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Journal Articles

The author's name is followed by the article title. Enclose the article title in quotation marks and capitalize the first and last words of the title and subtitle and all other words except prepositions, articles, coordinating conjunctions, and the to in infinitives. Write out the full name of the periodical. Underline or italicize the periodical title but not the volume number. Put the date in parentheses followed by a colon and page numbers.

Although a bibliography is not always used, the examples that follow show the bibliographic form after the note form.

Article in a Journal Paginated by Annual Volume

The volume number follows the name of the journal. If there is an issue number, it may be included after the volume number, preceded by no.

     1. Keith A. Nelson, R. J. Dwayne Miller,

David R. Lutz, and Michael D. Fayer, "Optical

Generation of Tunable Ultrasonic Waves,"

Journal of Applied Physics 53, no. 2 (February

1982): 1144-49.

Nelson, Keith A., R. J. Dwayne Miller, David R.

     Lutz, and Michael D. Fayer. "Optical

     Generation of Tunable Ultrasonic Waves."

     Journal of Applied Physics 53, no. 2

     (February 1982): 1144-49.

Article in a Journal Paginated by Issue

If the journal is a monthly or bimonthly periodical, include the issue number with the date consisting of the month or quarter of publication and the year.

     1. Dorothy E. Denning, "Resolving the

Encryption Dilemma: The Case for the Clipper

Chip," Technology Review 98, no. 5 (July 1995):


Denning, Dorothy E. "Resolving the Encryption

     Dilemma: The Case for the Clipper Chip."

     Technology Review 98, no. 5 (July 1995):


Article in a Daily, Weekly, or Biweekly Magazine or Newspaper

Include the year, month, and day. List the page numbers with p. or pp.

     1. Bob Metcalfe, "The Numbers Show How

Slowly the Internet Runs Today," Infoworld,

30 September 1996, p. 34.

Metcalfe, Bob. "The Numbers Show How Slowly

     the Internet Runs Today." Infoworld, 30

     September 1996, p. 34.

Paper Published in Conference Proceedings

Treat a presentation in conference proceedings like an article in an edited book. If the title of the book does not indicate the name of the conference, list, in brackets, after the title the form descriptor "Proceedings of" followed by the name of the conference in capitals.

     1. Osvaldo Jaeggli, "Subject Extraction

and the Null Subject Parameter," in Proceedings

of NELS 14, ed. Charles Jones and Pamela

Sells, New England Linguistics Society 14

(Amherst, Mass.: Graduate Linguistic Student

Association, University of Massachusetts at

Amherst, 5 May 1984), 132-53.

Jaeggli, Osvaldo. "Subject Extraction and the

     Null Subject Parameter." In Proceedings

     of NELS 14, edited by Charles Jones and

     Pamela Sells, 132-53. New England

     Linguistics Society 14. Amherst, Mass.:

     Graduate Linguistic Student Association,

     University of Massachusetts at Amherst,

     5 May 1984.

Unpublished Paper Presented at a Meeting

Give the complete date of the presentation and put the title of the paper in quotation marks, followed by "paper presented at" and the name of the conference and its location.

     1. Ming-Chih Lai, Bih-Horng Chen, and

Shyan-Ming Yuan, "Toward a New Educational

Environment" (paper presented at Fourth

International World Wide Web Conference,

Boston, 12 December 1995), 10.

Lai, Ming-chih, Bih-Horng Chen, and Shyan-Ming

     Yuan. "Toward a New Educational

     Environment." Paper presented at Fourth

     International World Wide Web conference,

     Boston, 12 December 1995.

Unpublished Dissertation

Enclose the title of the dissertation in quotation marks. Then write "Ph.D. diss" or "Master's thesis" followed by the name of the university and the year.

     1. Frederick G. Glazer, "Hierarchical

Motion Detection," Ph.D. diss., University of

Massachusetts, 1987), 102-4.

Glazer, Frederick G. "Hierarchical Motion

     Detection." Ph.D. diss., University of

     Massachusetts, 1987.

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