Case Examples


Example of:

    Scaling-Up of Upgrading

Click for map of Tunisia


This US$67.4 million (1986 dollars) (US$30.2 million financed by the Bank) 8-year project, began in 1986 and it is an example of natural scaling-up of upgrading efforts. The government of Tunisia began to use the approach as its standard. The Implementation Completion Report notes “the replicability of project activities in their physical dimension is, by all means, possible and has already been proven” (ICR, iii) and that the project “achieved remarkable physical results” (ICR, iii).
For further information:
The World Bank. “Implementation Completion Report, Republic of Tunisia, Fourth Urban Development Project.” (Loans 2736-TUN) (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Private Sector Development, Finance and Infrastructure Division, Maghreb and Iran Department, Middle East and North Africa Regional Office, May 31, 1996)

  • Improve shelter and urban services for low-income households;
  • provide serviced land in urban areas affordable to low-income families; and
  • strengthen the capacity of sector institutions responsible for upgrading, land development and provision of shelter, as well as improve coordination amongst them” (Implementation Completion Report, 1).
  • the upgrading of infrastructure and rehabilitation of existing underserviced settlements;
  • the development of serviced lots for low-income households; and
  • technical assistance to improve existing institutional capacity.
What worked and why?
The physical improvements were carried out well. Their replicability is possible and in fact, is already happening.
What didn't work and why?
  • The project had a slow start due to problems encountered in selecting development sites. To deal with this, the Bank opened the project to private developers to begin housing construction. This, however changed the component and its objectives. It took up most of the funds directed toward the component yet it did not reach the low-income population due to the higher price of homes produced by the developers as compared to those available in the upgrading and sites and services areas.
  • “The experience of this project suggests that active participation of the target population is necessary for the success of urban operations and their sustainability” (ICR, iv).
  • “more attention should be paid to the qualitative aspects of the buildings and spaces created” (ICR, iv).
To Learn More:
The World Bank. “Staff Appraisal Report, Republic of Tunisia, Fourth Urban Development Project.” Report no. 5444-TUN, Loan 2736-TUN (Washington, D.C.: Urban and Regional Development Projects Division Europe, Middle East, and North Africa Region, June 9, 1986)
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