Getting Started: Identification
Upgrading Strategies

Table of Contents for:

World Bank Experience with the Provision of Infrastructure Services for the Urban Poor: Preliminary Identification and Review of Best Practices.
Christine Kessides. Informal Publication by the World Bank. Washington, D.C. January 1997.

I. Introduction

II. Project Scope and Design Alternatives

    A. “Integrated” urban development projects
    B. “Programmatic” urban projects
    C. “Programmatic” water and sanitation projects
    D. Assessing project success

III. Issues of Design and Implementation

    A. Targeting beneficiaries and determining their demands
    B. Developing institutional partnerships for project preparation and implementation
    C. Institutional arrangements for project finance
    D. Land-related issues

IV. Preliminary Conclusions and Implications for the Bank

    • Text Table 1: Features of Lending Instruments for Provision of Infrastructure Services to Urban Poor
    • Table 2: Strengths & Weaknesses of Alternative Lending Instruments for Infrastructure Services to Poor


    • Table 1: Evolution of “Prototype” Projects Reviewed in Annex
    • Box A. 1: The Kampung Improvement Program (KIP) of Indonesia: The “Grandfather” of Urban Upgrading Programs
    • Box A.2: Morocco and Tunesia—Local vs. National Scale of Urban Upgrading Activities
    • Box A.3: Integrated Urban Upgrading in Sub-Saharan Africa: Sierra Leone and Ghana
    • Box A.4: The Parana Market Towns Improvement Project, Brazil: Lessons from the first “programmatic” urban development project
    • Box A.5: Evolution of the KIP in the 1990s: A New Generation
    • Box A.6: “Programmatic” Approaches to Multisector Infrastructure Provision: Brazil’s Ceara Project and Pakistan’s Northwest Frontier Province Community Infrastructure Project (NWFP)
    • Box A.7: Water and Sanitation for Low Income Periurban Settlements in Brazil: The PROSANEAR Program
    • Box A.8: Water and Sanitation Services for the Urban Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa: Burkina Faso, Uganda and Zambia
    • Box A.9: Social Investment Funds and Block Transfer Programs
    • Box A.10: Community-Initiated Basic Infrastructure Programs: El Mezquital, Guatemala and MENPROSIF, Argentina
    • Box A. 11: AGETIPS as a Vehicle for Providing Infrastructure for the Urban Poor
    • Table 1a: Projects Reviewed with Components for Basic Infrastructure
    Service Provision to Poor Urban Communities (Urban Projects)
    • Table 1b: Projects Reviewed with Components for Basic Infrastructure Service Provision to Poor Urban Communities (Water and Sanitation Portfolio)

Selected References

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