Site 9

Bodhisattva

Biographies of
@Dharma Masters


Go to: Site 1 -  Jodo Mandala; Site 2 - Dharma TreasurySite 3 - Sukhavati;
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Anne ˆÀŒd@Sk. Sthiramati; c. 470-550; an Indian master of the Yogacara school (Yugagyoha); one of the ten great masters of the Consciousness-Only doctrine (judaironji). His doctrinal standpoint is called the 'theory of Consciousness-Only that possesses no perceptive form' (nirakara-vijnana-vadin, muso-yuishikiha –³‘Š—BŽ¯”h), which negates the existence of objects of perception and subjective perceptive aspect. His works include the Commentary on the Thirty Verses of Consciousness-Only (Yuishiki-sanjujushaku —BŽ¯ŽO\èñŽß), the Commentary on the Discourse Distinguishing the Middle and the Extreme Views (Chuhen-funbetsuron-shakusho ’†•Ó•ª•Ê˜_Žß‘`) and the Commentary on the Adornment of Mahayana Sutras (Daiiji-shogonkyoronshaku ‘åæ‘‘ŒµŒo˜_Žß).

Atisha ƒAƒeƒB[ƒVƒƒ@Sk. Atisa; 980-1052; his Buddhist name was Dipamkara-sri-jnana ('Auspicious Wisdom of Lamp-maker'). Born of a royal family in Bengal, he began to study esoteric Buddhism in his youth and later won people's respect as a great master in Magadha. When Tibetan Buddhism was in danger of collapse owing to the persecution by Lan-daruma (Glan Darma), King Kor-re (Khor-re) of western Tibet invited Atisa to come to Tibet. He refused once, but after the king's death he came to Tibet during the reign of King U-de (hod-lde). He renovated Buddhism by removing the degenerate esoteric tendency which was widely practiced at that time and introducing the orthodox teaching and practice of Indian Buddhism. Thus he established the Ka-dam-pa (Bkah gdams-pa) school.

Bencho •Ù’·@Shokobo Bencho ¹Œõ–[•Ù’·; 1162-1238; one of the leading disciples of Honen, and was later known as Chinzei Shonin ’Á¼ãl. He first went to Mt. Hiei in 1183 and studied Tendai under Kan'ei ŠÏ‰b and Shoshin Ø^, but returned to his native place in Kyushu in 1190. Seven years later, he went to Kyoto and became Honen's disciple. After having received the nembutsu teaching, he spread it in Shikoku for a while. From 1204 until death he actively propagated this teaching in Kyushu. Bencho's school of the Jodo sect came to be known as Chinzei. Today Chion-in ’m‰¶‰@ in Kyoto is its general head temple (sohonzan ‘–{ŽR), and the famous Zojoji ‘ãŽ› in Tokyo is one of the major head temples (daihonzan ‘å–{ŽR). After Honen's death there was among his disciples a tendency to deviations from his teaching. Seeing this, Bencho emphasized repeated recitation of the nembutsu as the authentic practice of the Jodo school. On the other hand, with his Tendai background, Bencho considered the nembutsu and other practices as essentially the same because both originated from True Suchness (shinnyo). In his view, those who are better fit for other practices should be encouraged to follow them, because they are also eligible for birth in the Pure Land.

Bodaidaruma •ì’ñ’B–@Sk. Bodhidharma; the first patriarch of Zen in China. Originally, a man from south India, said to be the third son of a king. After studying Buddhism under Prajnatara (Hannyatara ”ʎᑽ—…) and receiving from him the transmission of Zen, he propagated Mahayana in India. Later in 520, according to tradition, he went to China. After his interview with Emperor Wu-ti •’é (Butei), he went to Shao-lin-ssu Temple ­—ÑŽ› (Shorinji) on Mt. Sung “ŽR (Suzan), where he sat unmoving day and night. There he took as his disciple Hui-k'o Œd‰Â (Eka), who thus became the Second Patriarch. He died in 528 or, according to another tradition, in 536, and was posthumously given the title of Yuan-chueh Ta-shih ‰~Šo‘åŽt (Engaku Daishi, Master 'Perfect Enlightenment') by Emperor Tai-tsung ‘ã@ (Daiso) of the T'ang dynasty (618-907).

Buddagosa ƒuƒbƒ_ƒS[ƒT@P. Buddhaghosa; a great Buddhist master of about the 5th century; translated in Chinese as •§‰¹ Button ('Buddha's Voice') and Šo‰¹ Kakuon ('Enlightened Voice'); originally a native of south India. While traveling in the country, he encountered a Buddhist monk named Revata, under whom he was ordained. Later he met Elders Buddhamitta and Jotipala of the Mahavihara school, which afforded him an opportunity to study Sinhalese Buddhism. In about the latter half of the 420's, he crossed to Sri Lanka and visited the Mahavihara Temple. He then studied classical Sinhalese commentaries and the doctrine of this school. He undertook to translate those texts into Pali. But, several years later, when King Mahanama died and there arose social unrest caused by the invasion of the Tamils, Buddhaghosa left Sri Lanka. It is not known how he spent the rest of his life but a large amount of works, especially the commentaries of the Pali Tipitaka, known as atthakatha, have been ascribed to him. Seven works are reasonably attributed to his authorship, which include: 1) Visuddhi-magga (Path of Purity) and 2) Samantha-pasadika (Completely Serene), a commentary on the Vinaya Pitaka. His works have continued to represent the standard doctrines of the Theravada.

Buddhaguhuya ƒuƒbƒ_ƒOƒtƒ„@Sk. Buddhaguhya; also, Buddhagupta; the 8th to the 9th century; one of the three greatest masters of Indian esoteric Buddhism; well known as the commentator of the Mahavairocana Sutra and the first assembly of the Vajra Peak Sutra. When King Khri-sron-lde-btsan invited him to Tibet, the master was unable to accept the invitation because he was practicing the Way in Mt. Kailasa at that time. It is said that his teacher was Jnanapada who flourished in the latter half of the 8th century or Vimalamitra, in the early 9th century. His works include the following: 1) Vairocanabhisambodhi-tantra-pindartha (Compendium of the Tantra of Vairocana's Enlightenment), 2) Vairocanabhisambodhi-vikurvitadhisthana-mahatantra-bhasya (Commentary on the Great Tantra of Transformed Empowerment of Vairocana's Enlightenment), and 3) Tantrarthavatara (Entry into the Meaning of Tantra).

Buttocho •§}Ÿ@Ch. Fu T'u-ch'eng, Sk. Buddhacinga?; 235-348; a monk from Kucha. He entered the priesthood when young and studied Buddhism in Kashmir and elsewhere. He is said to have memorized a few million words from the sutras. He came to Lo-yang in 310 and engaged in spreading the Dharma. At first, he was not very successful but, after converting the first king of the Later Chao (Œãæâ Gocho) dynasty, Shih Le ÎèÓ (Sekiroku) (273-332), and becoming his advisor, Fu T'u-ch'eng's missionary work became fruitful. Under the patronage of the third emperor, Shih Hu ÎŒÕ (Sekiko) ( -349), he participated in the government administration. When spreading Buddhism, he is said to have displayed miraculous powers. In 38 years, he constructed 892 temples. Through his effort, native Chinese were allowed to become monks. He had several hundred disciples, including Tao-an “¹ˆÀ (Doan), Chu Fa-t'ai Ž±–@‘¿ (Jiku Hota), Fa-he –@˜a (Howa), and Fa-ch'ang –@í (Hojo), who contributed a great deal to the development of Buddhism during the Eastern Tsin (“ŒW Toshin) dynasty (317-420).

Chigi ’qŸœ@Ch. Chih-i (538-597), Master of the T'ien-t'ai School. Born in Ching-chou ŒtB (Keishu) in Hunan Province (ŒÎ“ìÈ Konansho, Hunansheng), he entered the priesthood at the age of eighteen. In 560, he went to Mt. Ta-su ‘å‘hŽR (Daisozan) and met Hui-ssu ŒdŽv (Eji), under whose guidance he diligently practiced the Way and finally attained the 'Dharma-Lotus Samadhi' (Hokke-zanmai). Later he went to Mt. T'ien-t'ai in Chechiang Province (Ÿ´]È Sekkosho, Zhejiangsheng), where he built a temple called Hsiu-ch'an C‘T (Shuzen). By imperial order, he went to Chin-ling ‹à—Ë (Kinryo) to give a series of lectures on the Lotus Sutra, the Benevolent King Prajnaparamita Sutra (Ninno-hannyakyo), the Perfection of Wisdom Discourse (Chidoron), etc. His lectures on the Lotus Sutra and his discourse on Mahayana meditation delivered at the Yu-ch'uan Temple ‹ÊòŽ› (Gyokusenji) were later edited by his disciples, and became the fundamental texts of the T'ien-t'ai School. Chih-i systematized the T'ien-t'ai doctrine which centered on the Lotus Sutra. The following works are celebrated as the Three Great Works (sandaibu ŽO‘å•”): Essentials of the Lotus Sutra (–@‰ØŒº‹` Hokkegengi), Commentary on the Lotus Sutra (–@‰Ø•¶‹å Hokkemongu), and Mahayana Practice of Cessation and Contemplation (–€ædŽ~ŠÏ Makashikan). His critical classification of the Buddhist teachings, known as 'Five periods, eight teachings' (goji hakkyo ŒÜŽž”ª‹³) had a great influence on the doctrinal formations of various other schools. As a practical method of salvation, Chih-i had deep devotion to Amida and practiced the 'Constant Walking Samadhi' (jogyo-zanmai) based on the Pratyutpanna Samadhi Sutra (Hanju-zanmaikyo). According to his biography, at his death he lay facing west, repeating the names of Amida, Prajnaparamita, and Kannon. Then he had a disciple recite the titles of the Lotus Sutra and the Larger Sutra. Having heard them, he composed a verse, urging his disciples to aspire for birth in the Pure Land, and said that his dead teachers and friends all came with Kannon to welcome him to the Pure Land.

Chigon ’q™V@Ch. Chih-yen (602-668); the second patriarch of the Chinese Kegon school; popularly called Master Shih-hsiang ŽŠ‘Š‘åŽt (Shiso Daishi) and Yun-hua Tsu-che ‰_‰Ø‘¸ŽÒ (Unke Sonja); he was born in Kan-su Province (ŠÃlÈ Kanshukusho, Gansusheng). At the age of 12, he became Tu-shun's “m‡ (Tojun) disciple, and also learned various Buddhist traditions under different teachers. He attained deep understanding of the Garland philosophy, especially the infinite, universal co-relatedness, and perfect fusion of all existence, and, at the age of 27, under the instruction of a divine sage, wrote a celebrated commentary on the Garland Sutra: Commentary Revealing the Essentials of the Garland Sutra (‰ØŒµŒo‘{Œº‹L Kegongyo-sogenki). Dwelling at Shih-hsiang Temple ŽŠ‘ŠŽ› (Shisoji) on Mt. Chung-nan I“ìŽR (Shunanzan) and Yun-hua Temple ‰_‰ØŽ› (Unkeji) in Lo-yang —Œ—z, he propagated the Garland teaching on which he wrote more than twenty works, including An Inquiry into the Garland Sutra (‰ØŒµE–ÚÍ Kegon-kumokusho), which consolidated the foundation of the grand doctrinal system accomplished by the third patriarch, Fa-tsang –@‘  (Hozo). At the time of death, he said to his disciples, "I will go to the Pure Land now, and later visit the Lotus-Store World. You should all follow me."@

Chirei ’m—ç@Ch. Chih-li; Ssu-ming Chih-li Žl–¾’m—ç (Shimei Chirei); 960-1028; the seventeenth patriarch of the T'ien-t'ai school; the most distinguished T'ien-t'ai monk in the Sung dynasty, celebrated as the one who revived the T'ien-t'ai school. Born in Ssu-ming Žl–¾ in Chechiang Province (Ÿ´]È Sekkosho, Zhejiangsheng) and bereft of his mother at the age of seven, he became a monk. At twenty, he studied T'ien-t'ai under I-t'ung (‹`’Ê Gitsu) and became an intimate friend of Tsun-shih (…Ž® Junshiki). In 991 he was given the Ch'ien-fu Temple Š£•„Ž› (Kenfuji), where he taught students of T'ien-t'ai. Later, he moved to the Yen-ch'ing Temple ‰„ŒcŽ› (Enkeiji) and extensively propagated the teaching of the Mountain-family school (Sangeha). Before he died, he assembled his disciples and gave them his last sermon. After reciting the nembutsu a few hundred times, he passed away. He wrote many works, including a commentary on the Contemplation Sutra.@

