Strategic Planning Guide
Planning Guide for Strategic Municipal Solid Waste Management in Major Cities in Low-income Countries. Prepared by Environmenta Resources Management for the World Bank/SDC. 1999(?)

This 7-step example is targeted toward waste management at the city scale. For use at other scales adjustment would be necessary, but the general stages would remain the same.

Step 1: Mobilising the Planning Process
Step 1 is concerned with how to get started with the strategic planning process. Guidance is structured in two areas, the ‘political’ mobilising support and the ‘functional’ organising the work. Step 1 provides the political and operational arrangements for developing the Strategic MSWM Plan.

A worksheet aids in identifying the key players that need to be involved. (See: Worksheet: Stakeholders)

Step 2: Defining the Baseline
Step 2 is focused on understanding the baseline situation and likely future requirements for MSWM in your city. Aspects to be addressed include:

    General guidance on data collection
    Measurement of waste quantities and waste composition
    Reviewing waste management operations
    Predicting future capacity requirements.
    Understanding shortfalls and constraints

Outputs from Step 2 are presented at two stages. A Baseline Study or audit of MSWM in your City should be prepared in time to feed into definition of key issues. During the remaining stages data gaps are filled and more detailed information collected to supplement this initial Baseline Study.

Step 3: Establishing the Strategic Planning Framework
Step 3 covers the range of issues that need to be established at the outset of the planning process to determine the framework for the Strategic MSWM Plan. Aspects to be addressed include:

    Defining the strategic vision
    Status of the strategic plan
    Selecting the planning area and period
    Selecting waste types to be covered by the plan
    Defining service levels
    Defining key issues
    Setting objectives and targets

The output is an agreed Strategic Planning Framework.

Step 4: Identifying and Evaluating Options
Step 4 can in many ways be regarded as the core of the planning process. Here, identifying and evaluating options are required to address the key issues being faced. Five sub-Steps are suggested:

    Step 4a Institutional Framework
    Step 4b Waste Collection and Recycling
    Step 4c Waste Treatment and Disposal
    Step 4d Financial Sustainability
    Step 4e Public Awareness and Participation

Step 4 provides information and analysis to support both development of the strategy (Step 5) and preparation of the action plan (Step 6).

Step 5: Developing the Strategy
The Strategy provides the ‘umbrella’ under which to progress with the more detailed work required for the Action Plan. Defining the strategy will involve an initial evaluation of options required to address key issues. Aspects to be addressed include:

    Nature of the strategy
    Building consensus and ownership
    Defining the Strategy
    Preparing and finalising the Strategy

The output is a Strategy which has been agreed by all key stakeholders and can act as a ‘framework’ for preparation of the Action Plan.

Step 6: Preparing the Action Plan
Step 6 develops the Action Plan required to turn the Strategy into practical reality. The Action Plan will involve detailed evaluation and selection of options to be pursued. Aspects to be covered include:

    Nature of the Action Plan
    Pre-feasibility studies
    Preparing an Immediate Action Plan
    Preparing an Investment Plan
    Gaining formal approval

The outputs will be an Action Plan, Immediate Action Plan and Investment Plan, which combined with the Strategy will form the Strategic MSWM Plan.

Step 7: Implementing the Strategic Plan
Strategic planning for MSWM is not an end in itself; the agreed plan must be effectively implemented. Three aspects should be addressed:

    Moving from planning to implementation
    Revising and updating the plan
    Performance monitoring

Show early improvements on the ground
Both the public and many other stakeholders in MSWM are likely to regard the municipal authorities as part of the problem in MSWM, as well as part of the solution. Therefore, it is important that the authorities establish credibility during the planning process by showing their commitment to action.

Relatively small, simple and low cost measures can be implemented at the ground level to raise the profile of waste management and demonstrate the commitment of the municipality to improving its services.