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43. Johnson Noise and Shot Noise

Determination of Boltzmann's constant, k and the centigrade temperature of absolute zero from measurements of Johnson noise. Determination of the average charge, e, of the electron from measurements of electrical shot noise.

The mean square of the fluctuating voltage (Johnson noise) across a conductor with zero mean current is measured as a function of the resistance and temperature of the conductor, and a value of the Boltzmann constant is derived from the results according to the Nyquist theory of Johnson noise.

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References (certificates required)

  1. J.B. Johnson, "Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors", Phys. Rev., 32, 97-109, (1928)
  2. H. Nyquist, "Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors", Phys. Rev., 32, 110-113, (1928)
  3. F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, (McGraw Hill, New York, 1965),"Sec 15.13-15: Fourier Analysis of Random Fluctuations", pp. 582-587
  4. A. Van der Ziel, Noise in Measurement, (Wiley, New York, 1976), "Sec 3.2: Noise Figure; Sec 3.3: Friiss' Formula-Noise Measure", pp. 30-38
  5. P. Kittel, "Comment on the equivalent noise bandwith approximation", Rev. of Sci. Inst., 48, 1214-1215, (1977)
  6. P. Kittel, W.R. Hackleman, and R.J. Donnelly, "Undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry", Am. J. of Phys., 46, 94-100, (1978)

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