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17. Optical Emission Spectra of Hydrogenic Atoms

Measurement of the Balmer lines of atomic hydrogen and the fine structure of sodium lines; determination of the mass of the deuteron from the isotope shift. A high resolution monochromator with a wavelength range from 2500 to 15,000 angstroms in first and second order is used to study the Balmer lines of hydrogen and the more complex hydrogenic spectrum of sodium, using the mercury spectrum as the wavelength calibrator.

The measured Balmer wavelengths are compared with the quantum theory of the hydrogen spectrum, and a value of the Rydberg is derived. The transitions responsible for the sodium spectrum are identified, and the regularities in the fine structure and adherence to the selection rules are observed. A research grade monochromator is used to measure the isotope shift between the Balmer lines of hydrogen and deuterium, and the ratio of the deuteron mass to the proton mass is derived from the data.

Student Wiki: Optical Emission Spectra of Hydrogenic Atoms

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References (certificates required)

  1. N. Bohr, Nobel Prize Lecture, "for investigations of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them," (1922).
  2. H.E. White, Introduction to Atomic Spectra, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1934), "Hydrogen Fine Structure and the Dirac Electron," pp. 132-138.
  3. F.K. Richtmyer, E.H. Kennard and T. Lauritsen, Introduction to Modern Physics, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955), "Multiplet Levels for One-electron Atoms," pp. 258-266.
  4. R.M. Eisberg and R. Resnick, Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles, (Wiley, New York 1974), "Spin-Orbit Interaction Energy and the Hydrogen Energy Levels," pp. 284-295.
  5. Hansch, T.W. Schawlow, A.L. and Series, G.W. "The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen," Sci. Am. 94-110 (March 1979).
Hydrogen Fine Structure
  • W.E. Lamb, "Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom by a Microwave Method," Phys. Rev. 72, 241 (1947).
  • W.E. Lamb, "Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom Part I," Phys. Rev. 79, 549 (1950).
  • W.E. Lamb, "Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom Part II," Phys. Rev. 81, 222 (1951).
  • W.E. Lamb, Nobel Prize Lecture, "Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom," (1955).
  • T.W. Hansch et al., "Precision Measurement of the Rydberg Constant by Laser Saturation Spectroscopy of the Balmer Alpha Line in Hydrogen and Deuterium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1336 (1974).
  • P.J. Mohr, "Lamb Shift in a Strong Coulomb Potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1050 (1975).
  • Lee, S.A. et al., "1S-2S Isotope Shift and 1S Lamb Shift Measured by Laser Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1262 (1975).
  • Selected Resources

    1. Jobin Yvon Tutorial on Optics and Spectroscopy
    2. Hyperphysics Tutorial on Broadening of Spectral Lines
    3. SPEX 1250M Spectrometer Manual
    4. SPEX 1250M Installation Report (June 2002)
    5. Jobin Yvon Monochromator - LabView Drivers Manual
    6. Jobin Yvon SpectrAcq 2
    7. Jobin Yvon Interface Programming Manual (not used in Junior Lab)
    8. Peter ParkinsonBasic Monochromator for Instructional Use, pp. 1032-1038, 1967 AAPT Apparatus Competition
    9. Oriel UV Safety Goggles
    10. Oriel Pencil Style Spectral Calibration Lamps
    11. Oriel Typical Spectra of Oriel Spectral Calibration Lamps
    12. Oriel Calibration Lamp DC Power Supply Model 6060
    13. Oriel Spectral Line Lamp Mount 65160
    14. Oriel Spectral Line Regulated Power Supply 65150


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