Works Cited


    Abdollahi, K.; Ning, Z. (2006) Gulf Coast Regional Climate, Southern University.
    American Society of Civil Engineers. (1999) Instrumentation of Embankment Dams and Levees. Reston : American Society of Civil Engineers
    Anonymous. (2006, June 13). Congress Passes Hurricane Recovery Funding. United States Fed News.
    Barnes, F. (2006). Post-Katrina Politics./ The Weekly Standard, 11/(32), 8. 
    Barry, John M. (1997). Rising Tide. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
    Bea, K.. (2006). Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief. From CRS report for Congress.
    Bernstein, Mark A. and Julie Kim and Paul Sorenson and Mark Hanson and Adrian Overton and Scott Hiromoto (2006). Rebuilding Housing Along the Mississippi Coast: Ideas for Ensuring an Adequate Supply of Affordable Housing. RAND Corporation.
    Bischof, Günter. "Katrina Journal: What Needs to Be Done in New Orleans Now." History News Network 07 Nov 2005 17 Sep 2006 .
    Bordeau, Cain. (2006 Jun 2). Louisiana Had Disjointed Storm Protection, ‘Was System in Name Only,’ Corps Finds. Chicago Defender.  
    Brodie, M., Weltzien, E., Altman, D., Blendon, R. J., & Benson, J.M. (2006, August). Experiences of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees in Houston Shelters: Implications for Future Planning. American Journal of Public Health, 96(8), 1402-1409.
    Brown, L. (2006) Global Warming Forcing United States Coastal Population to Move Inland. Earth Policy Institute.
    Burnham, Michael. "Hurricanes: As Ernesto Looms, traders place bets on economic fallout." Greenwire 28 Aug 2006 16 Sep 2006 .

