching. In Shinran's view, the Larger Sutra ranks above the Lotus Sutra, because it presents the way of attaining Buddhahood for all sentient beings, even the most wicked people.
One-Vehicle teaching of the Primal Vow Shin Buddhism is the way of salvation originating from Amida's Primal Vow, which is firmly grounded in the One-Vehicle teaching.
Oneness, a synonym of True Suchness; the ultimate truth and reality which is undivided and perfect by itself.
Original Vows The vows which bodhisattvas make when they resolve to become Buddhas and save all sentient beings; in the Pure Land sutras they refer to Dharmakara's 48 Vows.
Other Shore The other shore of the stream of transmigration; the state of emancipation, i.e., Nirvana, beyond the realm of Samsara.
Other-Power Amida's saving power originating from his Primal Vow.
Other-Power Faith The Faith awakened by Amida's Power.
Other-Power Way The way of attaining Enlightenment through the Other-Power.

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palace of the Heaven of Free Enjoyment of Others' Manifestations The palace of the Sixth Heaven in the world of desire, where it is believed that the king of maras dwells; cf. Heaven of Free Enjoyment of Others' Manifestations.
Pao-yun The Chinese monk who is believed to have assisted in producing the authentic translation of the Larger Sutra.
Parable of Two Rivers of Greed and Anger A well-known parable used by Shan-tao to demonstrate how a man full of evil passions awakens Faith and attains salvation.
paramita Popularly construed as 'gone to the other shore,' 'salvation' and 'perfection'; see Six Paramitas.
Parent Corresponds to the Japanese 'Oyasama', which is frequently used to refer to Amida who compassionately cares for us and guides us to salvation.
parinama The Sanskrit for 'merit-transference'.
Parinirvana 'Complete Nirvana'; in common usage, refers to Shakyamuni's death.
Path of Difficult Practice One of the two kinds of practice distinguished by Nagarjuna, the other being the Path of Easy Practice; this is the ordinary bodhisattva practice that involves painstaking efforts for a long period.
Path of Easy Practice See Easy Practice.
Path of Elixir The path to Nirvana.
Path of Sages One of the two approaches to Buddhahood distinguished by Tao-ch'o, the other being Pure Land Path; this is the path of difficult practice which only sages of high spiritual capacity can successfully follow.
path of the ten evil acts See ten evil acts.
path of the ten good acts See ten good acts.
Peace and Bliss Another name for the land of Amitabha; see Land of Utmost Bliss.
Peerless Honored One in the Three Worlds An epithet of the Buddha.
Peerless King of the Excellent Dharma An epithet of the Buddha.
pentatonic scales The five tones of the ancient Chinese musical scale: kung, shang, chiao, wei and yu; they respectively correspond to the five elements: earth, metal, wood, fire and water.
Perfected One 'Sugata' in Skt., meaning 'well-gone'; a Blessed One; an epithet for a Buddha.
Perfectly Enlightened One One of the ten titles of the Buddha.
philosophy of Voidness The Mahayana teaching which stresses that all existing things are devoid of substantiality and so are merely manifestations from causes and conditions; especially, refers to the Madhyamika doctrine.
Perfect in Wisdom and Conduct One of the ten epithets of the Buddha.
period of cosmic change 'Kalpa' in Skt.; the four periods of cosmic change are repeated endlessly: (1) the period of creation, (2) the period during which the world continues to exist, (3) the period of destruction during which various realms, from hell to the First Dhyana Heaven in the world of form, are destroyed successively by fire, water and wind, and (4) the period of annihilation during which no material forms exist; the duration of each period is 20 small kalpas.
physical body, a physical manifestation of the Buddha.
physical characteristics and marks The 32 physical characteristics and 80 minor marks of excellence of the Buddha; see thirty-two physical characteristics and 80 secondary marks.
Pindola-Bharadvaja 'Pindola, the skylark'; also Pindola-Bharadvaja; n. of a disciple of the Buddha.
Possessed of Great Power 'Mahasthamaprapta' in Skt.; n. of one of the two bodhisattvas attending Amitabha.
Prajna Wisdom, especially the wisdom of realizing non-substantiality of all that exists; transcendent wisdom.
Prajnaparamita Perfection of wisdom; one of the Six Paramitas; see Six Paramitas.
Prajnaparamita Sutra A group of sutras that explain voidness of all things.
Prasada Pure and serene faith.
Pratityasamutpada Dependent origination; the Buddhist principle that explains inter-relatedness of all that exists.
pratyekabuddha 'A solitary Buddha'; one of the two kinds of Hinayana sages who seek to attain Nirvana and become arhats; the other kind is the shravaka. A pratyekabuddha is a type of mendicant who attains emancipation by observing the principle of twelve causations without a teacher's guidance.
Pratyutpanna Samadhi, the samadhi presented in the Pratyutpanna-samadhi Sutra; the Samadhi of Being in the Presence of the Present Buddhas; if one concentrates on Amida according to the method prescribed in this sutra, one can visualize Amida and other Buddhas.
precepts for a novice The ten precepts which a novice (shramanera) must observe prior to his receiving the 250 precepts to become a monk; see ten precepts.
precepts of abstinence See eight precepts of abstinence.
prediction Refers to the prediction which a bodhisattva receives from Buddhas regarding his attainment of Buddhahood in the future.
Primal Vow-Power The endless power produced by Amida's Primal Vow to fulfill it.
Pratyutpanna Samadhi Sutra The sutra that explains the Pratyutpanna Samadhi; see Sutra on the Samadhi of All Buddhas' Appearance.
psycho-physical energy An expression used to explain karma or karmic power.
pundarika A white lotus; a person of the Nembutsu is compared to a white lotus, because he is free from worldly defilements.
pure Dana The Dana as it should be performed.
pure Dharma-eye Refers to the wisdom of realizing the Fourfold Noble Truth at the initial stage of a Hinayana sage.
Pure Faith The mind which completely trusts Amida; shinjin; it is pure because it is not mixed with or defiled by our self-attachment and evil passions and is itself Amida's Heart and Mind.
pure karma Such acts as the bodhisattvas' Six Paramitas are free of selfish motivations and defiled passions, and so they are called pure karma.
pure karmic activity Refers to Amida's boundless and endless activity which is in accord with True Suchness and so is absolutely pure.
Pure Land Any Buddha's land is called 'pure land,' but it usually refers to Amitabha's land, called 'Sukhavati,' the Land of Utmost Bliss; it is the physical manifestation of the supreme merit which Dharmakara attained by accomplishing the bodhisattva's practices for many aeons.
Pure Land Buddhism The general term for the school of Buddhism which centers around Amida and his Pure Land. It emerged in India as an intrinsic part of Mahayana Buddhism, and the sutras explaining its teaching were compiled from around the beginning of our common era, although its origin is traced back to Shakyamuni's Enlightenment. Pure Land Buddhism developed in India, attained further development and popularity in China and Tibet, and bore illustrious fruitions in Japan as Honen's Jodoshu and Shinran's Jodoshinshu.
Pure Land mandalas The mandalas depicting Amida and his Pure Land based on the Pure Land sutras.
Pure Land meditation, meditation on the Pure Land, which, according to the Contemplation Sutra, consists of 13 visualizations.
Pure Land of Naturalness Amida's Pure Land is perfectly in accord with the ultimate reality, which is described as True Suchness, Dharma-nature, Naturalness, etc.
Pure Land of Recompense The Pure Land is the result of Dharmakara's vows and acts of merit.
Pure Land Path One of the two approaches to Buddhahood distinguished by Tao-ch'o, the other being Path of Sages; this is the way of attaining Enlightenment after birth in the Pure Land.
Pure Land practices The practices required for the attainment of birth in the Pure Land. Vasubandhu presented the Five Mindful Practices and Shan-tao systematized the Five Right Acts.
Pure Land system The system of practice and faith established as the way to the Pure Land.
Pure Land Way The way to birth in the Pure Land.
Pure Person An epithet of the Buddha.
pure precepts Impeccable observance of the precept.
Purnamaitrayaniputra 'Son of Purna-maitrayani (abundant friendliness)'; one of the ten great disciples of the Buddha renowned for his skill in expounding the teaching.
purple-gold The gold said to be obtained from the river running through the mango forest; cf. Jambu River.
Purusapura, the town in Northern India where Vasubandhu was born.