Doan “¹ˆÀ@Ch. Tao An; 312-385; the central figure in the Buddhist movement during the Eastern Tsin (“ŒWToshin) dynasty (317-420). Born in a Confucian family, he became a disciple of Fu T'u-ch'eng •§}Ÿ (Buttocho). After moving about the country with the master and his fellow-disciples because of social disturbances, he disseminated the Dharma at Hsiang-yang åõ—z (Joyo) in Hu-pei Province (ŒÎ–kÈ Kohokusho, Hubeisheng) for fifteen years. He was invited to Ch'ang-an by Fu Chien 䘌˜ (Fuken) (338-385) and became his advisor. It was through his recommendation to the king that Kumarajiva (Kumaraju) was invited to China from Kucha. His contribution to Buddhism was enormous. He compiled a valuable bibliography of Buddhist scriptures, entitled the Sori-shukyo-mokuroku ‘Ž—OŒo–Ú˜^ (Comprehensive Bibliography of Sutras); although this work had been lost, its content was edited and included in the Shutsusanzokishu oŽO‘ ‹LW (Record Clarifying the Compilation of the Tripitaka) by Seng-yu ‘m—S (Soyu). He also encouraged translation work of Buddhist scriptures by writing prefaces and commentaries to twenty-two sutras. He devised the system of dividing the content of a sutra into three parts: the prefatory part (˜•ª jobun), the main part (³@•ª shoshubun) and the part for future transmission —¬’Ê•ª (ruzubun). This system has been used throughout the history of Buddhist studies ever since. Furthermore, he established rituals in the sangha and regulated the behavior of the monks. He also introduced the custom of affixing a character Žß (shaku) to one's Buddhist name, which means 'Sakya clan.' The main field of his study was Prajnaparamita sutras but he was equally well versed in the Agama sutras and Abhidharma doctrine.@

Dogen “¹Œ³@The founder of the Japanese Soto school (1200-1253). Son of a government minister (naidaijin “à‘åb), Koga Michichika ‹v‰ä“¹e; he lost his mother when young, and entered Mt. Hiei at the age of 13 to become a novice. Later, he went to see Eisai ‰h¼ at Kenninji ŒšmŽ› and became his disciple. After Eisai's death, he went to China with Myozen –¾‘S, Eisai's successor, in 1223. He attained enlightenment under the guidance of Ju-ching ”@ò (Nyojo) of T'ien-t'ung-ssu “V“¶Ž› (Tendoji). He returned to Japan in 1227, and lived in Kyoto for more than ten years, first in the Kenninji Temple and later in the Koshoji Temple ‹»¹Ž›. In order to avoid association with secular powers, which would hinder the practice of Zen, he retired into the deep mountains in Echizen Province (present-day Fukui Prefecture) and built a temple called Daibutsuji ‘啧Ž› (later changed to Eiheiji ‰i•½Ž›), which became the center of Soto Zen practice. In 1247, he visited Kamakura at the request of Hojo Tokiyori –kžŠŽž—Š, who offered to build a temple for him, but he declined the offer and returned to Echizen. His works include Shobogenzo ³–@ŠáåU (Treasury of Eye of the True Dharma) and Eihei-shingi ‰i•½´‹K (Monastic Regulations of Eihei). His Fukanzazengi •Š©¿‘T‹V (Universally Recommending Zazen), written in Kyoto soon after his return from China, is a useful guide for beginners. In 1854, he was posthumously given the name and title of Bussho-dento Kokushi •§«“`“Œ‘Žt (the state master who transmitted the Buddha-nature to the east), and further, in 1879, that of Joyo Daishi ³—z‘åŽt. See Sotoshu.@

Donran “Üêa@Ch. T'an-luan (476-542); the first of the five Pure Land masters (Jodo goso ò“yŒÜ‘c) and the third of the seven patriarchs in the tradition of the Jodoshin school (shichikoso Žµ‚‘m). He was born in the present Shanhsi Province (ŽR¼È Sanseisho, Shanxisheng) in north China, and entered the priestly life at the age of 15. He soon distinguished himself in the Madhyamika doctrine of the Four-discourse school (Shironshu Žl˜_@). Later, when he became interested in the Great Collection Sutra (Daishukyo) and wished to write a commentary on it, he became ill. He then turned to Taoism seeking health and longevity, and went to see T'ao Hung-ching “©OŒi (To Kokei) (452-536), the greatest Taoist authority of that time. T'an-luan was given Taoist scriptures in 10 scrolls but, on his way home, he met with Bodhiruci (Bodairushi) from India at Lo-yang —Œ—z, the capital of China. This Indian monk, who was a great Tripitaka master, admonished him that even if one gained longevity, he would still be bound to Samsara, and that the Buddha-Dharma was the true way to eternal life. So saying, he gave T'an-luan Pure Land scriptures, which were believed to be the Contemplation Sutra or Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land (Jodoron) or both. According to tradition, T'an-luan put both the Buddhist and Taoist texts in the fire to see which would survive. Sure enough, the Buddhist text was not burnt, and so he took refuge in it. Later in 531, Bodhiruci produced a translation of the Discourse on the Pure Land, on which T'an-luan wrote an extensive commentary, Ojoronchu ‰¶˜_’, 2 fasc. This commentary is an important Pure Land classic providing a basis for the doctrinal systems of Tao-ch'o “¹ã^ (Doshaku), Shan-tao ‘P“± (Zendo), Shinran eêa and others.@

Dosen “¹é@Ch. Tao-hsuan (596-667); the founder of the Nanshan “ìŽR (Nanzan) sect of the Vinaya (Lu —¥, Ritsu) school in China. He assisted Hsuan-tsang ŒºœQ (Genjo) in translating volumes of precept texts and biographies of monks. As he lived in his earlier days at a temple on Mt. Chung-nan I“ì (Shunan), he was popularly called Precept Master Nan-shan “ìŽR—¥Žt (Nanzan Risshi) or Great Master Nan-shan “ìŽR‘åŽt (Nanzan Daishi).@

Doshaku “¹ã^@Ch. Tao-ch'o (562-645); the second of the five Chinese Pure Land masters (Jodo goso ò“yŒÜ‘c) and the fourth of the seven patriarchs in the tradition of the Jodoshin school (shichikoso Žµ‚‘m). He entered the priesthood at the age of 14 and became well-versed in the Nirvana Sutra. At 40, when he visited Hsuan-chung-ss u Œº’†Ž› (Genchuji) and read an inscription in praise of T'an-luan “Üêa (Donran), he became a serious aspirant for the Pure Land. He stayed at the temple and practiced the nembutsu as many as 70,000 times a day. He lectured on the Contemplation Sutra more than 200 times, and propagated the Pure Land teaching extensively. He emphasized the difficulty of the Path of Sages which was based on one's self-power and recommended the nembutsu practice to all beings. He followed T'an-luan in cautioning us against impure faiths which were not sincere, singleminded and continuous. On the contrary, the pure faith as given by Amida is characterized by sincerity, singlemindedness and continuity (sanshin). These three are mutually related. In Tao-ch'o's time, it was argued that Buddhism had entered the fourth five-hundred-year period (see goko-gohyakunen). This meant that it was extremely difficult to practice the Way effectively with one's own power and attain salvation. He wrote a 2-fasc. work, Anraku-shu ˆÀŠyW (Collection of Passages Concerning Birth in the Land of Peace and Bliss), in which he fully discussed the practicability of various methods of practice and concluded that the nembutsu was the only way for those who were far removed from the time of Sakyamuni Buddha. In accordance with the Contemplation Sutra and other scriptures, he assured us that the nembutsu originating from Amida's vow would bring us to birth in the Pure Land, however deep our karmic hindrances might be. (An English translation with notes by H. Inagaki, The Pure Land, No. 21, December 2004, etc.)@

Eimin Enju ‰i–¾‰„Žõ@Ch. Yung-ming Yen-shou; 904-975 or 976; a Ch'an monk who flourished about the end of the Five Dynasties period (907-959); he advocated the joint practice of Ch'an meditation and nembutsu. He was a native of Hang-chou in Che-chiang Province (Ÿ´]È Sekkosho, Zhejiangsheng); he became a monk at the age of 28 (or 30), and attained satori under Te-shao “¿èî (Tokusho) (891-972). He thus became the third patriarch in the line of Fa-yen –@Šá (Hogen) (885-958). Later he received an inspiration while performing the Lotus samadhi (Hokke-zanmai) for annulling karmic evils. When undecided as to whether he should concentrate on Ch'an meditation only or follow the Pure Land way through chanting sutras and doing other meritorious deeds, he resorted to divination. He tried seven times, and in all his attempts the second choice was revealed as preferable. So he decided to take that path. First he lived on Mt. Hsueh-tou áâ… (Setcho), and later at Ling-yin Temple —ì‰BŽ› (Reiinji), and finally at Yung-ming Temple ‰i–¾Ž› (Eiminji) on Mt. Nan-p'ing “ì› ŽR in Hang-chou. Yen-shou extensively propagated his Ch'an-Pure Land method while determined to fulfill the 108 vows. These vows include: 1) wherever possible, to construct Lotus Samadhi halls to glorify the Pure Land, 2) to perform the Lotus Samadhi six times a day for the sake of all sentient beings, 3) always to follow the Pure Land path, doing even minor good deeds for the sake of all sentient beings, and to transfer the merits thus acquired to the Pure Land in order to be born there, and 4) to practice sitting meditation from time to time, wishing to realize the illuminating essence of the Dharma-nature through wisdom. He also vowed to chant everyday the Lotus Sutra, the Heart Sutra, the Great Compassion Dharani, etc., and worship such Buddhas and Bodhisattvas as the Buddhas of the ten quarters, as well as Sakyamuni, Manjusri (Monju), Samantabhadra (Fugen), Maitreya (Miroku), Avalokitesvara (Kannon) and Mahasthamaprapta (Daiseishi). Aspiring eagerly to be born in the Pure Land, he recited Amida's Name a hundred thousand times a day. At dusk he would go to another peak of the mountain to do more "walking" nembutsu practice, always followed by a few hundred devotees. The King of Wu-yueh Œà‰z‰¤ (Goetsu O) revered him and built for him the Western Hall of Fragrant Glory; he also gave Yen-shou the title of Master Chih-chueh ’qŠo‘TŽt (Chikaku Zenji). Yen-shou was believed to be an incarnation of Maitreya. Tsung-hsiao @‹Å (Shugyo) (1151-1214) and P'u-tu •“x (Futaku) (d.1330) looked upon him as a great master of the Pure Land teachings, and later Yen-shou was counted among the patriarchs of the Lotus School. Yen-shou left over sixty works, including the Record of the Mirror of the Essential Teaching @‹¾˜^ (Sugyoroku), 100 fasc., which he wrote at the request of the King of Wu-yueh. Impressed by this work, the King of Korea sent thirty-six monks to study under Yen-shou. The Fa-yen school declined during the Sung dynasty (960-1279), but in Korea this tradition of Ch'an-Pure Land Buddhism flourished and led to later developments in Korean Buddhism.@

Eisai ‰h¼@Also Yosai; the founder of the Japanese Zen school (1141-1215). Ordained at 14, he studied and practiced the Tendai teaching. He went to Sung China in 1168 and brought back Tendai scriptures in the same year. In 1187, he traveled to China again, where he received the Rinzai Zen tradition from Hsu-an Huai-ch'ang ‹•ˆÁ‰ùÆ (Koan Esho). After returning home in 1191, he built Shofukuji ¹•ŸŽ›, the first Zen temple in Japan. In the face of bitter attacks from Tendai monks on this newly introduced school, Eisai approached the Kamakura Shogunate, the government of the time. In 1202, the government built Kenninji ŒšmŽ› in Kyoto, and appointed him the first chief abbot. In order to appease the monks of Mt. Hiei, the temple was made a center of Tendai and esoteric Buddhism as well as Zen. In 1215, he founded Jufukuji Žõ•ŸŽ› in Kamakura, and died in the same year. He introduced the cultivation of tea into Japan, and wrote a book, entitled On Drinking Tea as A Way of Nourishing Spirit (Kissa-yojo-ki ‹i’ƒ—{¶‹L). His other works include the Discourse on the Propagation of Zen and Protection of the State (Kozen-gokoku-ron ‹»‘TŒì‘˜_), which is the first Zen work in Japan. He was given the posthumous title, Senko Kokushi çŒõ‘Žt (State Master a Thousand Rays of Light).@

Eka Œd‰Â@Ch. Hui-k'o (487-593); the second patriarch of Zen in China. He first studied Confucianism; at 40, he visited Bodhidharma (Daruma) at the Shao-lin ssu Temple ­—ÑŽ› (Shorinji). Tradition has it that he stood in the snow for a long time, waiting for Bodhidharma's permission to become his disciple. At last he cut off his left hand to prove his firm resolution to follow Bodhidharma. After six years' hard practice, he attained satori and thus received the transmission of the Dharma from Bodhidharma.@

