Location: Kansai Dialect Self-study Site / Ch4. Functional Grammar / 4.Honorifics / 2 Grammar /

1. Vはる/やはる Honorifics

You already know what Kansai honorifics are like if you read Ch1. 2. g. Honorifics  prior to this section. (If not, please come back to this page after you read though it.) As in Ch1, light honorific auxiliary verbs はる/やはる, originated in なさる(honorific polite verb of する),  are used, replacing the regular honorific expressions in Kansai nowadays. * Kansai people do use れる/られる for honorific polite expressions, but not as common as はる/やはる expressions.

はる follows masu-form stem when the verb belongs to RU-verbs or Irregular verbs. 
(ex. ()べはる、しはる)What form of U-Verb はる follows depends on the regions – it follows the stem of negative form in Kyoto (including Shiga/Nara) area, and masu-form stem in Osaka area. やはる(it sounds almost like やある) is used as an alternative of はる for Irregular verbs and Ru-verbs with one-mora stem such as ()る、()る、()る. やはる seems to be used both in Kyoto and Osaka area.

Kyoto area
Osaka area


見る 見 はる
見 はる
いる い はる
い はる
食べている 食べ



もらう も らはる
も らはる

Irregular verb

する し はる
し はる
() き はる
き はる

As in the chart above, 〜ている +はる becomes 〜はる in Kyoto area, and 〜はる in Osaka area.

先生(せんせい)(いま)だれとしゃべっは るん?(Kyoto)


(ST 先生は今だれとしゃべっていらっしゃるの/お話しになっているの?)

〜はる/やはる behave as U-verb, therefore, they conjugate like the following.
(Kyoto) 飲はる、飲へん、飲はった、飲はります

(Osaka) 飲はる、飲へん、飲はった、飲はります

Do you remember that negative stem of U-verb in Osaka is the same as Potential form stem? (If not, go back to Ch3 Lesson 1a). That’s why 飲む+はる+へん in Osaka comes to 飲みはへ ん, not はへん.

Now, when do Kansai people use はる/やはる?  (1) First of all はる/やはる can be used as regular honorific polite expressions to exalt out-group person, but the use is so much broader than the standard honorifics – (2) they use it even for neighbors and when talking about older family members. That means, Kansai people express a sense of respect even in a subtle in-group/out-group relationship or hierarchical relationship by using はる/やはる in the occasions when honorific polite expressions are normally applied in the standard. In addition, (3) Kansai people use はる/やはる if the addressee or the person they are talking about is not that close to them (psychological out-group).  Please keep in mind that, in the standard, there is no equivalent expression that functions like はる/やはる in the case of (2) and (3).

(To a section chief) 部長(ぶちょう)先週(せんしゅう)はどこ出張(しゅっちょう)()はりましたん?(行っはりましたん? in Osaka)

(ST 部長、先週はどこに出張にいらっしゃったんですか。)

(To a close coworker) 部長、えらい(たか)そうなスーツ着はったなあ。(着はった in Osaka)

(ST 部長、えらく高そうなスーツを着ていらっしゃったねえ。)

(To a close coworker, about other coworker) 佐藤(さとう)さんな、先週(せんしゅう)病気(びょうき)ちごて旅行(りょこう)(やす)はったらしいで。むかつくな〜!(休はった in Osaka)

(ST 佐藤さんね、先週病気じゃなくて旅行で休んだらしいよ。むかつくね〜!)

*むかつく upsetting, sick to one’s stomach

(To a close neighbor, about another neighbor) (となり)西川(にしかわ)さん、なんや具合(ぐあい)(わる)()はったけど、どもないやろか。(言うはった in Osaka)

(ST 隣の西川さん、なんだか具合が悪いって言ってらしたけど、大丈夫(だいじょうぶ)かしら。)

* どもない<どうもない(Kansai)=大丈夫

(To one’s little sister, about their big brother) お(にい)ちゃん、何時(なんじ)電車(でんしゃ)()はるかしってる?(乗はる in Osaka)

(ST お兄ちゃんが何時の電車に乗るかしってる?)

(To a friend, about some guy) あ、あっこにイケメンの(ひと)()は る。こっち()やはらへんかなあ。(立っは る in Osaka)

(ST あ、あそこにイケメンの人が立ってる。こっちに来ないかなあ。)

* イケメン(<—いかした(めん)=いかした(かお)) good-looking guy (used for males by young generation)

(At an interview, about Foreigners) 外国(がいこく)(かた)(なん)でもぎょうさん食べはりますなあ。

(ST 外国の方は何でもたくさん()()がりますねえ/食べられますねえ。)

Extra 1: Gentle, polite use of はる

One more notable use of はる/やはる is as just a polite expression, to be gentle and polite (usually by females, especially in Kyoto area) toward animate objects. So don’t be surprised if somebody uses はる/やはる when talking about  his/her close friends, his/her own children, or even about animals.