    Cauley, Leslie (2006, 18 January). "Reconstruction Also Focuses on Image" [Electronic Version]. USA Today. Retrieved on September 19, 2006.
    Chapple, C. (2006, September 21). Residents Find Zoning Proposal Lacking. The Times-Picayune, p. n/a.
    Chapelle, K. (2006, August 28). One Year After Katrina: The Progress, The Hope, The Anger, The Recovery. Jet, p. 6-12.
    City of New Orleans (2006, August 10). Residents take pride in New Orleans. US Fed News Service, Including US State News, p. n/a.
    ᾤClimate.” National Geographic Atlas of the World. Eighth Edition.2005.
    Colten, C. E. (2002).Reintroducing Nature to the City: Wetlands in New Orleans. Environmental History. 7, 226-247. 
    Cooper, Christopher and Block, Robert (2006). Disaster: Hurricane Katrina And the Failure of Homeland Security . New York, NY: Times Books.
    Day, J.W., Jae-Young Ko, J. Rybczyk, D. Sabins, R. Bean, G. Berthelot, C. Brantley, L. Cardoch, W. Conner, J.N. Day, A.J. Englande, S. Feagley, E. Hyfield, R. Lane, J. Lindsey, J. Mistich, E. Reyes, R. Twilley. (2005). "The Use of Wetlands in the Mississippi Delta for Wastewater Assimlation: A Review."  Elsevier. Retrieved Oct 22, 2006. From: 
    Dean, C. (2006, September 9, 2006). Time to move the mississippi, experts say. [Electronic version]. The New York Times, Retrieved November 10, 2006, from database.
    Dean, Cornelia. "Mississippi River Needs to Be Diverted, Experts Say." New York Times (2006)
    Dean, R. G. (2006).New Orleans and the Wetlands of Southern Louisiana. The Bridge. 36
    (2005, November/December). Did Big Government Return with Hurricane Katrina? Cato Scholars Take on Government Failure, Spending Splurge [Electronic Version]. Cato Policy Report, 4-5. Retrieved on September 20, 2006.
    Dixon, T. H., Amelung, F., Ferretti, A., Novali, F., Rocca, F., & Dokka, R., et al. (2006). Space geodesy: Subsidence and flooding in new orleans. [Electronic version]. Nature, 441, 587-588. Retrieved September 20, 2006, from CSA Illumina database.
    Dokka, R. (2005). Testimony of roy K. dokka regarding the effect of subsidence on flood protection options and water resources planning on the gulf coast
    Dokka, R. K. (2006). Modern-day tectonic subsidence in coastal louisiana. Geology, 34(4), 281.
    Donze, F. (9/5/06). High-stakes election is ho-hum to most locals. /The Times Picayune/.
    Donze, F. (2006, September 21). Inspector General Plan Wins Support. The Times-Picayune, p. n/a.
    Douglass, David H., Pearson, Benjamin D., Singer, S. Fred. (2004). Altitude Dependence of Atmospheric Temperature Trends: Climate Models Versus Observation. In Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 31.
    Edgecombe, E., Gray, R., Jackson, D., Matkovich, S., Pater, D., & Rudie, J., et al. (2003). Community investment advisory council 2003 annual reportChicago Federal Home Loan Bank. Retrieved November 21, 2006,
    Eichenseher, Tasha. (2006 Feb 16) Gulf Recovery: With federal cash at stake, La. lawmakers scurry to consolidate levee boards.
    Emanuel K. (2005). Divine Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes. (New York, NY) Oxford University Press, Inc.
    (2005, 14 September). Establishing the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina : [electronic resource] report, together with minority views (to accompany H. Res. 437) [Eletronic Version]. Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved on September 19, 2006.
    (2006, 16 March). A failure of initiative [electronic resource] : supplementary report and document annex / by the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. [Eletronic Version]. Federal Emergency Management Agency -- Evaluation. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
    Faulkner, S. (2004). Soils and Sediment. Wetlands. Ed. Sharon L. Spray and Karen L. McGlothlin. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc., 2004. 30-54. 
    Fielkow, Arnie. "Cost of N.O. Inspector General a Bargain Compared to Waste." New Orleans CityBusinss. 16 Oct. 2006. Retrieved on Nov. 5, 2006 from LexisNexis.
    First Responders Urged Not to Respond to Hurricane Impact Areas Unless Dispatched by State, Local Authorities. United States Federal Emergency Management Administration. 2005. Retrieved on17 Nov. 2006 from
    Fischetti, Mark. (2006 Feb) Protecting New Orleans. Scientific American Vol. 294 (Issue 2).
    Fitzpatrick, P.  (1999).  Natural disasters: hurricanes.  Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO
    Foertsch, Tracy L. and Rector, Ralph A. (2005, 21 September). "The Economic and Budgetary Effects of the Katrina Tax Relief Act of 2005 [Eletronic Version]. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on September 19, 2006.
    Froomkin, Dan (2005, 15 September). Who's in Charge? Karl Rove! [Electronic Version]. The Washington Post. Retrieved on September 20, 2006.

    Gamboa, S. (2006, June 15). Spending bill includes hurricane, border money. The Associated Press.
    GAO Reports. (2006, May 15). Better Plans and Exercises Needed to Guide the Military's Response to Catastrophic Natural Disasters.
    GAO Reports. (2006, September 6). Governmentwide Framework Needed to Collect and Consolidate Information to Report on Billions in Federal Funding for the 2005 Gulf Coast Hurricanes.
    GAO Reports. (2006, July 31). Observations on the preparation, response, and recovery missions related to Hurricane Katrina.
    Gimble, Thomas F. (2006, April 10). Post-Katrina Contracting Costs. CQ Congressional Testimony.
    "Graphic of New Orleans Geography." The Voice of Hurricane and Disaster Recovery. 19 Sep 2006 .
    Granger, D. (2006). In Granger E. (Ed.), Phone conversation.
    Greater New Orleans Community Data Center. (2006 Feb 12). Current Housing Unit Damage Estimates Report.  
    Grissett, Sheila. "Army Corps: Agency has yet to start many key New Orleans levee projects." New Orleans Times-Picayune (2006).
    Grissett, Sheila. "Corps Receives Fair Grade from Levees Group." New Orleans Times-Picayune (2006)
    Harrald, John R. (2006, June 8). National Emergency Management Structure. CQ  Congressional Testimony.

