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Getting Started: Identification
Worksheet: Strategies in Scaling-Up: Where and What?

Three key underlying questions must be addressed in any approach:

1) What is more precisely meant by upgrading? (parameters, scope, components);
2 ) What is scaling-up? (how can you tell it when you see it?);
3 ) What criteria do you use to judge success of scaling-up? (time to implement is a key indicator, but also % of people served at X standard? poverty and health situation improved?).


What is the minimum policy framework for upgrading? Security of tenure clearly is necessary, and what else? The fundamental assumption is that scaling-up slum improvement is a necessary and needed action.

Strategies may vary according to:

a - Sophistication of government: “Low” end governments have capacity limited to more basic techniques, simpler components, and simpler implementation.
“High” end governments have capacity for relatively sophisticated techniques, high-end components, and more complex implementation.

b - Level of demand: a very high and growing demand would probably require a conceptual shift; and conversely, a more limited demand perhaps allows expansion and improvement of current practices.

Capacity of Government
Limited government effectiveness, limited skilled personnel, low paid staff.
Customary pit latrines, standpipes, basic road and path surfacing, etc.
Relatively effective government structure, adequate number of skilled personnel, better paid staff.
Customary piped water and sewage networks, paved roads, etc.
Point of View, Perspective, Bias Expand and improve existing proven policies. Belief that experience and techniques available and sufficient to address issues. Lacking is widespread implementation efforts and political commitment.    
Conceptual shift required in strategies and innovative policies.
Belief that only through a conceptual leap can progress be made.
Is there a trigger component that would initiate action?

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