Ekan ‰ùŠ´@Ch. Huai-kan (7th to 8th centuries); one of the disciples of Shan-tao (Zendo) and the author of the Discourse Answering Questions (Gungi-ron ŒQ‹^˜_). At first he studied the Consciousness-Only teaching and, later, he practiced the nembutsu samadhi diligently under Shan-tao, until at last he attained it. At his death he is said to have witnessed Amida's welcome and so, having joined his palms together and facing west, he died. At the time of Huai-kan, there were the following methods of Pure Land practice: 1) meditative and non-meditative nembutsu; 2) nembutsu with form and without form; and 3) nembutsu with the phenomenal aspect and the noumenal aspect. Although he recommended devotees to follow the method suitable to their capacities, he considered the nembutsu samadhi as the most essential, which he divided into two: one with form and the other without form. By practicing the 'nembutsu samadhi without form,' i.e., concentration on Amida's Dharma-body, one can remove all spiritual hindrances and intuitively perceive his Dharma-body of True Suchness. Those of lower capacities can practice the 'nembutsu samadhi with form,' that is visualization of Amida's glorious physical characteristics and his merits, accompanied by sincere and continuous recitation of his Name. The successful practitioners of this type of samadhi see the Recompensed or Transformed Body of Amida. The 'non-meditative nembutsu' is to call the Name without entering into samadhi, which can be practiced even by dying persons. As a warning to nembutsu practitioners, Huai-kan quotes from the Sutra on Bodhisattvas Who Dwell in the Embryonic State (Bosatsu-shotaikyo •ìŽFˆ‘ÙŒo) to show that those who practice without a determined mind will be born in the Land of Indolence and Pride (Kemangai). He emphasizes that the aspirants who follow other practices as well as the nembutsu lack the resolute mind and so, have not even one in a ten thousand chances of being born in the Pure Land. On the other hand, those devoted to the nembutsu will never fail, even one out of a thousand, to attain birth.@

Emon Œd•¶@Ch. Hui-wen; a monk who lived during the Northern and Southern dynasty (420-589). He especially studied the works of Nagarjuna (Ryuju) and attained enlightenment when he encountered the phrase, "realizing the three wisdoms within the One Mind" (ŽO’qˆêS’†“¾ sanchi isshinchu toku), in the Great Wisdom Discourse (Daichidoron). It seems that he was an adept of meditation practice. His thought was transmitted to Hui-ssu ŒdŽv (Eshi), thereby opening up the way to the founding of the T'ien-t'ai (Tendai) school by the Master T'ien-t'ai (Tendai Daishi).@

Enchin ‰~’¿@A Tendai monk; 814-891; the fifth zasu of the Enryakuji Temple on Mt. Hiei; he received the Mahayana precepts on Mt. Hiei in 833 and stayed there for twelve years. After that, he went to another sacred mountain, Mt. Omine ‘å•ô, where he received inspiration. Enchin went to China in 853, staying there for five years and received the traditions of esoteric Buddhism and T'ien-t'ai. When was appointed betto of the Onjoji Temple ‰€éŽ›, the name of the temple was changed to Mii-dera ŽOˆäŽ›. Being a great Tendai scholar, he left works in more than 100 fasc., including An Introduction to the Lotus Sutra (Hokke-kaidai –@‰Ø‰ð‘è). [Tai.15]@

Engo Kokugon š¦ŒåŽ‹Î@Ch. Yuan-wu K'o-ch'in (1063-1135); a native of P'eng-chou œdB (Hoshu), he studied Zen under Wu-tsu Fa-yen ŒÜ‘c–@‰‰ (Goso Hoen) and inherited the Dharma from him. He lectured on the hundred koan and poems collected and composed by Hsueh-tou Chung-hsien á⅏dèû (Setcho Juken), and compiled them into the Hekigan-roku •ÉŠÞ˜^ (Blue Cliff Record) with the addition of his introduction (suiji ‚Ž¦), capping phrases (jakugo ’˜Œê) and discussion (hyosho •]¥).@

Enichi Œd“ú@Ch. Hui-jih (680-748); born in Lai-chou —‰B in Shan-tung Province (ŽR“ŒÈ Santosho, Shangdongsheng). When young he saw I-ching ‹`ò (Gijo) who had just returned home from India, and so he wished to go to India when grown up. In 702 he boarded a ship and after three years reached India. He stayed there for thirteen years, visiting sacred places, meeting Buddhist teachers and collecting Sanskrit texts. He wandered further about seeking the way of salvation; all the masters he met recommended birth in the Pure Land. Wishing to return home by land, he reached Gandhara and went to the mountain in the north-east of the town. While fasting, he earnestly prayed to Kannon, and finally received from him an inspiration which directed him to seek birth in the Pure Land. Having reached Ch'ang-an (Choan) in 719, Hui-jih presented a statue of the Buddha and Sanskrit manuscripts to the Emperor Hsuan-tsung Œº@ (Genso). The Emperor was impressed and gave him the title 'the Tripitaka Master Tz'u-min' (Žœœ¼ŽO‘  Jimin Sanzo). Later he lived at a temple in Lo-yang, and then while constantly practicing the nien-fo (nembutsu), went to Kuang-tung œA“Œ and other places to spread the Pure Land teaching. He died in Lo-yang at the age of 69. Besides his main work, entitled Collection of Passages Concerning Pure Land Birth (‰¶ò“yW Ojojodoshu) (only the first fascicle is extant), Hui-jih composed hymns in praise of Amida, which are quoted in Fa-chiao's Rite of Nien-fo Practice with Five Movements (Goe-nembutsu-hojisan ŒÜ‰ï”O•§–@Ž–Ž]). Like Shan-tao, Hui-jih advocated continual recitation of the nien-fo and practice of the Pratyutpanna Samadhi for attaining birth in the Pure Land and subsequent realization of Buddhahood. In much the same way as Shan-tao praised the efficacy of the Pratyutpanna Samadhi in his hymns, Hui-jih composed hymns expressing his devotion to Amida and practicing the Pratyutpanna Samadhi. From what we read in the Collection of Passages Concerning Pure Land Birth, Hui-jih refuted the biased views of Ch'an masters, and proved that the Pure Land nien-fo is an authentic Buddhist teaching by quoting extensively from the scriptures. In those days Ch'an masters, attached to erroneous views of Emptiness, asserted that various Buddhist practices, including the Six Paramitas, were futile. Hui-jih corrected their views and asserted that one should abide by the prescribed disciplines. It is especially important to turn the merits of practices towards the Pure Land with a wish to be born there. If meditation is practiced in this way, it is the correct meditation in accord with the scriptures and is the one approved by the Buddha. Hui-jih's theory laid the foundation for the joint practice of Ch'an and nien-fo which was later advocated by Yen-shou ‰„Žõ (Enju) (904-975). Hui-jih also emphasized observance of the precepts, forbidding Pure Land aspirants to drink wine and eat meat and pungent food.@

Ennin ‰~m@The third zasu of the Enryakuji Temple on Mt. Hiei; 794-864. Born in the present-day Tochigi Prefecture, he became Saicho's disciple at the age of 15. Since, in the past, Saicho stayed on Mt. Hiei for twelve years, he stipulated that serious students also must stay on Mt. Hiei for twelve years. Ennin followed Saicho's instruction and stayed on Mt. Hiei for thirty years studying the Tendai teaching and practicing the prescribed meditation. Then, in 835, Ennin received an imperial order to go to China for study. After failing twice to set sail, he finally reached China in 838. There he learnt Sanskrit from Tsung-jui @‰b (Soei) and esoteric Buddhism from Ch'uan-ya ‘S‰ë (Zenga).
@In 839, Ennin boarded a ship to return to Japan but, because of an unfavorable wind, he had to remain in China. He then went to Mt. Wu-t'ai ŒÜ‘äŽR (Godaisan) in Shan-tung Province (ŽR“ŒÈ Santosho, Shangdongsheng), the mountain which was held sacred because Manjusri, Samantabhadra, Avalokitesvara and Ksitigarbha were believed to dwell there. There he received Tendai scriptures and presumably learnt Fa-chao's (–@Æ Hossho) Nembutsu Liturgy in Five Movements (Goe-hojisan ŒÜ‰ï–@Ž–Ž]). After that he went to Ch'ang-an and, during his stay there for six years, learnt more of esoteric Buddhism. He returned home in 848, and was appointed zasu in 854. With his introduction of esoteric Buddhism, the Tendai teaching assumed more of esoteric character. He also built Monjudo •¶Žê“° (Manjusri Hall) on Mt. Hiei to continue his practice of the nembutsu.
@Previously, Saicho assigned Ennin to the task of accomplishing the 'Constant Sitting Samadhi' (Joza zanmai), but Ennin found it difficult to perform. It is noted that the Constant Walking Samadhi, which Ennin began on Mt. Hiei, was not the same as that prescribed in the original T'ien-t'ai tradition. Ennin is thought to have modified it with Fa-chiao's nembutsu chanting. The characteristic features of the new method of the Constant Walking Samadhi, which was called fudan nembutsu (constant nembutsu), can be listed as follows: 1) The length of the period of practice has been shortened from 90 days to 7 days, from the 11th to the 17th days of the eighth month during the autumn full moon; 2) Besides the nembutsu recitation, the Amida Sutra is chanted; 3) By this practice one hopes to expiate one's evil karma. Although the newly instituted melodious nembutsu chanting is apparently different from the meditative nembutsu of the Constantly Walking Samadhi originated by Chih-i (Chigi), we should note two facts which explain the development of the nembutsu from Chih-i to Fa-chiao, and then to Ennin. One is that Chih-i's T'ien-t'ai system of practice already contained the vocal nembutsu based on the Contemplation Sutra; this element became apparent in the teaching of the sixth patriarch of T'ien-t'ai, Chan-jan (Tannen) (711-82). The other fact is that Fa-chiao's rhythmical nembutsu originated from a mystic experience during his practice of the Pratyutpanna Samadhi. The new type of nembutsu recitation began to be practiced annually at the Jogyozanmai-do ísŽO–†“° from 865, a year after Ennin's death, and became popularly known as "Mountain Nembutsu" (yama no nembutsu). He practiced the nembutsu samadhi so much that he is said to have attained the visualization-samadhi. He wrote about a hundred works, including commentaries on the Vajra Peak Sutra (Kongochokyo ‹à„’¸Œo) and the Sutra on the Act of Perfection (Soshitsujikarakyo ‘hŽ»’n㹗…Œo). The record of his travel to China, Record of Pilgrimage to T'ang China to Seek the Dharma (Nitto-guho-junrei-gyoki “ü“‚‹–@„—çs‹L), is a useful source of information about T'ang China. He was posthumously given the name and title of Jikaku Daishi ŽœŠo‘åŽt (Master of Compassion and Enlightenment). Cf. fudan nembutsu.

Eno Œd”\@Ch. Hui-neng, 638-713; the sixth patriarch of the Chinese Zen school. Born in a poor family, he supported his mother and himself by selling fire-wood. One day, when he heard the Diamond Sutra being chanted, he aspired to the Buddhist Way. At 24, he went to see Hung-jen O”E (Konin), the fifth patriarch, and lived in his monastery for some time. After he received the transmission of the Dharma, he left the monastery. Later, his line of transmission, which was characterized by sudden enlightenment and thrived in south China, came to be known as the Southern School of Ch'an (Nanshuzen “ì@‘T). This was in contrast to the teaching of gradual enlightenment which was initiated by another disciple of Hung-jen, Shen-hsiu _G (Jinshu), and was called the Northern School of Ch'an (Hokushuzen –k@‘T). Hui-neng's line of transmission enjoyed greater popularity and developed into five schools. His sayings were compiled into the Rokuso-dankyo ˜Z‘c’hŒo (The Sixth Patriarch's Platform Sutra). He was given posthumous titles, such as Ch'an Master Ta-chien ‘åŠÓ‘TŽt (Daikan Zenji, Zen Master Great Penetration).@

Eshi ŒdŽv@Ch. Hui-ssu (515-577); the second patriarch of the Chinese T'ien-t'ai (Tendai) school and the teacher of Chih-i (Chigi) who systematized the T'ien-t'ai teaching; also called the Great Master Nan-yueh “ì›Ô‘åŽt (Nangaku Daishi) because he lived on Mt. Nan-yueh. A native of the Honan Province (‰Í“ìÈ Kanansho, Henansheng), he entered the priesthood when young; he studied the T'ien-t'ai Buddhism under Hui-wen Œd•¶ (Emon) and received its essence from him; he reputedly realized the Lotus Samadhi (Hokke zanmai). He was the first to hold an acute sense that the time was that of the last Dharma period - the period of Decadent Dharma (mappo), and so he is said to have faith in Amida and Maitreya (Miroku). While dwelling in Mr. Ta-su ‘å‘hŽR (Daisozan), he received a visit from Chih-i (Chigi), to whom he transmitted the essentials of the T'ien-t'ai teaching. His works include the Rissei-ganmon —§¾Šè•¶ (Proclamation of Vows), the Hokekyo-anrakugyogi –@‰ØŒoˆÀŠys‹V (Rules of the Practice of Peace and Bliss of the Lotus Sutra) and the Shoho-mujo-zanmai ”–@–³æyŽO–† (Samadhi of No-dispute regarding All Existence).@

