Thermodynamics and Propulsion
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16.Unified: Thermodynamics and Propulsion
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Contents
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I THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
1. Introduction to Thermodynamics
1.1 What it's All About
1.2 Definitions and Fundamental Ideas of Thermodynamics
1.2.1 The Continuum Model
1.2.2 The Concept of a ``System''
1.2.3 The Concept of a ``State''
1.2.4 The Concept of ``Equilibrium''
1.2.5 The Concept of a ``Process''
1.2.6 QuasiEquilibrium Processes
1.2.7 Equations of state
1.3 Changing the State of a System with Heat and Work
1.3.1 Heat
1.3.2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
1.3.3 Work
1.3.4 Work vs. Heat  which is which?
1.4 Muddiest Points on Chapter 1
2. The First Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of Energy
2.1 First Law of Thermodynamics
2.2 Corollaries of the First Law
2.3 Example Applications of the First Law to motivate the use of a property called ``enthalpy''
2.3.1 Adiabatic, steady, throttling of a gas (flow through a valve or other restriction)
2.3.2 QuasiStatic Expansion of a Gas
2.3.3 Transient filling of a tank
2.3.4 The First Law in Terms of Enthalpy
2.4 Specific Heats: the relation between temperature change and heat
2.4.1 Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas
2.4.2 Reversible adiabatic processes for an ideal gas
2.5 Control volume form of the conservation laws
2.5.1 Conservation of mass
2.5.2 Conservation of energy
2.5.3 Stagnation Temperature and Stagnation Enthalpy
2.5.4 Example Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics
2.6 Muddiest Points on Chapter 2
3. The First Law Applied to Engineering Cycles
3.1 Some Properties of Engineering Cycles; Work and Efficiency
3.2 Generalized Representation of Thermodynamic Cycles
3.3 The Carnot Cycle
3.4 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
3.5 The Internal combustion engine (Otto Cycle)
3.5.1 Efficiency of an ideal Otto cycle
3.5.2 Engine work, rate of work per unit enthalpy flux
3.6 Diesel Cycle
3.7 Brayton Cycle
3.7.1 Work and Efficiency
3.7.2 Gas Turbine Technology and Thermodynamics
3.7.3 Brayton Cycle for Jet Propulsion: the Ideal Ramjet
3.7.4 MIT Cogenerator
3.8 Muddiest points on Chapter 3
II THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
4. Background to the Second Law of Thermodynamics
4.1 Reversibility and Irreversibility in Natural Processes
4.2 Difference between Free Expansion of a Gas and Reversible Isothermal Expansion
4.3 Features of reversible processes
4.4 Muddiest Points on Chapter 4
5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
5.1 Concept and Statements of the Second Law (Why do we need a second law?)
5.2 Axiomatic Statements of the Laws of Thermodynamics
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Zeroth Law
5.2.3 First Law
5.2.4 Second Law
5.2.5 Reversible Processes
5.3 Combined First and Second Law Expressions
5.4 Entropy Changes in an Ideal Gas
5.5 Calculation of Entropy Change in Some Basic Processes
5.6 Muddiest Points on Chapter 5
6. Applications of the Second Law
6.1 Limitations on the Work that Can be Supplied by a Heat Engine
6.2 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale
6
.
3
Representation of Thermodynamic Processes in
coordinates
6
.
4
Brayton Cycle in

Coordinates
6.4.1 Net work per unit mass flow in a Brayton cycle
6.5 Irreversibility, Entropy Changes, and ``Lost Work''
6.6 Entropy and Unavailable Energy (Lost Work by Another Name)
6.7 Examples of Lost Work in Engineering Processes
6.8 Some Overall Comments on Entropy, Reversible and Irreversible Processes
6.8.1 Entropy
6.8.2 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
6.8.3 Examples of Reversible and Irreversible Processes
6.9 Muddiest Points on Chapter 6
7. Interpretation of Entropy on the Microscopic Scale  The Connection between Randomness and Entropy
7.1 Entropy Change in Mixing of Two Ideal Gases
7.2 Microscopic and Macroscopic Descriptions of a System
7.3 A Statistical Definition of Entropy
7.4 Connection between the Statistical Definition of Entropy and Randomness
7.5 Numerical Example of the Approach to the Equilibrium Distribution
7.6 Summary and Conclusions
8. Power Cycles with TwoPhase Media (Vapor Power Cycles)
8.1 Behavior of TwoPhase Systems
8.2 Work and Heat Transfer with TwoPhase Media
8.3 The Carnot Cycle as a TwoPhase Power Cycle
8.3.1 Example: Carnot steam cycle
8.4 The ClausiusClapeyron Equation (application of 1
^{st}
and 2
^{nd}
laws of thermodynamics)
8.5 Rankine Power Cycles
8.6 Enhancements of, and Effect of Design Parameters on, Rankine Cycles
8.7 Combined Cycles in Stationary Gas Turbine for Power Production
8.8 Some Overall Comments on Thermodynamic Cycles
8.9 Muddiest Points on Chapter 8
III PROPULSION
9. Introduction to Propulsion
9.1 Goal: Create a Force to Propel a Vehicle
9.2 Performance parameters
9.3 Propulsion is a systems endeavor
10. Integral Momentum Theorem
10.1 An Expression of Newton's 2
^{nd}
Law (e.g. )
10.2 Application of the Integral Momentum Equation to Rockets
10.3 Application of the Momentum Equation to an Aircraft Engine
11. Aircraft Engine Performance
11.1 Overall Efficiency
11.2 Thermal and Propulsive Efficiency
11.3 Implications of propulsive efficiency for engine design
11
.
