[ contributions: experimental  theoretical
 inventions and discoveries ]
Nobel Prizes
There have been a relatively large number of Nobel
Prizes awarded in spectroscopy. These Prizes exemplify both
experimental and theoretical contributions to the growth of spectroscopic
investigations as well as the development and discoveries related
to spectroscopy. Although the following list of Nobel Prize winner
is certainly not inclusive, it provides a starting point to learn
more about the historical development of spectroscopy through the
contributions of individual researchers.
Experimental Contributions to Spectroscopy
H.A.
Lorentz and P.
Zeeman (1902) discovery of the splitting of spectral lines in
magnetic
J.
Stark (1919) discovery of the splitting of spectral lines in
electric fields
C.V.
Raman (1930), the first to demonstrate spectral line shifts
due to inelastic light scattering (Raman effect)
W.E.
Lamb, Jr. (1955), who discovered the fine structure splitting
in the first excited state of atomic hydrogen (this work was actually
done with microwaves, but its origin and impact have been central
to studies of atomic spectra)
R.S.
Mulliken (1966) and G.
Herzberg (1971), for their contributions to molecular spectroscopy
A.L.
Schawlow (1981), for work in the field of laser spectroscopy
A.
Zewail (1999), for studies of the transition states of chemical
reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
Theoretical Contributions to Spectroscopy
M.
Planck (1918), who discovered the elemental quantum of action
N.
Bohr (1922), the first to link the regularities of spectral
lines to the quantum structure of atoms
P.A.M.
Dirac and E.
Schrodinger (1933), for their contributions to the quantum theory
of atoms
W.
Pauli (1945), who discovered the quantum exclusion principle
Inventions and Discoveries Related
to Spectroscopy
A.A.
Michelson (1907) invention of the interferometer, a hallmark
in spectroscopic instrumentation
C.H.
Townes , N.G.
Basov and A.M.
Prokhorov (1964) development of the maser, a source of coherent
microwave radiation, which led to development of the laser and opened
the field of modern spectroscopy
A.
Kastler (1966) for the development of optical pumping of atoms
N.
Bloembergen (1981) for his contributions to nonlinear optics
H.G.
Dehmelt and W.
Paul (1989) received this award for invention of the ion trap,
an important tool in current spectroscopic research