Fu Daishi ˜ú‘åŽm@Ch. Fu Ta-shih (497-569); a Chinese layman, also known as Shan-hui Ta-shih (‘PŒd‘åŽm Zen'e Daishi). After having married and become a father of two children, he retired to the mountains at the age of 24, where he built a temple and copied scriptures. He constructed an octagonal revolving sutra-repository for the sake of convenience for readers; for this reason, his statues came to be enshrined in sutra-repositories. [H.67; Rin.]@

Fuku •s‹ó@The popular name for Fukukongo •s‹ó‹à„; Sk. Amoghavajra; 705-774;the sixth patriarch of the Shingon tradition. He was born in north India or, according to another tradition, Sri Lanka, and, at the age of 14, traveled to Java where he met Vajrabodhi (‹à„’q Kongochi) and became his disciple. He went to China with his master in 720 and assisted him in the translation of esoteric texts while studying esoteric Buddhism under him. After the master's death, he went to India to obtain Sanskrit texts. He returned to China in 746, and engaged in translating esoteric texts and spreading esoteric Buddhism. He was well received by the emperors and was given the title Kuang-chih San-tsang L’qŽO‘  (Kochi Sanzo) by Emperor Tai-tsung ‘ã@ (Daiso) in 765. He translated a total of 110 works.@

Gangyo Œ³‹Å@W o|nhyo; an eminent Kegon scholar in Silla (Shiragi V—…), Korea; 617-686. He went to China with I-hsiang* (‹`Ã Gisho) and received the teaching of Hosso from Hsuan-tsang (Genjo) and K'ui-chi (‰MŠî Kiki) and that of Kegon from Chih-yen (’q™V Chigon). While living at Huang-lung ssu* c—´Ž› (Koryuji) in the capital of Silla, he lectured on Mahayana sutras. He preferred to live as a layman and taught the Pure Land teaching to townspeople. He wrote as many as fifty-seven works. Apart from commentaries on the Garland Sutra, the Lankavatara Sutra, the Awakening of Faith in Mahayana (Daijokishinron), etc., he wrote the celebrated Discourse on the Diamond Samadhi (‹à„ŽO–†˜_ Kongosanmairon) and important Pure Land discourses which were a great influence on the formation of the Japanese Pure Land tradition, including the Amidakyoso ˆ¢–í‘ÉŒo‘` (Commentary on the Amida Sutra), the Muryojukyo-shuyo –³—ÊŽõŒo@—v (Essentials of the Sutra on the Buddha of Infinite Life), etc. The Yushin-anrakudo —VSˆÀŠy“¹ (Way of Securing Relaxation and Peace) is attributed to him but its authorship is doubted.@

Ganjin ŠÓ^@Ch. Chien-chen (687-763); the Chinese monk who founded the Japanese Ritsu school. Ordained at the age of 14, he mainly studied T'ien-t'ai (Tendai) and Vinaya (Ritsu) teachings. At the request of a visiting Japanese monk, he attempted to go to Japan. After 11 years, during which he made five unsuccessful attempts and became blind, he finally reached Japan in 754. He lived in the Todaiji Temple and erected a precept-platform (kaidan) there. He gave the precepts to more than 400 people, including Emperor Shomu ¹•. Later he lived in the Toshodaiji Temple “‚µ’ñŽ›, and was given the titles of daisojo ‘å‘m³ (great abbot) and daikasho-i ‘å˜a®ˆÊ (rank of great master).@

Ganjo Œ³Æ@Ch. Yuan-chao: 1048-1116; first studied Tendai and later became a master of Vinaya; when he became ill, he realized his powerlessness and took refuge in Amida. He wrote Commentaries on the Contemplation Sutra ŠÏ–³—ÊŽõŒo‹`‘` (Kanmuryojukyo-giso), 4 fasc., and Amida Sutra ˆ¢–í‘ÉŒo‹`‘` (Amidakyo-giso), 1 fasc. [KG.2,3]@

Genbo Œº•æ@A great master of the Hosso school; (d. 746); a native of Yamato Province (present-day Nara Prefecture). He studied the Hosso teaching under Gien ‹`•£. On the emperor's order, he went to China in 717 where he stayed for nearly twenty years studying the depth of the Hosso doctrine under Chih-chou ’qŽü (Chishu). He returned home in 735 bringing back the whole collection of Buddhist scriptures in more than 5,000 fascicles, which he deposited at the Kofukuji Temple. He lived in that temple and propagated the Hosso teaching extensively. His line of Hosso tradition is called the second transmission, or the Northern Temple transmission (hokujiden –kŽ›“`), in contrast to nanjiden “쎛“`, the 'Southern Temple tradition' which refers to the first and the second transmissions of the Hosso doctrine from China because it was taught and propagated at the Gangoji Temple Œ³‹»Ž›, a temple situated south of Nara. He was appointed sojo (abbot) and head of the imperial court for Buddhist practices. Because of his involvement in political affairs, he was banished to Dazaifu in Kyushu in 745.@

Genjo Œºš÷@Ch. Hsuan-tsang (600 or 602-664); popularly known as Sanzo Hosshi ŽO‘ –@Žt (Tripitaka Master). Born in Honan Province (‰Í“ìÈ Kanansho, Henansheng) as the youngest of the four sons of Ch'en Hui ’ÂŒd (Chin E), he was exceptionally intelligent and an avid reader of classical literature. When he was eleven, he followed his brother Ch'ang-chieh ’·· (Chosho) who was a Buddhist monk to the Ching-t'u Temple ò“yŽ› (Jodoji) in Lo-yang to learn chanting and study sutras. In 614, when imperial permission for ordaining twenty-seven people was issued in Lo-yang, Hsuan-tsang, though still very young, impressed the examiner with his intelligence and so was able to receive ordination. He stayed at the Ching-t'u Temple and attended lectures on the Nirvana Sutra and the Mahayana-samgraha (Shodaijoron). On his brother's advice, he left Lo-yang and went to Ch'ang-an where he stayed at the Chuang-yen Temple ‘‘ŒµŽ› (Shogonji). During this time, the Sui dynasty was taken over by the T'ang dynasty. With his brother, he left the war-torn capital and went to Ch'eng-tu ¬“s (Seito) in the state of Shu å† (Shoku) where he received full ordination as a monk at the age of twenty. From that time on, he visited eminent masters at various places before returning to Ch'ang-an in 623. Staying at the Ta-chueh Temple ‘åŠoŽ› (Daikakuji), he studied the Abhidharma-kosa (Kusharon) under Tao-yueh “¹Šx (Dogaku) and attended the lectures on the Mahayana-samgraha by two eminent masters, Fa-ch'ang –@í (Hojo) and Seng-pien ‘m•Ù (Soben). Amazed at Hsuan-tsang's deep understanding of the doctrine, the masters praised him as 'the fleet horse in Buddhist studies capable of running a thousand li a day.' Hsuan-tsang, however, had some unsolved questions about the text, so he determined to travel to India to obtain the Sanskrit text he wanted. As his repeated plea for permission to go to India was not accepted and none of his friends was willing to accompany him, Hsuan-tsang decided to travel on his own without official permission. He left Ch'ang-an in 627 (or 629, according to other tradition). After crossing the border at Yu-men Pass ‹Ê–åŠÖ (Gyokumonkan), he reached Kao-ch'ang ‚¹ (Kosho). The king of the country warmly received him. While staying there for about a month, Hsuan-tsang lectured on the Benevolent King Sutra (Ninnokyo) for the empress dowager and others. When he left the country, the king awarded him enough money and provisions for the travel and some man-power. After passing through a number of towns along the southern route of the T'ien-shan Mountains “VŽRŽR–¬ (Tenzan sanmyaku) with great toil, he crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains and reached northern India and, from there, central India.
@In 630, he reached the Nalanda Monastery in Magadha Kingdom, where he intensively studied the consciousness-only doctrine under Silabhadra (Kaigen ‰úŒ«) for five years. Then he visited other Buddhist centers in India and returned to Nalanda. He futher studied the consciousness-only doctrine under other masters who lived nearby, especially under layman Jayasena (Shogun ŸŒR)@for two years, and obtained valuable discourses on this doctrine. Invited by King Kumara of Kamarupa Kingdom in east India, Hsuan-tsang stayed at his palace for a month. King Siladitya (Kainichio ‰ú“ú‰¤) (606-647), having heard of Hsuan-tsang, invited him to his camp and then to the capital Kanyakubja, where he attended a large service and delivered a lecture on the Mahayana.
@In 641 (or 643), he left India and made a homeward journey. He returned home to Ch'ang-an in 645 bringing back 657 Sanskrit texts in 520 bundles, Buddhist statues, the Buddha's relics, etc. He was warmly welcomed by the Emperor T'ai-tsung ‘¾@ (Taiso). The emperor was curious to know about the countries Hsuan-tsang had visited and, after hearing about the customs and conditions of those countries, he requested Hsuan-tsang to write a book. The year after his return home, i.e., in 646, he completed the well-known travel acount entitled, Great T'ang Record of the Western Regions (Daito-saiikiki ‘å“‚¼ˆæ‹L). At the Hung-fu Temple O•ŸŽ› (Kofukuji) in Ch'ang-an, he began preparations for translation of Buddhist texts. In response to his plea, the emperor issued an order to convene scholarly monks to assist Hsuan-tsang in his translation work. His epoch-making work lasted nineteen years, during which he translated 75 scriptures in 1,330 fascicles, including the following: 1) the Prajnaparamita Sutra (Daihannya-kyo ‘å”ÊŽáŒo), 600 fasc., 2) the Yogacara-bhumi (Yugashijiron àŽt’n˜_), 100 fasc., 3) the Abhidharma-mahavibhasa (Abidatsuma-daibibasharon ˆ¢”ù’B–‘å”ù”k¹˜_), 200 fasc., 4) the Abhidharma-kosa-bhasya (Abidatsuma-kusharon ˆ¢”ù’B–‹äŽÉ˜_), 30 fasc., 5) the Discourse on the Theory of Consciousness-Only (Joyuishiki-ron ¬—BŽ¯˜_), 10 fasc., and 6) the Mahayana-samgraha (Shodaijoron Û‘åæ˜_), 8 fasc. His excellent work ushered in a new epoch in the history of translations of Buddhist texts; they were called 'shin'yaku V–ó (new translations)' as contrasted to the previous translations which were called 'kuyaku ‹Œ–ó (old translations).' Based on the translation of the Discourse on the Theory of Consciousness-Only, his chief disciple K'ui-chi (‰MŠî Kiki) became the first patriarch of the Fa-hsiang or Hosso (–@‘Š) school which thrived greatly. He is also looked upon as the founder of the Chu-she (Kusha ‹äŽÉ) school because he produced a new translation of the basic text, Abidatsuma-kusharon. After finishing the laborious work of translating the Prajnaparamita Sutra, Hsuan-tsang showed signs of physical decline and passed away in 664 at the age of 63.

Genshin Œ¹M@A Tendai monk and a great exponent of Pure Land thought; 942-1017; popularly called Eshin Sozu ŒbS‘m“s because he lived in Eshin-in ŒbS‰@ at Yokawa ‰¡ì on Mt. Hiei. He lost his father when young, and went up to Mt. Hiei to study Buddhism under Ryogen —ÇŒ¹. At the age of 15, he was appointed special lecturer on the Lotus Sutra (Hokke hako –@‰Ø”ªu); his intelligence and eloquence surprised all the audience. He could have enjoyed great reputation, but spent a secluded life in Yokawa, practicing the Pure Land way and writing discourses. His masterpiece, Collection of Essential Passages Concerning Birth (Ojoyoshu ‰¶—vW), is a collection of the important passages pertaining to the matter of birth in the Pure Land. This is an encyclopedic work drawing from many sutras and commentaries from India and China. When he completed this work he sent a copy to China in 986; the monks there were very surprised, and praised him as the "little Sakyamuni of Japan." This work laid the foundation for Japanese Pure Land teaching. He is thus looked upon as the sixth patriarch in the tradition of the Jodoshin school. He is also known as the founder of the Eshin school of Tendai, which is based on the "original state of enlightenment" (hongaku –{Šo) teaching, meaning that everybody, even the most wicked person, is originally enlightened. This is an alternative view to what has been called "entering upon enlightenment for the first time," (shikaku ŽnŠo), in the sense of working one's way up to enlightenment from the beginning.
@In his late years, he was conferred with the title of shosozu ­‘m“s (minor second grade) but remained in obscurity, dedicating himself to the exploration of Buddhist truth. He left more than thirty works, including A Discourse Determining the Essentials of the One-Vehicle Teaching (Ichijo yoketsu ˆêæ—vŒˆ), A Collection of Important Passages Briefly Discussing Contemplation of the Mind (Kanjin ryakuyoshu ŠÏS—ª—vW), the Mahayana versus Abhidharmakosa (Daijo-tai-Kusha ‘åæ‘΋äŽÉ), and the Invocation on the Twenty-five Samadhis (Nijugo sanmai kisho “ñ\ŒÜŽO–†‹N¿).

