KanchanTM Arsenic Filter Project for Rural Nepal

Filter Monitoring Plan


The main objective of the KanchanTM Arsenic Filter Project in Nepal is to promote the filter as an appropriate and sustainable drinking water solution. Currently, many villagers in the rural Terai region of Nepal lack access to safe drinking water. Tube well drinking water sources from a number of districts are contaminated with arsenic and fecal bacteria. Because of the lack of appropriate and satisfactory solution, many villagers continue to drink contaminated water, and may suffer from preventable water-borne diseases including diarrhea, stunting, skin lesions, and cancer.

To achieve the project objective, the KAF technology will be transferred to village level through capacity building and training activities. These activities includes the training and certification of local entrepreneurs on filter construction and maintenance; the training of local governing and decision-making bodies such as the Village Development Committee and water users group on safe water management and monitoring techniques; and awareness and education workshops to villagers about water, health, hygiene, and sanitation.

Monitoring Concepts:

  • As with most water supply scheme in Nepal of which the water supply implementer is responsible for the water quality, it is the responsibility of the filter distribution agencies to monitor the filter performance.

Past Monitoring Activities:

  • As of March 2004, over 800 filters have been installed in Nepal. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Support Program, or RWSSSP, (a joint program between Finnish and Nepal governments) has provided more than 200 filters. The Nepal Red Cross Society, or NRCS, has provided about 500 filters. The Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund Development Board, or RWSSFDB, (directly funded by World Bank) has provided about 100 filters.
  • All of the above agencies have tested their distributed filters about 1-2 months after installation to ensure safe drinking quality. Additional monitoring has also been conducted by these agencies.

Project Monitoring Activities:

  • A blanket testing of all distributed KAF by the above three agencies was conducted in February and March 2004 as part of this DM project. Filter information including owner’s name, GPS location, water quality, and contaminant removal efficiency was recorded and compiled into a database.
  • Preliminary results showed excellent filter performance.
  • In November 2004, another full round of blanket filter monitoring was conducted. Parameters tested included arsenic, pH, iron, and flow rate.

Post-Project Monitoring Activities:

  • ENPHO have no plan to distribute any filter by its own because it is a Kathmandu-based NGO. ENPHO will provide technical and financial support to field-based partner agencies (such as NRCS and STEN) for filter construction and long-term monitoring.
  • Local governing bodies and/or water users was trained under this project on monitoring techniques
  • Users can also contact their local Arsenic Information Centers (supported by Red Cross) to have their water tested.

Filter Malfunctions Issues and Related Health Concerns:

  • A one-year pilot study of the KAF in 2002-2003 showed excellent arsenic and bacteria removal. The most recent blanket filter monitoring results also showed excellent performance.
  • In the unlikely event that a filter fails to remove arsenic and bacteria (for example, a 50% reduction rather than 90+% removal), the users are still better off drinking filtered water than untreated water. It is because at least some level of contamination is removed and therefore reducing contaminants consumption. Most users currently have no other alternative drinking water options. The users can either drink untreated water, which is found to be contaminated and cause diseases, or the users can drink from filtered water.
Summary Schedule:

Project Activities
Blanket monitoring of all installed KAFs To confirm filter performance and to collect and compile data Feb-Mar 04
Training workshop to local government To teach local governing bodies on water quality, management and monitoring techniques May-Aug 04
Blanket monitoring of all installed KAFs To further confirm filter performance and to test for newly installed filters Nov-Dec 04


O T H E R   D O C U M E N T S
Mahin, Ngai
3.1 MB
Kanchan Arsenic Filter Evaluation of Applicability to Cambodia: Phase I Technical Report - September, 2008
Chea, Mao, Uy, Ngai & Mahin
740 KB
The Arsenic Biosand Filter(ABF) Report 2003
Ngai & Walewijk
1.18 MB
Four-Months Performance Evaluation on the Arsenic Biosand Filter
2.60 MB
Effects of Air Space in ABF 2004
605 KB
KAF Research and Implementation 2004
Ngai et al.
678 KB
Iron and Arsenic Migration through the KAF 2005
296 KB
Total Coliform Removal - Four Weeks Daily Study 2005
824 KB
Microfinance of KAF in Nepal 2005
427 KB
KAF Implementation and Enhancement 2006
Frey et al
339 KB
2004 Sloan School KAF
612 KB
Kanchan Filter References