Case Examples


Example of:

    Community Organization/Mobilization

    • Scaling-Up of Upgrading

Click for a map of Pakistan

Karachi, Pakistan

Known as one of the most successful NGO sanitation provision projects, this community-owned, community-managed infrastructure upgrading program has helped over one million people to improve sanitation since its inception in 1980 when the primary means of sewage disposal were bucket latrines or soakpits, and open sewers. Its strategy is to minimize external support and help households achieve their own local development needs.
For further information:
Orangi Pilot Project Research and Training Institute (OPP-RTI)
1-D, 26 Daulat House,
Orangi Town, Karachi, Pakistan
tel.: 665-2297 fax: 9221-435704

Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan

Through research and extension, OPP implements sustainable solutions to local development problems. It promotes community organization to carry out sewerage projects rather than doing so itself.

In this vein, to encourage the mobilization of local managerial and financial resources and the practice of cooperative action, they:

  • Identify activists;
  • provide training in community organization and technical details;
  • provide further guidance and supervision; and
  • help to simplify designs so that they are affordable and can be technically implemented locally (“OPP,” 1)
(Approaches undertaken since its inception.)
First and foremost is the
  • low-cost sanitation program,
    which has installed over 72,000 sanitary latrines and 1.3 million feet of sewer lines.
  • low-cost housing program;
  • basic health and family planning program for segregated and illiterate women; and
  • credit for small family enterprises. (“OPP,” 2)
What worked and why?

The project has strengthened the position of women in the communities by encouraging participation in community affairs.

Also, by lowering the portion of family income spent on medical bills, it has allowed more money to be spent on other needs such as food, education, and housing.

What didn't work and why?
This project has brought extensive coverage of slums with secondary and tertiary sewer lines but along with that comes another problem: a lack of primary lines, which are the responsibility of the government. This experience is now spreading to other settlements in Pakistan.
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