Thermodynamics and Propulsion
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II
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Subsections
4
. Background to the Second Law of Thermodynamics
4
.
1
Reversibility and Irreversibility in Natural Processes
4
.
2
Difference between Free and Isothermal Expansions
4
.
3
Features of reversible processes
4
.
4
Muddiest Points on Chapter 4
5
. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
5
.
1
Concept and Statements of the Second Law
5
.
2
Axiomatic Statements of the Laws of Thermodynamics
5
.
2
.
1
Introduction
5
.
2
.
2
Zeroth Law
5
.
2
.
3
First Law
5
.
2
.
4
Second Law
5
.
2
.
5
Reversible Processes
5
.
3
Combined First and Second Law Expressions
5
.
4
Entropy Changes in an Ideal Gas
5
.
5
Calculation of Entropy Change in Some Basic Processes
5
.
6
Muddiest Points on Chapter 5
6
. Applications of the Second Law
6
.
1
Limitations on the Work that Can be Supplied by a Heat Engine
6
.
2
The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale
6
.
3
Representation of Thermodynamic Processes in
coordinates
6
.
4
Brayton Cycle in

Coordinates
6
.
4
.
1
Net work per unit mass flow in a Brayton cycle
6
.
5
Irreversibility, Entropy Changes, and ``Lost Work''
6
.
6
Entropy and Unavailable Energy
6
.
7
Examples of Lost Work in Engineering Processes
6
.
8
Some Overall Comments on Entropy
6
.
8
.
1
Entropy
6
.
8
.
2
Reversible and Irreversible Processes
6
.
8
.
3
Examples of Reversible and Irreversible Processes
6
.
9
Muddiest Points on Chapter 6
7
. Entropy on the Microscopic Scale
7
.
1
Entropy Change in Mixing of Two Ideal Gases
7
.
2
Microscopic and Macroscopic Descriptions of a System
7
.
3
A Statistical Definition of Entropy
7
.
4
The Statistical Definition of Entropy and Randomness
7
.
5
Numerical Example: the Equilibrium Distribution
7
.
6
Summary and Conclusions
8
. Power Cycles with TwoPhase Media
8
.
1
Behavior of TwoPhase Systems
8
.
2
Work and Heat Transfer with TwoPhase Media
8
.
3
The Carnot Cycle as a TwoPhase Power Cycle
8
.
3
.
1
Example: Carnot steam cycle
8
.
4
The ClausiusClapeyron Equation
8
.
5
Rankine Power Cycles
8
.
6
Enhancements of Rankine Cycles
8
.
7
Combined Cycles for Power Production
8
.
8
Some Overall Comments on Thermodynamic Cycles
8
.
9
Muddiest Points on Chapter 8
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4. Background to the
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16.Unified: Thermodynamics and Propulsion
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Index
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