- Ghana, Accra, is developing a large-scale city-wide upgrading program, building on their successful upgrading experience of the past 15 years. The projects are planned and designed to functional least cost standards, constructed by local contractors, and funded by central government with some assistance by local governments. Projects follow several key design principles:
- Communities selected on basis of infrastructure deficiency.
- Improvements according to functional standards with maximum cost limits on per hectare targets.
- Improvements based on a menu of basic infrastructure and services, which were packaged according to an integrated community plan.
- Program balanced for impact and high visibility.
- Communities and local governments agree and commit to fund operations and maintenance by way of a Facilities and Management Plan.
- Respective local authorities (Assemblies) required to contribute 10% of capital costs.
- Essential trunk infrastructure provided in complementary programs.
- An environmental infrastructure fund introduced for additional tertiary infrastructure, accessible only if the communities match the funds.
- Kenya is stressing local materials, contractors and employment generation along with its in-situ upgrading programs.
- Mauritania, Nouakchott and Nouadhibou, is testing a comprehensive, integrated upgrading approach. It has committed to a nationwide slum-upgrading program based upon the provision of secure tenure, which is being initiated with citywide upgrading programs in.
- Nigeria is expanding its upgrading solutions on a national scale.
- South Africa, Johannesburg, is dealing with pockets of problems within a city-wide development strategy.
- Swaziland focuses on cost recovery and titling in its new upgrading efforts.
- Tanzania, Hannah Nassif, is an example of coping with natural disasters as an entry to upgrading.
- Zambia, Kalingalinga project, demonstrates participatory approaches to upgrading.