    Hart, David A., Burkett, Virginia A., Ziloski, David A. Sea Level Rise and Subsidence: Implications of Flooding in New Orleans, Louisiana. United States Geological Survey.

    Hayden, Thomas. "Super Storms, No End in Sight." National Geographic Magazine Aug 2006: 66-77.
    Hearn, P.  (2004).  Hurricane Camille: monster storm of the Gulf Coast.  Jackson, MI: University Press of Mississippi.
    Hendrickson, Jons S., Schneider, Michelle J. (1999). Hydraulic Evaluation of Discharge Over Submerged Rock Wing Dams on the Upper Mississippi River. [Electronic version]. WOTS, Water Quality Technical Note PD-06. Retreived 11/08/06 from
    Horne, Jed (2006). Breach of Faith: Hurricane Katrina and the Near Death of a Great American City . New York, NY: Random House.
    Houghton, J.T., Jenkens, G.J., Ephraums, J.J. (1990). Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. IPCC. Cambridge University Press, 365 pp. 1990.
    H.R.4650 National Levee Safety Program Act of 2006 (2006 July 28) Reported in House.
    Hsu, Spencer. "Army Corps: Agency Lacks Plan to fix New Orleans levees." Washington Post (2006)
    Hudson, A. (2006, April 24). An ill wind blows the Senate good; Katrina relief earmarked for Bronx arts, Rhode Island School of Design. The Washington Times.
    "Hurricane Katrina's Inundation of New Orleans." New Orleans Times-Picayune 20 Sep 2006 .
    Interagency Performance Evaluation Taskforce. (2005 November 17). Preliminary Report on the Performance of the New Orleans Levee Systems in Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005 [electronic version]. National Science Foundation.

    Intergovernmental Panel on Cimate Change. (2001). Changes in sea level. Climate change 2001: Working group I: The scientific basis (pp. 409). Retrieved November 10, 2006 from

    IPET. (2005 Nov 17). Preliminary Report on the Performance of the New Orleans Levee Systems in Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005. National Science Foundation.

    Jadacki, Matt. (2006, May 10). Preventing Waste, Fraud and Abuse Post-Katrina. CQ Congressional Testimony.
    Jenkins, Jr., William O. (2006, May 9). FEMA Restructuring. CQ Congressional Testimony.

    Kelman, A. (2003). A river and its city. Berkeley, Los Angeles: UC Press.
    Kettl, D. F. (2006, March). Is the Worst Yet to Come? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(0) 273-287.
    Kim, Yeseul. (2006) Sea Level Rise Box and Whisker Plot.
    Klinenberg, Eric and Frank, Thomas (2005, 15 December). Looting Homeland Security [Electronic Version]. Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved on September 20, 2006.
    Kousky, C., Luttmer, E. F. P., & Zeckhauser, R. J. (2006). Private Investment and Government Protection. National Bureau of Economic Research, p. n/a.
    Kutz, Gregory D. (2006, 12 February). Expedited Assistance for Victims of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: FEMA's Control Weaknesses Exposed the Government to Significant Fraud and Abuse [Eletronic Version]. Testimony before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Retrieved on September 19, 2006.

