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Irregular Verbs

The following chart lists the past tense and the past participle form of common irregular verbs. All modal auxiliaries are irregular. See the chart in Section 11.3.5 for their forms.

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Base Form         Simple Past       Past Participle
arise             arose             arisen
awake             awoke             awoken/awaked
be                was/were          been
bear              bore              borne
beat              beat              beaten
become            became            become
begin             began             begun
bend              bent              bent
bet               bet               bet
bid               bade/bid          bidden/bid
bind              bound             bound
bite              bit               bitten
bleed             bled              bled
blow              blew              blown
break             broke             broken
breed             bred              bred
bring             brought           brought
broadcast         broadcast         broadcast
build             built             built
burst             burst             burst
buy               bought            bought
cast              cast              cast
catch             caught            caught
choose            chose             chosen
cling             clung             clung
come              came              come
cost              cost              cost
creep             crept             crept
cut               cut               cut
deal              dealt             dealt
dig               dug               dug
dive              dived/dove        dived
do                did               done
draw              drew              drawn
drink             drank             drunk
drive             drove             driven
eat               ate               eaten
fall              fell              fallen
feed              fed               fed
feel              felt              felt
fight             fought            fought
find              found             found
fit               fit               fit
flee              fled              fled
fling             flung             flung
fly               flew              flown
forbid            forbade           forbidden
forecast          forecast          forecast
forget            forgot            forgotten
forgive           forgave           forgiven
forsake           forsook           forsaken
freeze            froze             frozen
get               got               gotten
give              gave              given
go                went              gone
grind             ground            ground
grow              grew              grown
hang              hung              hung
have              had               had
hear              heard             heard
hide              hid               hidden
hit               hit               hit
hold              held              held
hurt              hurt              hurt
keep              kept              kept
know              knew              known
lay               laid              laid
lead              led               led
leave             left              left
lend              lent              lent
let               let               let
lie               lay               lain
light             lit/lighted       lit/lighted
lose              lost              lost
make              made              made
mean              meant             meant
meet              met               met
mislay            mislaid           mislaid
mistake           mistook           mistaken
pay               paid              paid
prove             proved            proved/proven
put               put               put
quit              quit              quit
read              read              read
rid               rid               rid
ride              rode              ridden
ring              rang              rung
rise              rose              risen
run               ran               run
say               said              said
see               saw               seen
seek              sought            sought
sell              sold              sold
send              sent              sent
set               set               set
shake             shook             shaken
shed              shed              shed
shine             shone/shined      shone/shined
shoot             shot              shot
show              showed            shown/showed
shrink            shrank/shrunk     shrunk
shut              shut              shut
sing              sang              sung
sink              sank              sunk
sit               sat               sat
slay              slew              slain
sleep             slept             slept
slide             slid              slid
slit              slit              slit
speak             spoke             spoken
speed             sped/speeded      sped/speeded
spend             spent             spent
spin              spun              spun
spit              spit/spat         spit/spat
split             split             split
spread            spread            spread
spring            sprang/sprung     sprung
stand             stood             stood
steal             stole             stolen
stick             stuck             stuck
sting             stung             stung
stink             stank/stunk       stunk
strike            struck            struck/stricken
string            strung            strung
strive            strove            striven
swear             swore             sworn
sweep             swept             swept
swim              swam              swum
swing             swung             swung
take              took              taken
teach             taught            taught
tear              tore              torn
tell              told              told
think             thought           thought
throw             threw             thrown
thrust            thrust            thrust
tread             trod              trodden/trod
understand        understood        understood
undertake         undertook         undertaken
upset             upset             upset
wake              woke/waked        woken/waked
wear              wore              worn
weave             wove              woven
weep              wept              wept
win               won               won
wind              wound             wound
withdraw          withdrew          withdrawn
wring             wrung             wrung
write             wrote             written

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## Irregular Verbs ##
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