Gijo ‹`ò@Ch. I-ching (635-713). After he entered the priesthood when young, he had a desire to go to India. In 671, he left China and set out for India by sea. Having reaching India, he stayed there for more than twenty years. He also visited more than thirty countries. He returned home in 695, bringing back the relics of the Buddha, sutras, etc. Empress Wu conferred on him the title of san-tsang ŽO‘  (sanzo, Tripitaka master) and offered him a temple to live and translate the texts he had brought from India. He produced translations of 56 texts in 230 fascicles, including Konkomyo-saishookyo (Golden Splendor Sutra). The record of his journey, Nankai-kiki-den “ìŠCŠñ‹A“` (Record of Visiting the South Sea), 4 fasc., is a useful source of information on India and its neighboring countries of his days. [S.Xb-1.]@

Gyogi sŠî@Also Gyoki; a Hosso priest (668-749) and descendant of a Korean king. He was born in Echigo or Izumi Province (the present-day Niigata or Osaka Prefecture). He studied Buddhism at the Yakushiji Temple –òŽtŽ› and elsewhere, especially the Hosso teaching under Gien ‹`•£, and traveled about the country building bridges and roads and constructing temples. He was respected by Emperor Shomu ¹• who, in 741, commissioned him with the task of building the Todaiji Temple “Œ‘厛. He was given the title of daisojo ‘å‘m³ (great abbot). In 749, he gave the bodhisattva precepts (bosatsukai) to the emperor, empress and other members of the imperial family, and was then given the title of daibosatsu ‘å•ìŽF (great bodhisattva). He was popularly regarded as an incarnation of Manjusri (Monju). According to his biography, Gyogi walked about in villages every night while reciting the nembutsu in a loud voice and, during the day time, he visited houses to teach the Pure Land Way to ordinary men and women and led them to birth in Amida's land. The Biographies of Noble Monks in Japan states that Gyogi traveled in various provinces teaching meditation and the 'Pure Act,' i.e., the nembutsu. From these and other sources, it is established that Gyogi was the first eminent monk to spread the nembutsu recitation among ordinary people.@

Hakuin ”’‰B@(1685-1768) One of the greatest Rinzai Zen masters in Japan. His family name was Sugiyama ™ŽR, and his Buddhist name was Ekaku Œd’ß; Hakuin was his assumed name ; he also used another name Korin ”—Ñ. He entered the priesthood at the age of 15; at 24, he attained satori under Tekio “I‰¥ of Shoju-an ³ŽóˆÁ, popularly known as Shoju rojin ³Žó˜Vl. In 1716, he became the resident master at Shoinji ¼‰BŽ› in Shizuoka Prefecture and, in the next year, the head monk at Myoshinji –­SŽ› in Kyoto. He founded Ryutakuji —´‘òŽ› in Shizuoka Prefecture. He was given a posthumous name, Shinkidokumyo Zenji _‹@“Æ–­‘TŽt, and later another, Shoshu Kokushi ³@‘Žt. Having a strong personality, deep insight, and skill in guidance, he contributed greatly to the revival of Rinzai Zen in Tokugawa Japan. His works include Dokugo-shingyo “ÅŒêSãS (Poisoned Comments on the Heart Sutra), Yasen-kanwa –é‘DŠÕ˜b (Leisurely Talk on a Night Voyage), and Orategama ‰“—…“VŠ˜ (Tea-pot Orategama). He was also renowned as a great painter.@

Hishaku ”òŽà@Ch. Fei-hsi (8th century); a Zen master and a contemporary of Fa-chiao –@Æ; Fei-hsi first studied the Vinaya precepts and later practiced the T'ien-t'ai method of contemplating the Triple Truth in the One Mind. He often stayed at a temple on Mt. Chung-nan I“ìŽR, and from 744 on, regularly practiced the Lotus samadhi at Ch'ang-an ’·ˆÀ in spring and autumn every year. When Amoghavajra (Fuku) translated the Benevolent King Prajnaparamita Sutra in 765, he was chosen as one of the assistant translators. In his only extant work, entitled the Discourse on the Nembutsu Samadhi \ the King of Treasures (”O•§ŽO–†•ó‰¤˜_ Nembutsu sanmai hooron), he advocates a special nembutsu practice, emphasizing mindfulness of all Buddhas in the three times. Based on the episode of the Bodhisattva Sadaparibhuta (Jofugyo), he teaches that one should respectfully think of all sentient beings, even concubines and thieves, because they will, without exception, become Buddhas in the future. As for the mindfulness of the present Buddhas, Fei-hsi teaches concentration on Amida alone, for one can attain birth in the Pure Land with recitation of the nembutsu ten times or even once. He recommends that the nembutsu be practiced in a loud voice, because in this way one can easily concentrate one's thought and attain the nembutsu samadhi, as when people move a heavy tree or stone by shouting 'yo-ho' together. This is in line with Huai-kan's ‰ùŠ´ (Ekan) method of nembutsu practice. Lastly, Fei-hsi urges us to remember the past Buddhas. Throughout this discourse, he emphasizes the supremacy of the nembutsu samadhi, which he called the 'king of samadhis.' He criticized as an attached view the 'non-practice' and 'voidness' held by many Zen followers of his time.@

Honen –@‘R@The founder of the Jodo school (1133-1212). Born in Kume ‹v•Ä, Mimasaka Province (present-day Okayama Prefecture), he was named Seishimaru ¨ŽŠŠÛ. When he was nine, his father, a provincial official, was killed by the opposing faction. In accordance with the father's dying wish, he entered the priesthood under Kankaku ŠÏŠo of the Bodaiji. At 15, he went to Mt. Hiei, where he studied under Genko Œ¹Œõ and Koen c‰~ and, later, from Eiku ‰b‹ó. From Eiku he received the name Honen-bo Genku –@‘R–[Œ¹‹ó. At 24, he left the mountain and visited distinguished scholars in Nara and Kyoto. He later went up Mt. Hiei again to seek the way to salvation. At 43, as he read the whole collection of scriptures over and over again in the Hoonzo •ñ‰¶‘  Library, he came across the commentary on the Contemplation Sutra by Shan-tao ‘P“± (Zendo), in which it is taught that continuous recitation of the nembutsu is the way to salvation. He instantly realized Amida's saving power and took refuge in him. He left the mountain to live in Kyoto and began to propagate the nembutsu teaching among people of all walks of life.
@In 1198, at the request of the Lord Chancellor Fujiwara Kanezane “¡Œ´Œ“ŽÀ, he composed the Senjaku hongan nembutsu-shu ‘I‘ð–{Šè”O•§W, which presents the essentials of the nembutsu teaching. Publication of this work means declaration of the independence of the nembutsu school. Soon, the popularity of his teaching invited the jealousy of monks of other sects. In 1204, monks of the Enryakuji on Mt. Hiei urged the zasu, Shoshin «^, to take action to stop the nembutsu teaching. In 1206, when Honen's two disciples were accused of seducing two court-ladies, the persecution of the nembutsu was enforced (Jogen no honan ³Œ³‚Ì–@“ï). The two disciples were executed, and Honen was exiled to Shikoku. Soon after he was pardoned and allowed to return to Kyoto in 1211, he became ill and died in the following year. While Honen was on Mt. Hiei, he received from Eiku the tradition of the Mahayana precepts. So, Honen is said to have given the Mahayana precepts to his disciples. His teaching is characterized by exclusive recitation of the nembutsu, Namu amida butsu, "Homage to Amida Buddha"; he discarded as futile all other methods of Buddhist practice, such as meditation and even Bodhi-mind, the aspiration for enlightenment. The reason for this is that the nembutsu originates from and is supported by Amida's Primal vow.
@Honen had many disciples. One of the leading disciples, Bencho ™ž’· (1162-1238), later known as Chinzei Shonin ’Á¼ãl, founded the Chinzei school. A more important disciple of Honen was Shinran eêa (1173-1262), the founder of Jodoshinshu. Posthumously Honen was given the names and titles of Eko Bosatsu ŒdŒõ•ìŽF (Bodhisattva Wisdom-Light), Kacho Sonja ‰Ø’¸‘¸ŽÒ (Venerable Flower-Summit), Enko Daishi ‰~Œõ‘åŽt (Master Perfect Light), etc. He is also popularly called Ganso Shonin Œ³‘cãl (Revered Founder), Yoshimizu Daishi ‹g…‘åŽt (Master Yoshimizu), Kurodani Shonin •’Jãl (Master Kurodani), etc. His works were compiled into the Illuminating Record of Kurodani Shonin (Kurodani-shonin-gotoroku •’JãlŒê“•˜^), 18 fasc., and more than ten biographies of him were written.

Hossho –@Æ@Chin. Fa-chao (8th century). Renowned as an incarnation of Shan-tao (go-Zendo Œã‘P“±), Fa-chao made a great contribution to the development of the nembutsu teaching. He first went to Mt. Lu, where he practiced meditation. One day, while in samadhi, he went to the Pure Land and saw a Chinese monk sitting beside Amida. Fa-chao was told that the monk was Chao-yuan ³‰“ (Shoon) of Mt. Nan-yueh “ì›Ô (Nangaku), a noted Pure Land master dedicated to the Pratyutpanna Samadhi (Hanju-zanmai). He then went to see him and became his disciple. According to his Rite of Nien-fo Practice with Five Movements (Goe nembutsu hojisan ŒÜ‰ï”O•§–@Ž–Ž]), he began a resolute practice of the Pratyutpanna Samadhi on the 15th of the 4th month in 766 and, in the second week, visualized Amida. The Buddha personally taught him the nembutsu recitation in five movements. In 769, led by an inspiration, Fa-chao left Mt. Nan-yueh and went to Mt. Wu-t'ai ŒÜ‘ä where, in meditation, he received the nembutsu teaching from Manjusri and Samantabhadra. He built the Bamboo Forest Temple (’|—ÑŽ› Chikurinji) on Mt. Wu-t'ai to make it a center for the nembutsu samadhi. He widely disseminated the nembutsu with five movements, and was even invited to teach it at the imperial court. Fa-chao, like Hui-jih Œd“ú (Enichi), tried to correct wrong views held by Ch'an followers and recommended the nembutsu samadhi as the supreme method of meditation. His nembutsu practice consisted of mindfulness of Amida and incessant recitation of his Name, by means of which one attains samadhi. Repeating the nembutsu with five movements is meant to induce this samadhi state. His nembutsu method was widely practiced and won him the title of Wu-hui Fa-shih ŒÜ‰ï–@Žt (Goe Hosshi, Master Five Movements). The emperor gave him a posthumous title, Ta-wu He-shan ‘åŒå˜a® (Daigo Kasho, Master Great Enlightenment).Cf. Goe-nembutsu. Fa-chao's nembutsu chant was transmitted to Japan by Ennin ‰~m.@

Hozo –@‘ @Ch. Fa-tsang (643-712); popularly called Master Hsien-shou Œ«Žñ‘åŽt (Genju Daishi); the third patriarch of the Garland school. His ancesters were from Samarkand but he was born in Ch'ang-an ’·ˆÀ. He began his study of Buddhism at the age of 17, and later received the Garland teaching from Chih-yen (Chigon) at the Yun-hua Temple ‰_‰ØŽ› (Unkeji). In 670, he received his ordination by the imperial order, and often lectured on the Garland Sutra. In 680, he assisted Divakara (“úÆ Nissho) and others in translating the missing part of the older version of the Garland Sutra. Fa-tsang also played an important role when, in 695, Siksananda (ŽÀ³“ï‘É Jisshananda) produced a new translation of this sutra in 80 fascicles. After that time, he lectured on the new version. He was respected by emperors, especially by the Empress Wu ‘¥“V•@ (Sokuten-buko), and left many works, including a voluminous commentary on the Garland Sutra, the Kegongyo-tangenki ‰ØŒµŒo’TŒº‹L (Delving into the Essentials of the Garland Sutra), 20 fasc., and a discourse on the classification of the teachings into five divisions, entitled Kegon-gokyosho ‰ØŒµŒÜ‹³Í (Five-Teaching Division Based on the Garland Teaching); his lecture on the Garland teaching for the Empress Wu, using the golden lion at the court as an illustration, was later compiled into the Kegon-konjishisho ‰ØŒµ‹àŽtŽqÍ (Treatise on the Garland Golden Lion).@@

Ingen Ryuki ‰BŒ³—²Ÿ¤ The founder of the obaku Zen school; 1592-1673. Born in Fuchien Province (•ŸŒšÈ Fukkensho, Fujiansheng), he practiced Zen on Mt. Huang-po ‰©Ÿ@ (Obaku), attained satori at the age of forty-seven and came to Nagasaki in 1654. Under the imperial patronage, he built a temple in Uji, south-east of Kyoto, and named it Manpukuji –œ•ŸŽ›; this temple became the head temple of the Obaku school ‰©Ÿ@@.@

Ippen ˆê•Õ@The founder of the Jishu or Ji school, 1239-89; popularly called Yugyo Shonin —Vsãl 'Wandering Saint.' After he was ordained at 15, he studied chiefly the Tendai teaching. Later he studied the nembutsu doctrine from a follower of Honen, and changed his name to Chishin ’q^. In 1275 he visited the Kumano Gongen ŒF–쌠Œ», and spent a night at the Hongu –{‹{ (Main Shrine). While praying to the deity there (who, in his original state, is Amida Buddha), he was given a verse of inspiration in which the term 'ippen' (one universality) was repeated three times. He then changed his name to Ippen, and resolved to spend his life as a wanderer to spread the nembutsu.