    LaCoast, Factoids About Louisiana’s Coastal Wetlands. Accessed November 16, 2006. 
    Laska, S.B., & Spain, D. (1979, October). Urban Policy and Planning in the Wake of Gentrification. American Planning Association, 45(4) 523.
    Lewis, Barry R. (Jul 2000). Sea Level Rise and Subsidence Effects on the Gulf Coast Archaeological Site Distributions. In American Antiquity Vol.65, Iss. 3 (pg. 525). Washington.
    Lorick, J. (2004). Green Technology: Froth or Foundation. Retrieved November 21,
    ᾤLouisiana.” Oxford Atlas of North America. 2005.
    Louisiana State Univeristy Hurricane Center, (October 2003). Residential Wind  
    Damage in Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary Estimates and Potential Loss Reduction through Improved Building Codes and Construction Practices. Retrieved 3rd, 2006.  
    Louisiana Wetland Protection Panel. (1987). Saving louisiana's coastal wetlands: The need for a long-term plan of action No. EPA-230-02-87-026). Grand Terre Island, LA: United States Environmental Protection Agency.
    Luther, L. (2006). Disaster debris removal after hurricane katrina: Status and associated issuesCongressional Research Service: The Library of Congress. Retrieved November 21, 2006,

    "Map of New Orleans and Adjacent Parts of Jefferson & St. Bernard Parishes." 21 Sep 2006 .
    McCarthy, James J., Canziani, Osvaldo F., Leary, Neil A., Dokken, David J., White, Kasey S. (2001). Climate Change 2001: Impact, Adaptations and Vulnerability. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
    Meade, Robert H. (1995). Setting: Geology, hydrology, Sediments, and Engineering of the Mississippi River. US Geological Survey Circular 1133.

    Meehl, G. A., Washington, W. M., Collins, W. D., Arblaster, J. M., Hu, A., & Buja, L. E., et al. How much more global warming and sea level rise? . [Electronic version]. Science Magazine, 307(5716) 1769. Retrieved November 10, 2006

    Mioduszewski, Tomasz Marek and Shiro Maeno. Experimental study of scouring process and flow behavior around a spur dike during the surge pass. Department of Civil Engineering, Okayama University, Japan. 
    Mitsch, W. J., & Gosselink, J. G. (2000.) Wetlands, Third Edition. : John Wiley and Sons. 
    Morris, J. T., Sundareshwar, P. V., Nietch, C. T., Kjerfve, B., & Cahoon, D. R. (2002). Responses of Coastal Wetlands to Rising Sea Level. Ecology. 83, 2869-2877. 
    Morton, R. A., Bernier, J. C., & Barras, J. A. (2006). Evidence of regional subsidence and associated interior wetland loss induced by hydrocarbon production, Gulf Coast region, USA. Environmental Geology. 50, 261-274. 
    Mulrine, A. (2006, September 4). Freret Street Revisited. US News & World Report, 141(8) 38-42.
    National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. (2005) NOAA Attributes Recent Increase in Hurricane Activity to Naturally Occurring Multi-Decadal Climate Variability.
    National Weather Service. (Last mod. 02-Sep 2006). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 11, 2006, from:
    Neubauer, S. C., Givler, K., Valentine, S., Valentine, K., & Megonigal, J. P. (2005). Seasonal Patterns and Plat-Mediated Controls of Subsurface Wetland Biogeochemistry. Ecology. 86, 3334-3344. 
    Nigg, J. M., Barnshaw, J. & Torres, M. R. (2006, March). Hurricane Katrina and the Flooding of New Orleans: Emergent Issues in Sheltering and Temporary Housing. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(0) 113-128.
    NOAA Public Affairs. (2006 Nov 2) About NOAA. Retrieved November 18, 2006 from  
    NPR. (2006 June 5) How Will New Orleans’ Levees Be Fixed? Talk of the Nation
    Nybakken, J. W. (2005).  Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach.  San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings

    Pugh, David. (2004). Changing Sea Levels: Effects of Tides, Weather and Climate. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press:

    Raper, Sarah. (2000). Sea level rise. Climatic Research Unit. Retrieved 12-1-06 from

    Response of Coastal Ecosystems to Sea-Level Rise: Assessing Wetland Elevation Changes, Potential for Submergence, and Management Options (2004).  United States Geological Survey Global Change Research in Biology. URL:

