[ contributions: experimental | theoretical
| inventions and discoveries ]
There have been a relatively large number of Nobel
Prizes awarded in spectroscopy. These Prizes exemplify both
experimental and theoretical contributions to the growth of spectroscopic
investigations as well as the development and discoveries related
to spectroscopy. Although the following list of Nobel Prize winner
is certainly not inclusive, it provides a starting point to learn
more about the historical development of spectroscopy through the
contributions of individual researchers.
Experimental Contributions to Spectroscopy
Lorentz and P.
Zeeman (1902) discovery of the splitting of spectral lines in
Stark (1919) discovery of the splitting of spectral lines in
Raman (1930), the first to demonstrate spectral line shifts
due to inelastic light scattering (Raman effect)
Lamb, Jr. (1955), who discovered the fine structure splitting
in the first excited state of atomic hydrogen (this work was actually
done with microwaves, but its origin and impact have been central
to studies of atomic spectra)
Mulliken (1966) and G.
Herzberg (1971), for their contributions to molecular spectroscopy
Schawlow (1981), for work in the field of laser spectroscopy
Zewail (1999), for studies of the transition states of chemical
reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
Theoretical Contributions to Spectroscopy
Planck (1918), who discovered the elemental quantum of action
Bohr (1922), the first to link the regularities of spectral
lines to the quantum structure of atoms
Dirac and E.
Schrodinger (1933), for their contributions to the quantum theory
Pauli (1945), who discovered the quantum exclusion principle
Inventions and Discoveries Related
Michelson (1907) invention of the interferometer, a hallmark
in spectroscopic instrumentation
Townes , N.G.
Basov and A.M.
Prokhorov (1964) development of the maser, a source of coherent
microwave radiation, which led to development of the laser and opened
the field of modern spectroscopy
Kastler (1966) for the development of optical pumping of atoms
Bloembergen (1981) for his contributions to nonlinear optics
Dehmelt and W.
Paul (1989) received this award for invention of the ion trap,
an important tool in current spectroscopic research