Issan Ichinei ˆêŽRˆê”J@Ch. I-shan I-ning; a Zen master; 1247-1317; the third abbot of the Nanzenji Temple “ì‘TŽ›; a native of T'ai-chou ‘äB. He became a monk at an early age, and studied and practiced Buddhism under various masters. In 1299, by the order of Khubilai of Yuan dynasty, he came to Dazaifu in Kyushu. For some time he was suspected of espionage by the head of Kamakura government, Hojo Sadatoki –kð’厞; later, he was invited to live at the Kenchoji Temple Œš’·Ž›; in 1300, by the order of Ex-emperor Gouda Œã‰F‘½, he lived at the Nanzenji Temple “ì‘TŽ›. He was given the posthumous title, Ichinei Kosai Kokushi ˆê”JOÏ‘Žt; he left a collection of sayings, one fasc. With his disciples, he contributed to the development of the gosan Zen literary movement (gosan bungaku ŒÜŽR•¶Šw). Muso Soseki –²‘‹‘aÎ@was one of his disciples. His line of Zen tradition is called Issan-ha ˆêŽR”h, which is counted among the twenty-four schools of Zen in Japan. See Zenshu.

Jimin sanzo Žœœ¼ŽO‘ @The Tripitaka master Tz'u-min (680-748); the title given to Hui-jih Œd“ú (Enichi) by the Chinese Emperor Hsuan-tsung Œº@ (Genso). He went to India by sea, visiting various Buddhist sites and studying under eminent masters for thirteen years. On his return journey via Central Asia, he received Kannon's inspiration in Gandhara, which strengthened his aspiration for the Pure Land. He returned home, bringing back Buddhist statues and Sanskrit manuscripts, which he presented to the emperor. He further practiced the Pure Land way and extensively spread the teaching. He is looked upon as the founder of one of the three Chinese Pure Land schools, the other two schools originating from Hui-yuan (Eon) of Mt. Lu (Rozan) and Shan-tao (Zendo). It is said that Tz'u-min's teaching was characterized by a mixture of nembutsu and Zen.@

Jinna ’“߁@Sk. Dignaga; c.400-480; born of a Brahmin family in south India, he studied Buddhism and became well-versed in both Hinayana and Mahayana; he distinguished himself as a master of Yogacara doctrine, following especially Vasubandhu's (Seshin) teaching; he is recognized as one of the commentators of Vasubandhu's theory of Consciousness-only. He also developed Vasubandhu's theory of logic (hetu-vidya, inmyo) and started a new school of Buddhist logic; his Pramana-samuccaya (Collection of Correct Means of Cognition) and commentary on it present the details of his new system; the Pramana-samuccaya was translated by Paramartha (Shindai) as Juryoron W—ʘ_ but the translation has been lost.@

Jinshu _G@Shen-hsiu ( -706); a native of K'ai-feng ŠJ•• (Kaifu), he first studied Confucianism; after becoming a monk, he visited various places to study Buddhism. At fifty, he became a disciple of Hung-jen O”E (Konin), and six years later, the head of the assembly of 500 monks. After the master's death, he continued his practice of Zen for more than 10 years, and then was appointed abbot of the Yu-ch'uan Temple ‹ÊòŽ› (Gyokusenji) on Mt. Tang-yang “–—zŽR (Toyozan) at Chiang-ling ]—Ë (Koryo)in Hu-pei Province (ŒÎ–kÈ Kohokusho, Hubeisheng). About 700, he was invited to lecture at the palace by the Empress Wu (‘¥“V•@ Sokuten Buko). He died at the age of more than 100 and was posthumously given the title Ta-t'ung Ch'an-shih ‘å’Ê‘TŽt (Daitsu Zenji, Meditation Master Great Penetration). He wrote the Kanjin-ron ŠÏS˜_ (A Discourse on Meditation on the Mind). The circumstances under which his master Hung-jen transmitted the Dharma to his junior disciple, Hui-neng Œd”\ (Eno), are related in the Platform Sutra (Rokuso dankyo ˜Z‘c’hŒo). His line of Zen, which thrived in north China, came to be known as 'the Northern School' (Hokushu –k@) as distinct from Hui-neng's Zen, which was called 'the Southern School' (Nanshu “ì@).@

Joyoji Eon@ò‰eŽ›Œd‰“@Chin. Hui-yuan of Ching-ying Temple; 523-592; born in Tun-huang, he began his study of Buddhism at an early age, and at sixteen went to Yeh ‰®, the capital of Eastern Wei (Togi), and four years later received his ordination as a monk from Fa-shang (Hojo). He continued his study under him, but fled to Honan Province (‰Í“ìÈ Kanansho, Henansheng) when Wu-ti (Butei) of Northern Chou (Hokushu) persecuted Buddhism. Following the establishment of the Sui ä@ dynasty, he was invited to Ch'ang-an (Choan), where the Emperor Wen •¶’é (Buntei) built a temple for him, which was named Ching-ying ssu ò‰eŽ› (Joyoji). Since Hui-yuan was engaged in study and literary activity while living in that temple, he was known as Master Ching-ying ò‰e–@Žt (Joyo hosshi). Hui-yuan is assumed to have belonged to the Ti-lun (Jiron), dedicated to the study of Vasubandhu's (Seshin) Commentary on the Ten Stages Sutra (Jujiron), and, like his teacher, Fa-shang, aspired for birth in the Tusita Heaven (Tosotsuten). But he contributed to the development of Pure Land thought by writing commentaries on the Larger Sutra and the Contemplation Sutra. His interpretations of those sutras became the standard theory, so that the later masters, like Chi-tsang (Kichizo) and Shan-tao (Zendo), could not ignore them, but either accepted or refuted his views.
@Hui-yuan distinguished three kinds of pure lands: 1) Mundane lands of purity (jijodo Ž–ò“y), 2) Supramundane lands of purity (sojodo ‘Šò“y), 3) True land of purity (shinjodo ^ò“y). Ordinary beings with pure karma produce and dwell in mundane lands of purity, which are decorated with various treasures. Hinayana sages and bodhisattvas who perform meritorious practices that are still defiled produce pure lands of glorious manifestation and dwell there. Bodhisattvas above the First Stage and Buddhas produce true lands of purity, which are conformable to True Suchness and are formless and eternally abiding. Thus, according to Hui-yuan, even ordinary beings can have their own pure lands by performing good karma. Hui-yuan further distinguished the True Lands of Purity of the Buddhas into two groups: (A) 1) true lands (shindo ^“y) and 2) accommodated lands (odo ‰ž“y). (B) 1) lands of Dharma-nature (hosshodo –@«“y), 2) lands of true recompense (jippodo ŽÀ•ñ“y), and 3) perfect accommodated lands (en'odo ‰~‰ž“y). Those in division (B) are identical with the Three Buddha-bodies. The true lands in (A) correspond to 1) and 2) of division (B). According to Hui-yuan's classification, Amida is a Buddha of Accommodated Body, and his land is a Mundane Land of Purity, the reason being: 1) ordinary beings with defiled good karma can be born in his land and 2) the Sutra on Prediction to Avalokitesvara (Kannon-juki-kyo ŠÏ‰¹Žö‹LŒo) mentions that after Amida's passing into Nirvana, Avalokitesvara will become the next Buddha in the Pure Land. On the other hand, Hui-yuan admits that Amida has a superior Buddha-land but this aspect is not explained in the Contemplation Sutra.@

Junshiki …Ž®@Ch. Tsun-shih; a T'ien-t'ai master in Sung dynasty; he studied T'ien-t'ai under I-t'ung (‹`’Ê Gitsu) and became an intimate friend of Chih-li (’m—ç Chirei). After I-t'ung's death, he became his successor at the age of twenty-eight and lectured on the Golden Splendor Sutra, Vimalakirti Sutra, etc. He successfully prayed for rain-fall in 1000. Two years later, he built a hermitage on the west side of Mt. T'ien-t'ai to practice the nembutsu samadhi. In 1032, at the age of 69, he died after he said that he would be born in the Pure Land of Tranquil Light (jakko jodo ŽâŒõò“y). He wrote many works, including one on the Pure Land practice.@

Kakuban Šoèf@Popularly known as Mitsugon Sonja –§Œµ‘¸ŽÒ (Venerable@Mystic Glorification); (1095-1143). Born in Hizen Province (near the present Kagoshima City), on the 17th day of the 6th month, 1095, as the third of four sons, he was called Yachitose-maro –íçÎ–›.@His father died when Kakuban was 10, and in 1107, at the age of 13, he went to Kyoto and became a disciple of Kanjo Š°•, the founder of the Joju-in Hall ¬A‰@ and a well-known esoteric adept. In the following year, he went to Nara to study the Kusha and Hosso teachings under Keigyo Œb‹Å at the Kofukuji Temple. In 1110, he returned to the Joju-in and received the ordination of a novice from Kanjo and was given the name Shogaku-bo Kakuban ³Šo–[Šoèf. After the ordination, Kanjo sent him to Nara again - this time to the Todaiji Temple to learn the Sanron and Kegon teachings. In 1114, at the age of 20, Kakuban received the full ordination of a monk at the Todaiji Temple, and then went to Mt. Koya, where he was greeted by a nembutsu sage, Shoren Â˜@ of the Ojo-in Hall, a devout aspirant for Amida's Pure Land. Kakuban learned many ritual practices under Meijaku –¾Žâ, who was also known as an aspirant for the Pure Land through the Shingon nembutsu. Under Meijaku's guidance, Kakuban particularly practiced the ritual called 'Kokuzo gumonjiho,' dedicated to Kokuzo (Akasagarbha) Bodhisattva. During his stay on Mt. Koya, until he was 27 of age, he also received the Dharma-transmission abhiseka (Denbo kanjo) as many as eight times. When a large estate in Wakayama was donated to him, he invoked Shinto gods and built a shrine there to guard the Denbo-in Hall “`–@‰@ which was to be built on Mt. Koya. Later the Negoroji Temple ª—ˆŽ› was built on this site. In 1130, Kakuban received the patronage of the Ex-emperor Toba and his sanction to build the Denbo-in Hall on Mt. Koya. In 1131, he built the Daidenbo-in Hall ‘å“`–@‰@. Thus he succeeded in establishing a center for the study and practice of Shingon.
@Kakuban's next effort was to revive the Shingon rituals. At that time, there were two traditions of rituals in the Tomitsu “Œ–§: Ono ¬–ì and Hirosawa L‘ò schools, each divided into sub-schools. Besides those, another school, called 'Chuin' ’†‰@, was founded by Meizan –¾ŽZ (1021-1106) on Mt. Koya. Kakuban sought to unify them all by establishing the Denbo-in school. In 1134, an imperial decree was issued to designate the Daidenbo-in and the Mitsugon-in –§Œµ‰@, the latter constructed as Kakuban's residence, as temples for offering up prayers for the emperor, and Kakuban was nominated as the first zasu of the Daidenbo-in Hall. Monks of the Kongobuji Temple ‹à„•ôŽ›, the head temple of Mt. Koya, became angry and tried to expel Kakuban but the Ex-emperor's decree ruled that those monks be punished. Later that year, Kakuban was additionally appointed zasu of the Kongobuji Temple. Until that time, the zasu of the Toji Temple “ŒŽ› in Kyoto had also been the zasu of the Kongobuji, and so Mt. Koya had been effectively under the jurisdiction of the Toji Temple. Worried about further danger of incurring the wrath of those monks who had already sought his expulsion, Kakuban finally resigned as zasu of both temples and retired to the Mitsugon-in Hall. In 1139, the armed monks destroyed the Denbo-in Hall and its sub-temples, numbering more than eighty. Kakuban fled to Negoro in Wakayama, never to return to Mt. Koya again. He spent the rest of his life there teaching students and writing books.
@In 1143, when he was 49 years of age, he became ill and later that year he passed away while sitting in the lotus posture, making the appropriate mudra, and facing towards Mahavairocana's Pure Land. He was given the posthumous title Kogyo Daishi ‹»‹³‘åŽt by Emperor Higashiyama in 1690. Later, Raiyu —Šàï (1226-1304) finally moved the Daidenbo-in and the Mitsugon-in Halls to Negoro in 1288 and declared the independence of the new school called Shingi Shingon V‹`^Œ¾.
@Kakuban's lifework can be summarized under the following four headings: 1) Reviving the denbo-e lecture-meetings to promote the study of the Shingon teachings; 2) Founding the Denbo-in school to unify various traditions of Shingon ritualism; 3) Independence of the Kongobuji from the jurisdiction of the Toji; 4) Founding a new school of thought and practice uniting Shingon esotericism and the nembutsu, called 'Shingon Nembutsu' ^Œ¾”O•§ or 'Himitsu Nembutsu' ”é–§”O•§. Kakuban's literary works, amounting to more than 150, show the depth and scope of his scholarship which were grounded in his dedication to, and his mystic experience of Shingon esotericism. Above all, he made a great contribution to the transmission of Kukai's teachings by elaborating his theories of attaining Buddhahood with one's present body (sokushin jobutsu ‘¦g¬•§), the Dharmakaya's exposition of the Dharma (hosshin seppo –@gà–@), the ten stages of mind (jujushin \ZS), and so on. Based on his practice and personal experience, Kakuban also wrote a number of manuals of ritual performance, especially on the rite for increasing memory, dedicated to Akasagarbha (Kokuzo gumonjiho ‹•‹ó‘ ‹•·Ž–@ - Ritual of Praying to Akasagarbha for Increasing Memory), contemplation of the Sanskrit syllable 'A' (ajikan ˆ¢ŽšŠÏ), and contemplation of the moon-disc (gachirinkan ŒŽ—ÖŠÏ). Kakuban's theory of esoteric nembutsu appears in the following works: Gorin kuji hishaku ŒÜ—֋㎚”éŽß (Esoteric Exposition of the Five Cakras and the Nine Syllables), Ichigo taiyo himitsushaku ˆêŠú‘å—v”é–§Žß (Esoteric Exposition of the Most Important Matter in Life), and Amida hishaku ˆ¢–í‘É”éŽß (Esoteric Meaning of AMIDA).@

