For now, this reference is a best-effort document. We strive for validity and completeness, but are not yet there. In the future, the docs and lang teams will work together to figure out how best to do this. Until then, this is a best-effort attempt. If you find something wrong or missing, file an issue or send in a pull request.


Rust is not a particularly original language, with design elements coming from a wide range of sources. Some of these are listed below (including elements that have since been removed):

  • SML, OCaml: algebraic data types, pattern matching, type inference, semicolon statement separation
  • C++: references, RAII, smart pointers, move semantics, monomorphization, memory model
  • ML Kit, Cyclone: region based memory management
  • Haskell (GHC): typeclasses, type families
  • Newsqueak, Alef, Limbo: channels, concurrency
  • Erlang: message passing, thread failure, linked thread failure, lightweight concurrency
  • Swift: optional bindings
  • Scheme: hygienic macros
  • C#: attributes
  • Ruby: block syntax
  • NIL, Hermes: typestate
  • Unicode Annex #31: identifier and pattern syntax