4
Other expressions for efficiency 
and SFC
11.5 Trends in thermal and propulsive efficiency
11.6 Performance of Jet Engines
11.6.1 Notation and station numbering
11.6.2 Ideal Assumptions
11.6.3 Ideal Ramjet
11.6.4 Turbojet Engine
11.6.5 Effect of Departures from Ideal Behavior  Real Cycle behavior
11.7 Performance of Propellers
11.7.1 Overview of propeller performance
11.7.2 Application of the Integral Momentum Theorem to Propellers
11.7.3 Actuator Disk Theory
11.7.4 Dimensional Analysis
11.8 Muddiest points on Chapter 11
12. Energy Exchange with Moving Blades
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Conservation of Angular Momentum
12.3 The Euler Turbine Equation
12.4 Multistage Axial Compressors
12.5 Velocity Triangles for an Axial Compressor Stage
12.6 Velocity Triangles for an Axial Flow Turbine Stage
13. Aircraft Performance
13.1 Vehicle Drag
13.2 Power Required
13.3 Aircraft Range: the Breguet Range Equation
13
.
3
.
1
Relation of overall efficiency,
, and thermal efficiency
13.3.2 The Propulsion Energy Conversion Chain
13.4 Aircraft Endurance
13.5 Climbing Flight
14. Rocket Performance
14.1 Thrust and Specific Impulse for Rockets
14.2 The Rocket Equation
14.3 Rocket Nozzles: Connection of Flow to Geometry
14.3.1 Quasionedimensional compressible flow in a variable area duct
14.3.2 Thrust in terms of nozzle geometry
IV HEAT GENERATION AND TRANSFER
15. Generating Heat: Thermochemistry
15.1 Fuels
15.2 FuelAir Ratio
15.3 Enthalpy of formation
15.4 First Law Analysis of Reacting Systems
15.5 Adiabatic Flame Temperature
15.5.1 Approximate solution using ``average'' values of specific heat
15.5.2 Solution for adiabatic flame temperature using evolutions of specific heats with temperature
15.5.3 Solution for adiabatic flame temperature using tabulated values for gas enthalpy
15.6 Muddiest points on Chapter 15
16. Conductive Heat Transfer
16.1 Heat Transfer Modes
16.2 Introduction to Conduction
16.3 SteadyState OneDimensional Conduction
16.3.1 Example: Heat transfer through a plane slab
16.4 Thermal Resistance Circuits
16.5 Steady QuasiOneDimensional Heat Flow in NonPlanar Geometry
16.5.1 Cylindrical Shell
16.5.2 Spherical Shell
16.6 Muddiest Points on Chapter 16
17. Convective Heat Transfer
17.1 The Reynolds Analogy
17.2 Combined Conduction and Convection
17.3 Dimensionless Numbers and Analysis of Results
17.4 Muddiest Points on Chapter 17
18. Generalized Conduction and Convection
18.1 Temperature Distributions in the Presence of Heat Sources
18.2 Heat Transfer From a Fin
18.3 Transient Heat Transfer (Convective Cooling or Heating)
18.4 Some Considerations in Modeling Complex Physical Processes
18.5 Heat Exchangers
18.5.1 Simplified Counterflow Heat Exchanger (With Uniform Wall Temperature)
18.5.2 General Counterflow Heat Exchanger
18.5.3 Efficiency of a Counterflow Heat Exchanger
18.6 Muddiest Points on Chapter 18
19. Radiation Heat Transfer (Heat transfer by thermal radiation)
19.1 Ideal Radiators
19.2 Kirchhoff's Law and ``Real Bodies''
19.3 Radiation Heat Transfer Between Planar Surfaces
19.3.1 Example 1: Use of a thermos bottle to reduce heat transfer
19.3.2 Example 2: Temperature measurement error due to radiation heat transfer
19.4 Radiation Heat Transfer Between Black Surfaces of Arbitrary Geometry
19.4.1 Example: Concentric cylinders or concentric spheres
19.5 Muddiest Points on Chapter 19
Index
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16.Unified: Thermodynamics and Propulsion
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