Kakunyo Šo”@@Shinran's great-grandson and the third chief abbot (monshu) of the Jodoshin school; 1270-1351; he was the eldest son of Kakue ŠoŒb (1239-1307). He studied Buddhism under Chokai ŸŠC and Gyokan sŠ°, and later under Nyoshin ”@M (1235-1300), Shinran's grandson and the second chief abbot of the Jodoshin school. Among his other teachers was Yuien —B‰~ of Kawada in Hitachi Province (present-day Ibaragi Prefecture), the probable author of the Tannisho (Notes Deploring Deviations). After returning from his pilgrimage to the places associated with Shinran, Kakunyo composed Hoonkoshiki •ñ‰¶uŽ® (Liturgy of the Ceremony for Acknowledging the Founder's Benevolence) in 1294 to commemorate the thirty-third year of Shinran's passing. In the following year, he composed a biography of Shinran, known as Honganji Shonin Shinran Denne –{ŠèŽ›¹leêa“`ŠG (Illustrated Biography of Shinran, Honganji's Shonin), Zenshin Shonin Shinran Denne ‘PMãleêa“`ŠG (Illustrated Biography of Shinran, Zenshin Shonin) or, simply, as Shinran Denne eêa“`ŠG (Illustrated Biography of Shinran); in this work, Kakunyo wrote the text and the illustrations were painted by Joga ò‰ê. The text of the biography was later compiled separately as Godensho Œä“`çâ (Biographical Notes), which became popular among the followers of this school
@In 1301, Kakunyo wrote Honen's biography with illustrations, entitled Shui kotokuden EˆâŒÃ“¿“` (An Additional Biography of the Ancient Master of Virtue), in which Kakunyo clarified Shinran's position in various Jodo schools which had developed after Honen's death. In 1310, with the approval of the followers, Kakunyo assumed the post of rusushiki —¯ŽçE (custodian or caretaker of Shinran's Mausoleum at Otani) and, in 1321, changed the name of the Mausoleum to 'Honganji' –{ŠèŽ› and undertook to institutionalize this as a temple.
@Among other works of Kakunyo there are the following: Shujisho Ž·Ž´ (Steadfast Holding to the Name), Kudensho Œû“`çâ (Orally Transmitted Words), and Gaijasho ‰üŽ×çâ (Correcting Wrong Views). Soon after his death, an illustrated biography depicting Kakunyo's life, entitled Bokieshi •ç‹AŠGŽŒ (Illustrated Statement Pining for the Passing), was compiled by Jukaku ]Šo, Kakunyo's second son. A little later, 1352, Kakunyo's disciple Josen æê wrote a supplementary biography of Kakunyo, Saishu Kyoju Eshi Å{ŒhdŠGŽŒ (Ilustrated Statement Showing Deepest Respect).

Kasai ‰ÞË@Ch. Chia-ts'ai; ca. 620-680; the author of the Pure Land Treatise ò“y˜_ (Jodoron); Chia-ts'ai was a Pure Land master who flourished about the time of Shan-tao (Zendo). Little is known of his life, except that he lived in a temple in Ch'ang-an. It is thought that he either belonged to the Three Discourses School (Sanronshu) or the She-lun School (Shoronshu) but was later converted to Pure Land Buddhism. In the preface of the Pure Land Treatise, he mentions Tao-ch'o's (Doshaku) Collection of Passages Concerning Birth in the Land of Peace and Bliss, saying that this text is disorderly and so he intends to present its contents in an orderly way. He quotes from many Mahayana scriptures and fully expounds the essentials of the Pure Land teaching. He also outlines the lives of twenty Pure Land monks, nuns and lay-followers, including T'an-luan (Donran) and Tao-ch'o, with stories of miraculous signs at death. Being himself an devotee to the nembutsu, he widely recommended it to others. This work had a great influence on the Pure Land masters of the later generations. In Japan, too, Chiko, Ryogen, and Genshin quoted Chia-ts'ai and adopted his views in their doctrinal systems.@He accepted the theory of three Buddha-bodies, and each of them has its corresponding Buddha-land, as follows: 1) the Land of the Buddha of Dharma-body (hosshin jodo –@gò“y) - the land identical with True Suchness; 2) the Land of the Buddha of Recompensed Body (hojin jodo •ñgò“y) - this land is of two kinds: a. the True Recompensed Land (jitsuhodo ŽÀ•ñ“y): the land which rewards the Buddha's meritorious practices and whose essence is Emptiness; the Buddha's physical characteristics are innumerable, but even the bodhisattvas of the highest stage cannot see them; b. the Functional Land (jiyudo Ž–—p“y): the land with limited dimensions, where bodhisattvas above the First Stage can see this Buddha's physical glory. 3) the Land of the Buddha of Transformed Body (keshin jodo ‰»g) - this is divided into two kinds: a) the Everlastingly Manifested Land (jozuike í‰»): the land manifested at all times as the result of the Buddha's meritorious practices for the sake of others; he manifests himself as an Accommodated Body with thirty-two physical marks of excellence and, after living in the world for a certain period of time, passes into nirvana; b) the Apparitional Land (muni kotsuu –³Ž§š—L): this is a secondary manifestation from the Everlastingly Manifested Land; this can be perceived by bodhisattvas of the lower stages, Hinayana sages and ordinary beings. Chia-ts'ai considered Amida's Pure Land as containing the three spheres corresponding to the three Buddha-bodies: 1) the Land of the Buddha of Dharma-body (hosshin jodo –@gò“y) - the sphere perceived by the intuitive wisdom of bodhisattvas above the First Stage; 2) the Land of the Buddha of Recompensed Body (hojin jodo •ñgò“y) - the sphere perceived by their discriminative wisdom; 3) the Land of the Buddha of Transformed Body (keshin jodo ‰»gò“y) - the sphere perceived by bodhisattvas below the First Stage, Hinayana sages and ordinary beings. Bodhisattvas like Nagarjuna, upon birth in the Pure Land, can see all three spheres, but ordinary beings born there can see only the Land of the Buddha of Transformed Body.

Rennyo ˜@”@@(1415-1499); a descendant of Shinran and the eighth chief abbot (monshu) of Hongwanji, Kyoto. He was called Hoteimaru •z‘ÜŠÛ in his childhood, later he was named Kenju Œ“Žõ. When he was six, his mother who was a maid serving Zonnyo ‘¶”@, the seventh chief abbot, left him to live in obscurity. When he was 17, he received his ordination from Sonno ‘¸‰ž at the Shoren-in Temple Â˜@‰@. While studying the teaching of Jodoshinshu from his father, he assisted him in spreading the Dharma in Omi Province (present-day Shiga Prefecture) and Northern Japan. In 1457, when he was 43, he became the chief abbot, and continued his missionary activity in the Omi region. Displeased with the growing popularity of Rennyo's movement, the warrior-monks of the Enryakuji Temple on Mt. Hiei attacked and destroyed the Hongwanji in 1465; so he moved to Kawachi (eastern part of Osaka Prefecture) and then to Omi Province. In 1471, he built a temple, a new center of his activity, in Yoshizaki in Echizen Province (present-day Fukui Prefecture), and succeeded in attracting a large number of followers. He started a unique way of transmitting the Dharma through the use of letters, which were widely read among the followers and contributed enormously to the dissemination of the teaching throughout the country, even among the illiterate. The growth of Shin Buddhism in Northern Japan, however, often created troubles with local manor lords and governors, culminating in "ikko ikki uprisings" in Echizen, Kaga and Etchu Provinces. In order to avoid further conflicts, Rennyo withdrew from Yoshizaki in 1475 and moved the center of his activity to the Osaka-Kyoto area. At the suggestion of his disciple, Dosai “¹¼, he built in Yamashina, east of Kyoto, the Founder's Hall (1480) and the Amida Hall (1481), which became the foundation of the Hongwanji institution. In 1489, he retired as the chief abbot, leaving this position to his fifth son, Jitsunyo ŽÀ”@. With undiminished missionary spirit, in 1496 he built a temple in Ishiyama, Osaka - at the site where the Osaka Castle now stands - and spent the rest of his life there. When he became ill in 1498, he returned to Yamashina, where he passed away the following year at the age of 85. Later, in 1882, Rennyo was awarded the posthumous title, Eto Daishi Œd“”‘åŽt (Master of the Lamp of Wisdom), by Emperor Meiji.
  At the height of his missionary activity, Rennyo edited and published the Shoshinge ³M˜ó and Jodo Wasan ò“y˜aŽ] as the standard service book for everybody. With the addition of The Letters, this form of service has continued to be held daily in every Jodoshinshu household and temple. As a guide for correct understanding of the Shoshinge, Rennyo wrote An Outline of the Shoshinge. His Dharma-messages, casual remarks, and records of his day-to-day acts were later compiled into the Record of the Life of Master Rennyo by Jitsugo ŽÀŒå, the tenth son of Rennyo, in 1580. As a method of spreading the teaching to the masses, Rennyo painted a great number of myogo (Amida's Name as the main object of worship). Besides the six-character name (rokuji myogo), he liked to paint what is called 'mugeko honzon' –³ŠVŒõ–{‘¸, using the ten-character name (juji myogo) as the main object of worship. He recommended his followers to use myogo as the object of worship rather than paintings and statues of Amida Buddha, saying, "In other schools, paintings are preferred to names, and statues are preferred to paintings. In this school, paintings are preferred to statues, and named are preferred to paintings." Cf. myogo honzon.


