CMOS Bioelectronics: From Single-Molecule Biophysics to Neuroscience
18th November 2020
Timing : 1 pm EST
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A new class of bioelectronics devices is emerging in which the integrated circuit, based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, is in direct contact with the biological system to which it is interfacing. There are several advantages to this approach. First, this achieves the very smallest form factors possible by enabling systems in which the entire device is contained on the chip. Second, it enables large arrays of transducers since interfacing electronics can be directly connected to these devices without requiring wire escapes. Lastly, this ensures the highest fidelity signal transduction by reducing capacitive and inductive parasitics and reducing the possibility for electromagnetic interference.
There are three primary ways in which living systems can interact with CMOS bioelectronics – electrically, through the detection of charge, electric potential, or the reduction-oxidation (redox) properties of molecules; acoustically, usually at ultrasound frequencies; or optically, usually through the introduction of optical reporters or transducers in the biological system. In most cases, these interfaces require the addition of new materials or device structures to the far-back-end of the CMOS process. We consider examples of CMOS bioelectronics based on each of these transduction methods. We focus on two applications: single-molecule diagnostics and neural interfaces.
We review several CMOS-based technologies that can perform electronic measurements of single molecules in solution, including ion channels, nanopore sensors, and carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,. We discuss the shared features among these techniques that enable them to resolve individual molecules, and discuss their limitations. The advantages that these systems are bringing and can bring to molecular diagnostic applications in the era of pandemic infectious diseases will be discussed.
In the area of neural interfaces, we discuss implantable CMOS recording and stimulation systems in both the central and peripheral nervous systems based on electrical, optical, and acoustic transduction. Key features necessary to the most volume-efficient biomedical implants that fully exploit CMOS technology will be discussed.
Lau Family Professor of Electrical Engineering
Kenneth Shepard received the B.S.E. degree from Princeton University and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University. From 1992 to 1997, he was a Research Staff Member and Manager with the VLSI Design Department, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and Yorktown Heights, NY, where he was responsible for the design methodology for IBM’s G4S/390 microprocessors. He was the Chief Technology Officer of CadMOS Design Technology, San Jose, CA, which he co-founded, until its acquisition by Cadence Design Systems in 2001. Since 1997, he has been with Columbia University, New York, NY, where he is currently the Lau Family Professor of Electrical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering and the co-founder and the Chairman of the Board of Ferric, Inc., New York, which is commercializing technology for integrated voltage regulators, and Quicksilver Biosciences, Inc., which is commercialize single-molecule bioelectronics diagnostics. His current research interests include power electronics, biophysics, and CMOS bioelectronics.