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Rahula 'A fetter'; the Buddha's son who later became his disciple; renowned for his strict observance of all the monastic rules.
Rajagriha The capital of Magadha at the time of the Buddha; the present Rajgir.
ratna, treasure.
Ratnacandra The seeker of the Buddhist Way who appears as the chief interlocutor in the Hogatsudoji-shomongyo.
realm of asuras, one of the six lower states of existence, where asuras, fighting spirits, inhabit; see six realms.
realm of Nirvana
Recompensed Body Sk. sambhogakaya; the Buddha's glorious bodily manifestation as the result of the meritorious acts which he did when he was a bodhisattva.
Recompensed Land The Buddha's land or sphere of activity which has been naturally produced as the result of his meritorious acts.
Record of Attainment of Samadhi A record of Honen's mysterious experience of Amida Samadhi during the period, 1198 to 1206. It is believed that Honen himself wrote this but kept it secret; after his death, his disciple Genchi published this.
Retainers of the Dharma Refers to bodhisattvas, who attend to the Buddha like the retainers of a king.
'Returning' aspect One of the two aspects of Amida's merit-transference for universal salvation; this is the aspect of enabling us to return the world of Samsara to save other beings; cf. 'Going forth' aspect.
Right Dharma The Buddha-Dharma; the Buddha's teaching.
right mindedness The correct state of mind in which one is properly directed to and united with the Buddha.
Right Path The way to Buddhahood.
Rite for the Samadhi for (Transcending) Twenty-five (States of Samsara) The rules set up by Genshin for the monthly Nembutsu gathering.
river of birth-and-death Samsara which is also compared to the sea.
river of fire One of the two rivers in the Parable of Two Rivers and the White Path employed by Shan-tao to show how one awakens Faith in the midst of evil passions; fire symbolizes anger.
river of water See above; water symbolizes greed.
rusushiki Caretaker of Otani memorial.
ryogemon Statement of Conviction.
Ryogen A Tendai monk and Genshin's teacher (912-85).

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