Determination of Boltzmann's
constant, k and the centigrade temperature of
absolute zero from measurements of Johnson noise.
Determination of the average charge, e, of the
electron from measurements of electrical shot
noise.
The mean square of the fluctuating
voltage (Johnson noise) across a conductor with
zero mean current is measured as a function of
the resistance and temperature of the conductor,
and a value of the Boltzmann constant is derived
from the results according to the Nyquist theory
of Johnson noise.
Student Wiki: Johnson and Shot Noise
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 J.B. Johnson, "Thermal
Agitation of Electricity in Conductors", Phys. Rev., 32,
97109, (1928)
 H. Nyquist, "Thermal
Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors", Phys. Rev., 32,
110113, (1928)
 F. Reif, Fundamentals
of Statistical and Thermal Physics, (McGraw Hill, New York, 1965),"Sec
15.1315: Fourier Analysis of Random Fluctuations", pp. 582587
 A. Van der Ziel, Noise in Measurement, (Wiley, New York,
1976), "Sec
3.2: Noise Figure; Sec 3.3: Friiss' FormulaNoise Measure",
pp. 3038
 P. Kittel, "Comment
on the equivalent noise bandwith approximation", Rev. of Sci.
Inst., 48, 12141215, (1977)
 P. Kittel, W.R. Hackleman, and R.J. Donnelly, "Undergraduate
experiment on noise thermometry", Am. J. of
Phys., 46, 94100, (1978)