Shinran
@eêa   The founder of the Jodoshin school (1173-1262). Born of the Fujiwara clan at Hino “ú–ì, southeast of Kyoto, he was called Matsuwakamaro ¼ŽáŠÛ. Bereft of his parents when very young, he entered the priesthood at the age of nine under Jien Žœ‰~ of the Shoren-in Â˜@‰@, Kyoto, and was named Hannen ”͉ƒ. Then he went to Mt. Hiei, where he practiced the Tendai method of salvation until 29, while working as a keeper of the Jogyozanmai-do ísŽO–†“°. Having found that 20 years of study and practice were useless for attaining enlightenment, he left the mountain to seek other ways. He attempted a 100-day confinement at the Rokkaku-do Temple ˜ZŠp“° in Kyoto to pray to Prince Shotoku, who built the temple, for a revelation of the way he should follow and, at dawn, on the 95th day, he was given words of inspiration. Encouraged by them and led by his friend, Seikaku ¹Šo, he went to see Honen who was, at the time, propagating the nembutsu teaching. He then became Honen's disciple and changed his name to Shakku ã^‹ó, later adopting the bo-name Zenshin ‘PM (see Shinaga no byokutsuge). Under the master's guidance, he abandoned efforts to attain salvation by his own power (jiriki) and entrusted himself whole-heartedly to Amida Buddha.
  When the nembutsu teaching became prohibited and Honen was exiled to Shikoku in 1207, Shinran was exiled to Kokubu ‘•{ in Echigo Province (the present-day Niigata Prefecture) where he married Eshin-ni œ¨M“ò (according to a new theory, he had already married in Kyoto). He was pardoned in 1211 but, having heard of the death of Honen, he stayed on and, in 1214, left Echigo and went to Hitachi í—¤ Province (present-day Ibaraki Prefecture). While there, he propagated the teaching of the nembutsu based on Amida's power (tariki) and began to compile his magnum opus, the Kyogyoshinsho (Teaching, Practice, Faith and Enlightenment), which he finished after he returned to Kyoto at about the age of 62. Shinran's literary activity continued until near the end of his life at the age of 90. Emperor Meiji gave him the posthumous name and title, Kenshin Daishi Œ©^‘åŽt.
  When Shinran was exiled at the age of 35, he was deprived of his priesthood and given a layman's name, Fujii Yoshizane “¡ˆä‘PM. Aware of the fact that he was no longer a priest or a layman, he called himself 'Gutoku Shinran' ‹ð“Ðeêa (Ignorant stubble-haired Shinran). Having no monastic precepts to abide by, he married and became the father of one son or two sons and five daughters. He led his life as a hijiri, or Pure Land saint, and remained in obscurity in the clerical world. He did not have a temple of his own and his gatherings generally took place at laymen's houses or gathering places (dojo “¹ê). His insight and scholarship, however, found their expression in his Kyogyoshinsho and other works, which have immortalized his name as a great systematizer of the Pure Land doctrine and a renovator of Buddhism as a whole. Shinran had no intention of founding a new sect or school but a Sangha began to be formed after his death which, in time, became the largest Pure Land denomination, notably through the great effort of the eighth abbot Rennyo ˜@”@ (1415-1499). Today, the Nishi Honganji, the largest of all the subschools of Jodoshin, has more than ten thousand temples in Japan and abroad, and the second largest, the Higashi Honganji, has nearly the same number of affiliated temples.
  Shinran takes his basic standpoint on the Other-Power originating from the Vows of Amida. The idea of Other-Power is found in every aspect of his doctrinal system and runs through his teaching of nembutsu-Faith. In the Larger Sutra, he found the full explanation of this transcendent Power and so he considered this sutra as the true teaching. In his view, the two other Pure Land sutras, namely, the Contemplation Sutra, and the Amida Sutra, are provisional teachings and their functions are to lead people to the Larger Sutra. Shinran closely followed Honen's nembutsu teaching and practice but, in the face of mounting criticisms leveled against Honen's Senjakushu, Shinran sought to reveal the master's true intent in his own Buddhological framework, as did his fellow-disciples. The Bodhi-mind, for instance, was not emphasized in Honen's teaching but Shinran reinstated it as the mind endowed by Amida.
  Besides the Kyogyoshinsho, the most comprehensive work on all aspects of the  Jodoshin teaching, 6 fasc., Shinran wrote other works in classical Chinese, including: 1) Jodo-monruijusho ò“y•¶—ÞãÚçâ (Passages on the Pure Land Way), which is an abridgement of the Kyogyoshinsho; 2) Gutokusho ‹ð“Ãçâ (Gutoku's Notes), also called Nikanjo “ñŠªçâ (Two-Fascicle Tract), in which he summarizes the classification of the Buddhist teachings (niso-shiju) and also explains important terms; and 3) Nyushutsu-nimonge “üo“ñ–å˜ó (Hymn of the Two Gateways of Entrance and Emergence), an explanation in verse form of the essentials of Vasubandhu's Discourse on the Pure Land which centered around the Five Minful Practices (gonenmon). Shinran composed a large number of Japanese hymns, including the three collections of hymns: 1) Jodo Wasan ò“y˜aŽ] (Hymns on the Pure Land), 118 hymns; 2) Koso Wasan ‚‘m˜aŽ] (Hymns on the Pure Land Masters), 119 hymns on the Seven Masters; and 3) Shozomatsu Wasan ³‘œ––˜aŽ] (Hymns on the Three Dharma-Ages), 58 hymns, composed after Shinran was 85 years of age. This collection also comprises Kaigisan ær‹^Ž] (Admonition against Doubts), 23 hymns, Kotaishi Shotoku Hosan c‘¾Žq¹“¿•òŽ] (Hymns in Praise of Prince Shotoku), 11 hymns, Gutoku Hitanjukkai ‹ð“ÔߒQq‰ù (Gutoku's Hymns of Lament and Reflections), 16 hymns,  and Zenkoji Wasan ‘PŒõŽ›˜aŽ] (Hymns of Lament in Relation to Zenkoji Temple), 5 hymns. Additionally, Shinran wrote the following commentarial discourses: 1) Sangyo-ojo-monrui ŽOŒo‰¶•¶—Þ (Collection of Passages Concerning Three Modes of Birth in the Pure Land in Accordance with the Three Sutras), which explains the implicit and explicit teachings of the Three Sutras with reference to the three vows - the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth; 2) Songo-shinzo-meimon ‘¸†^‘œ–Á•¶ (Notes on the Inscriptions on Sacred Scrolls), which comprises explanations of the inscriptions written on scrolls of the Sacred Names and eminent masters' portraits; 3) Ichinen-tanen-shomon ˆê”O‘½”OØ•¶ (Notes on One Recitation and Many Recitations of the Name), which seeks to revolve the disputes among Honen's disciples as to whether one recitation is sufficient or many recitations are necessary; this is a commentary on Ryukan's —²Š° Ichinen-tanen-funbetsuji ˆê”O‘½”O•ª•ÊŽ– (On Discerning between One Recitation and Many Recitaions); 4) Yuishinsho-mon'i —BMç╶ˆÓ (Notes on 'Faith Alone'), a commentary on the Yuishinsho —BMçâ (On Faith Alone) by Seikaku ¹Šo. Shinran's letters to his disciples in Kanto area were compiled into Mattosho ––“”çâ (Lamp for the Latter Ages), Goshosokushu ŒäÁ‘§W (A Collection of Letters), and so forth. Lastly, Shinran's words which his disciple Yuien —B‰~ directly heard in daily life are recorded in the celebrated Tannisho ’VˆÙ´ (Notes Lamenting Deviations).

Zendo
Zendo (613­819) was one of the greatest Pure Land exponenets of all time. He is celebrated as the third of the five Pure Land masters in China and the fifth of the seven patriarchs in the tradition of the Jodoshin school. He was born at Ssu­chou Ÿ™B (shishu) in present An­hui ˆÀ‹J (Anki) Province (according to another tradition, Lin­ssu —ÕŸ™ (Rinshi) in Shuntung ŽR“Œ Province). When young, he entered the priesthood and devoted himself to the study of the Lotus Sutra and the Vimalakirti Sutra. One day he saw a painting of the Pure Land, which led him to aspire for birth there. He visited Mt. Lu œIŽR (Rozan) and other places to study and practice the Pure Land teaching. For several years he lived at Wu­chen Temple Œå^Ž› (Goshinji) on Mt. Chung-nan I“ì (Shunan) and devoted himself to the contemplation of Amida and the Pure Land in accordance with the method of the Pratyutpanna samadhi, until he succefully visualized them.
  When he was about twenty years of age, he went to see Tao-ch'o “¹ã^ (Doshaku) (562-645), and became his disciple. According to scholarly opinion, Tao-ch'o's instructions continued from 629 to 636, that is, from the ages of 17 to 24. While attending the master's lectures on the Contemplation Sutra, he diligently practiced contemplation as prescribed in this sutra and finally attained the Buddha­visualization samadhi. He is said to have copied the Amida Sutra more than 100,000 times and made more than 300 paintings of the Pure Land. He is popularly known as 'the Master of the Kuang-ming-ssu' (Komyoji no kasho Œõ–¾Ž›‚̘a®) and 'the Great Master of Chung-nan' (Shunan Daishi I“ì‘åŽt). Later he went to Ch'ang -an ’·ˆÀ to spread the Pure Land teaching. He continued to practice contemplatio and recitation, along with strict observance of the precepts.
  In Shan-tao's time, the Contemplation Sutra was popular among Buddhist scholars, but their interpretations were unacceptable to Shan-tao. He wrote a four-fascicle commentary on t
his sutra and clarified the standpoint held by his predecessors, T'an-luan and Tao-ch'o. When EmperorKao Tsung ‚@ (Koso) issued an order to build a niche for a statue of Mahavairocana (Dainichi) at the Lung-men caves —´–åÎŒA (Ryumon sekkutsu) in Honan ‰Í“ì Province, Shan-tao was appointed supervisor. His influence was so great that thousands of people took refuge in Amida and practiced nembutsu.
  While following T'an-luan and Tao-ch'o, he developed his own system of practice which centered on recitative nembutsu. His line of Pure Land teaching, known as the Shan-tao School, was widely practiced in China and was later transmitted to Japan. One of the greatest contributions which Shan-tao made to the development of Pure Land Buddhism was his clarification of the soteriological meaning of nembutsu. At that time, there were some masters of the Path of Sages who rejected the view that ten recitations of the Name - according to the Contemplation Sutra - are the cause of birth in the Pure Land, claiming that it could only become a remote cause of birth there. Their assertion was based on the theory presented in Asanga's (Mujaku) discourse on Mahayana to the effect that when Shakyamuni encouraged recitation of Amida's Name as the cause of birth in the Pure Land, he actually meant that such a practice alone would only lead to birth at some time in the future. Those masters misinterpreted nembutsu as a mere act of aspiration lacking in practice. Shan-tao refuted them, saying, "The ten times' nembutsu taught in the Contemplation Sutra contains ten aspirations and ten practices. How? 'Na-mo' (“ì–³j@‚‚…‚‚Ž‚“ 'taking refuge in'; it also means 'aspiring (for birth in the Pure Land) and transferring (the merit of practice towards it). 'A-mo-t'0-fo' (ˆ¢œ\‘ɘÅ) is the 'practice' (to be transferred for birth). For this reason, one can surely attain birth."
  Great masters of other schools, such as Hui-yuan Œd‰“ (Eon) of Ching-ying Temple ò‰eŽ›, Chih-i ’qŸœ(Chigi) of the Tendai School and Chi-tsang ‹g‘  (Kichizo) of of the San-lun School, shared the view that Amida was a Nirmanakaya Buddha (ojin). One of the reasons for advancing this theory is that Amida can be perceived even by ordinary people and Hinayana sages. Reasoning in accordance with scriptural evidence, Shan-tao refuted them and determined that Amida is a Sambhogakaya (hojin) Buddha manifested as the reward for his Vows. He pointed out that the Contemplation Sutra mentions the welcoming of 'the Tathagata Amida... together with innumerable transformed Buddhas'; this also is clear evidence that Amida is a Sambhogakaya Buddha.
  Shan-tao divided Buddhist practice into two: right acts and miscelleneous acts. Right acts accord with the teachings of the Pure Land Land sutras, and the miscelleneous ones do not. Right acts are as follows: 1) Chanting: single-mindedly chanting sutras such as the Contemplation Sutra, the Amida Sutra, and the Larger Sutra; 2) Contemplation: concentrating on Amida and his land of bliss; 3) Worshiping: single-mindedly worshiping Amida; 4) Recitation: single-mindedly reciting his Name; 5) Praising and making offerings: single-mindedly praising Amida and making offerings to him. Of the five right acts, the fourth is the most important and is called the 'act of right assurance' (shojogo ³’è‹Æ); the rest are called the 'auxiliary acts' (jogo •‹Æ). Concerning the act of right assurance, Shan-tao explains that it is to call the Name of Amida with singleness of mind, whether one is walking, standing, sitting or lying down, without interruption and irrespective of the duration of this practice. Such an act is called the 'act of right assurance,' because it accords with the Buddha's Vow. Shan-tao's Pure Land tradition was inherited by Honen, who founded the Jodo school in the 12th century.
  Shan-tao's main works are, firstly, the four-division commentary on the Contemplation Sutra (Shijo no so Žl’Ÿ‚Ì‘`): Gengibun (Œº‹`•ª, On the Essential Principles), Jobungi (˜•ª‹`, On the Prefatory Part), Jozengi (’è‘P‹`, On the Meditative Good), and Sanzengi (ŽU‘P‹`, On the Non-meditative Good). Those four works are expositions of the doctrine of the Contemplation Sutra. Secondly, and equally important from the viewpoint of Pure Land ritual practice and faith are the following works: 1) Hojisan (–@Ž–Ž], Liturgy of Services); 2) Kannenbomon (ŠÏ”O–@–å, Method of Contemplation); 3) Ojoraisan (‰¶âXŽ], Liturgy for Birth) and 4) Hanjusan (”ʏMŽ], Hymns of the Pratyutpanna Samadhi). They are collectively called subsidiary commentaries (gusho ‹ï‘`).

 


 

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