APA--Electronic Sources

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Electronic sources

The format for documenting electronic sources of information, like the sources themselves, is still being developed. The following forms are taken from the Publication Manual of the APA, 4th ed. (1994), and recent standards proposed by T. Land (1996) to extend APA style for referencing online documents. In general, all electronic sources in APA style have five elements: author, date, title, document type, and publication information.

CD-ROMS and Other Portable Databases

Provide the author, date, and title information as you would for a print source. Identify the medium (such as CD-ROM), electronic tape, cartridge tape) in brackets after the title. At the end of the entry, include the location and name of the product.

Journal Abstract on CD-ROM

     Steinhausen, H. D., & Vollrath, M. (1993).

The self-image of adolescent patterns with

eating disorders [CD-ROM]. International

Journal of Eating Disorders, 13(2), 221-227.

Abstract from: Silverplatter File: PsycLIT

Item 80-33985.

Information Published Only on CD-ROM

     Solution Software. (1996). Material Safety

Datasheets [CD-ROM]. Enterprise, FL:


Computer Software

Corel Corporation, Ltd. (1996). Quattro Pro (Ver. 6.02 for Windows)

[Computer Software]. (1996). Dublin, Ireland:


Online Sources

For a source that is revised regularly, add, if available, the source's day and month of publication or the day and month it was last modified as part of the date entry, and include in parentheses at the end of the citation the date you visited the source in the form (visited year, month, day). The publication information for any standard World Wide Web source is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The proposed, but not yet accepted, APA style (Land, 1996) begins the publication element of all World Wide Web sites with the capital letters "URL" followed by a space and the full URL path underlined. Do not end a URL with a period or any other punctuation. Begin a URL on a new line rather than breaking it between two lines.

Journal Published Only Online

     Harnack, A., & Kleppinger, G. (1996).

Beyond the MLA Handbook: Documenting

electronic sources on the Internet [On-line

serial]. Kairos, 1(2). URL


Document Available through the World Wide Web

     Land, T. (1996, March 31). Web extension

to American Psychological Association style

(WEAPAS) [WWW Document] (Rev. 1.2.4). URL


(visited 1996, September 21).

Document Retrieved from a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Archive

     Curtis, P. (1992). Mudding: Social phenomena

in text-based virtual realities [FTP archive]. Available FTP:

Hostname: parcftp.xerox.com.pub/MOO/papers/DIAC92

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## APA: Electronic Sources ##
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