(About one’s own child) うちの()毎日(まいにち)十時間(じゅうじかん)ぐらい()はるわ。

(ST うちの子は毎日十時間ぐらい寝るわよ。)

(To one’s own child, about fish) ほら、()てみ。お(さかな)さん、(およ)いだはんで。

(ST ほらご(らん)なさい/見てみなさい。お魚さんが泳いでいるわよ。)

Extra 2: 飲まはらへん?飲ま〜らへん?

If the word involves-A-はる, it tends to be pronounced like あある/あ〜る.  It is prominent in Kyoto/Shiga area.

 (About one’s classmate) ええ?吉田(よしだ)さん、昨日(きのう)(うち)(かえ)ら〜らへんかったん?いや〜、どこ()まったはったんやろ。(帰りはらへん かったん、泊まってはった in Osaka)

(ST ええ?吉田さん、昨日家に帰らなかったの?あら〜、どこに泊まってたんでしょ?)

Extra 3: 先生、いたはりますか?

As explained in the former lesson (Extra 1 in G2 of Ch3 Lesson 2), there are at least three ways to describe existence of animate object in Kansai – use いる, いてる(いて+いる, keep in mind that it is ungrammatical in the standard!)or おる (blunt expression of いる, but is used as an alternate of いる in Kobe area. It has also become less blunt in Osaka area these days).

    (ST) 友達(ともだち)はたくさんいるけど、会社(かいしゃ)にはいないよ。




Then What if you want to talk about an existence of somebody to whose action you add はる? If it’s standard, いらっしゃる should be the only option (again, いて+いるpattern is not acceptable in the standard, hence you cannot use this pattern using いらっしゃる either).  However, there are more than one choice in Kansai-ben.

(ST) 先生は今日はお(たく)いらっしゃいますか。

= 先生、今日はお宅にいはりますか(いやはりま すか)。

= 先生、今日はお宅にいたはりますか(いてはる in Osaka)

= 先生、今日はお宅におられますか。

= 先生。今日はお宅におってですか。(in Kobe)

You can easily guess the use of いはる/いやはる/いたはる(いてはる), but what is おられますか and おってですか??  おられる is おる+ られる (light honorific auxiliary verb). Strangely enough, おる is considered to be an honorific expression, not a blunt/humble expression in Kansai, only in this case. Then what is おってですか? Please move on to the Extra 3!

Extra 4: おってですか

おってですか is used in Kobe and western Hyogo area. Kobe dialect (Kobe-ben) and the dialect used in the western Hyogo region (Banshu-ben) are more closely connected to those of the Chugoku/Shikoku region than to the main stream Kansai-ben. They use おる/〜ておる(とる/とお) as an equivalent of いる/〜ている(てる).

かさ、()っとお?(=かさ,持ってる? In Kyoto/Osaka)

( ST かさ、持ってる?)

Furthermore, はる expression is not common in that area, instead, they use てform + だ(です)to exalt out-group or to be polite, such as in;

先生、北海道(ほっかいどう)のこと、よう()っとって ですか。(知ったはりますか in Kyoto/知ってはりますか in Osaka)

(ST 先生は北海道のことをよくご存知(ぞんじ)ですか/知っていらっしゃいますか。)

Nowadays, however, even Kobe-ben and Bansyu-ben speakers have come to use はる expression when talking with people from the other Kansai regions, since it’s difficult to convey their sense of respect in their own dialect. In this sense, はる is an honorific expression of the  “Standard/Common Kansai-ben.”

Extra 5: らる in Shiga

You might hear elder people in southern Shiga region use らる instead of はる. らる is considered to be the mixture of はる and られる.

近所(きんじょ)の人ら、用事(ようじ)もないのによう(あつ)まってしゃべってらる。(しゃべったはる in Kyoto/しゃべってはる in Osaka)

(ST 近所の人たちは用事もないのによく集まってしゃべってる。)

*The dialect people in the Shiga region speak is called Shiga-ben (its old term is Gosyu-ben). It is very close to Kyoto dialect with slight varieties in accent and vocabulary, depending on which area in Shiga they live, that is, whether they live in the south/west/east/north of the Lake Biwa. Traditional Shiga-ben characteristics can be observed only in the utterance of older generations as in the case with most regional dialects within Kansai-ben.