    Ritea, S. (2006, Sep. 21). System has 1/3 its pre-storm students. The Times-Picayune. Retrieved November 1, 2006 from the NOLA: Everything New Orleans website: 200.xml&coll=1.
    "The Road Home Housing Programs Action Plan Amendment for Disaster Recovery Funds" [Electronic Version] (28 Oct. 2006). Disaster Recovery Initiative. United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved on Oct. 30, 2006, from
    Robinson-English, T. (2006, September). The Road To Recovery Along The Gulf Coast. Ebony, 61(11) 138-143.
    Saulny, S. (2006, June 21). A Legacy of the Storm: Depression and Suicide. The New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2006 from The New York Times website: 1308542400&en=c1af78f3e8a426c3&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss.

    Saving Louisiana’s Coastal Resources: The Need for a Long-Term Plan of Action (1987).  Environmental Protection Agency.  URL:
    Schwartz, John. (2006 Mar 26)Engineers' Panel Urges Study of All Levees in New Orleans. The New York Times
    Scott, Robert Travis. "Louisiana: State on track for coastal restoration, pending ballot approval." New Orleans Times-Picayune (2006)
    Sharpe, M. (2006, January). New Orleans: A Modest Proposal. Challenge, 49(1) 130-131.
    Solovok, Andrei P., Stone, Peter H. Global Warming Projections: Sensitivity to Deep Ocean Mixing. Center for Global Change Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Staats, Eric. "Army Corps: Lake Pontchartrain Levees Almost Complete." Naples Daily News (2006).
    Sumich, J. L. & Morrissey, J. F (2004).  Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life.  Boston: McGraw-Hill. 
    Sweson, Dan. (2006) Category 5 Price Tag. Times-Picayune

    Taylor, A. (2006, June 16). Senate sends President Bush $94.5 billion for Iraq war, hurricane. The Associated Press.
    Thomas, G. (2006, September 19). Condominiums Planned for Abandoned Hospital. The Times-Picayune, p. n/a.
    Thorpe, GaryS. (2002) Land. Baron's How to Prepare for the AP Envrionmental ScienceAdvanced Placement Exam.  
    Tibbetts, John. "Louisiana's Wetlands." Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (2006): a40-a43. JSTOR. MIT Libraries. 9 Nov. 2006. 
    Titus, J. G., Kuo, C. Y., Gibbs, M. J., LaRoche, T. B., & Webb, M. K. (1987). Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal drainage systems. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management (ASCE) JWRMD5 Vol.113, , 25 ref.
    Twain, Mark. (1967). Life on the Mississippi. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Dillon Press

    United States Army Corps of Engineers. (2003 Jul 1). Engineering Manual 1110-1-1003.  
    United States Army Corps of Engineers.  Mississippi River Basin.  Water Reservoir 98.
    United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. (2006, July 18). Request for FY2007 Budget Amendments, Communication from the President.
    United States. Congress. House. Committee on Education and Workforce. (2005, September 12). Declaration of National Emergency in Response to Hurricane Katrina, Message from the President.
    (2006, Nov, 02). United States Geological Survey Reports Latest Land Change Estimates for Louisiana Coast. National Wetlands Research Center: Press Release, Retrieved Nov 13, 2006, from 

    Walsh, B. (2006, August 22). More Than Half of Congress' Katrina Money Unspent. Newhouse News Service.
    Walsh, B. (2006, September 21). Plan for Evacuation Pets is Mandated. The Times-Picayune, p. n/a.

    Walsh, Kevin (April 2004). Climate Change and Coast Response. In Coast to Coast 2002 Conference.
    Walsh, Kevin (2002). Coast to Coast 2002 National Conference. University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences.

    Zebrowski, Z., & Howard, A.  (2005).  Category 5: the story of Camille, lessons unlearned from America’s most violent hurricane.  Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. 
    Zigmond, J. (2006, August 21). Creative Solutions. Modern Healthcare, 36(33) 22-24.