In the Laboratory
8.13 Syllabus and Policies
8.14 Syllabus and Policies
Lab Notebook Guidelines

Reports and Presentations
Reports and Presentations
Oral Report Evaluation Form
Physical Review Home
APS Guidelines for Speakers

Computing
Computing Environment
MATLAB
Numerical Recipes in C
Geant 4
Integrals.com

Resources
CRC Handbook
NIST Physics Data
Table of the Isotopes
National Nuclear Data Center
WebElements Periodic Table
List of Nobel Prizes
HyperPhysics Web Site
Overview of Particle Physics
Particle Data Group

Society of Physics Students
American Physical Society
American Institute of Physics
Other Advanced Physics Labs

MIT Links
EHS Training
Certificates
Libraries
Webmail

43. Johnson Noise and Shot Noise

Determination of Boltzmann's constant, k and the centigrade temperature of absolute zero from measurements of Johnson noise. Determination of the average charge, e, of the electron from measurements of electrical shot noise.

The mean square of the fluctuating voltage (Johnson noise) across a conductor with zero mean current is measured as a function of the resistance and temperature of the conductor, and a value of the Boltzmann constant is derived from the results according to the Nyquist theory of Johnson noise.

Student Wiki: Johnson and Shot Noise

Download Lab Guide in PDF format

References (certificates required)

  1. J.B. Johnson, "Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Conductors", Phys. Rev., 32, 97-109, (1928)
  2. H. Nyquist, "Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors", Phys. Rev., 32, 110-113, (1928)
  3. F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, (McGraw Hill, New York, 1965),"Sec 15.13-15: Fourier Analysis of Random Fluctuations", pp. 582-587
  4. A. Van der Ziel, Noise in Measurement, (Wiley, New York, 1976), "Sec 3.2: Noise Figure; Sec 3.3: Friiss' Formula-Noise Measure", pp. 30-38
  5. P. Kittel, "Comment on the equivalent noise bandwith approximation", Rev. of Sci. Inst., 48, 1214-1215, (1977)
  6. P. Kittel, W.R. Hackleman, and R.J. Donnelly, "Undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry", Am. J. of Phys., 46, 94-100, (1978)

Selected Resources

site maintained by the Junior Lab Staff