 1.1. The propulsion chain
 1.2. Examples of heat engines
 1.3. Piston (boundary) and gas (system)
 1.4. Boundary around electric motor (system)
 1.5. Sample control volume
 1.6. Equilibrium
 .

diagram
 .

diagram
 .

diagram
 1.7. Thermodynamics coordinates and isolines for an ideal gas
 1.8. The zeroth law schematically
 1.9. A closed system (dashed box) against a piston, which moves into the surroundings
 1.10. Work during an irreversible process
 1.11. Work in

coordinates
 1.12. Simple processes
 1.13. Quasistatic, isothermal expansion of an ideal gas
 1.14. A resistor heating water
 1.15. Pressuretemperaturevolume surface for a
substance that expands on
freezing
 2.1. Random motion is the physical basis for internal energy
 2.2. The change in energy of a system
relates the heat added to the work done
 2.3. The change in energy between
two states is not path dependent.
 2.4. Energy is a function of state only
 2.5. Adiabatic flow through a valve,
a generic throttling process
 2.6. Equivalence of actual
system and piston model
 2.7. A transient problem — filling of a tank from the atmosphere
 2.8. Control volume and system
for flow through a propulsion device
 2.9. A control volume used to track mass flows
 2.10. Schematic diagrams
illustrating terms in the energy equation for a simple and a more
general control volume
 2.11. Streamlines and a stagnation region
 2.12. A stationary gas turbine drawing air in from the atmosphere
 2.13. A control volume
approach to the tank filling problem
 2.14. Flow through a rocket nozzle
 2.15. The Pratt and Whitney 4084
 3.1. Examples of the conversion
of work into heat
 3.2. Isothermal expansion
 3.3. A generalized heat engine
 3.4. Carnot cycle
 3.5. Work and heat transfers in
a Carnot cycle between two heat reservoirs
 3.6. Operation of a Carnot refrigerator
 3.7. Schematic of a domestic refrigerator
 3.8. The ideal Otto cycle
 3.9. Sketch of an actual Otto cycle
 3.10. Piston and valves in a fourstroke internal combustion engine
 3.11. Ideal Otto cycle thermal
efficiency
 3.12. The ideal Diesel cycle
 3.13. Sketch of the jet engine
components and corresponding thermodynamic states
 3.14. Schematics of typical military gas
turbine engines
 3.15. Thermodynamic model of gas
turbine engine cycle for power generation
 3.16. Options for operating Brayton cycle gas turbine engines
 3.17. Gas turbine engine
pressures and temperatures
 3.18. Gas turbine engine
pressure ratio trends
 3.19. Trend of Brayton cycle thermal efficiency with compressor pressure ratio
 3.20. RollsRoyce high temperature
technology
 3.21. Turbine blade cooling technology
technology
 3.22. Efficiency and work of two
Brayton cycle engines
 3.23. Trend of cycle work with compressor pressure ratio
 3.24. Aeroengine
core power
 3.25. The ideal ramjet
 3.26. Brayton cycle considered as a
number of elementary Carnot
cycles
 4.1. Flywheel in insulated enclosure at
initial and final states
 4.2. Bricks separated by a temperature
difference
 4.3. Free expansion
 4.4. Expansion against a piston
 4.5. Returning the free expansion to its initial condition
 4.6. Work and heat exchange in the
reversible isothermal compression process
 4.7. 100% conversion of work into heat
 4.8. Work and heat transfer in
reversible isothermal expansion
 4.9. A piston with weights on top
 4.10. Getting the most work out of a system
 4.11. Heat transfer across a finite
temperature difference
 4.12. Nicolas Sadi Carnot
 5.1. The KelvinPlanck statement of the Second Law
 5.2. The Clausius statement of the Second Law
 5.3. Heat transfer from/to a heat
reservoir
 5.4. Heat transfer between two
reservoirs
 5.5. Work from a single heat
reservoir
 5.6. The
``Hot Brick'' Problem
 6.1. A Carnot cycle heat engine
 6.2. Arrangement of heat engines
to demonstrate the thermodynamic temperature scale
 6.3. Carnot cycle in

coordinates
 6.4. Ideal Brayton cycle as composed
of many elementary Carnot
cycles
 6.5. Arbitrary cycle operating
between
,
 6.6. Brayton cycle in enthalpyentropy
(

) representation showing compressor and turbine work
 6.7. Irreversible and reversible
state changes
 6.8. Adiabatic Throttling
 6.9. Static and stagnation
pressures and temperatures
 6.10. Stagnation and
static states
 6.11. Losses reflected in changes
in stagnation pressure when
 6.12. Schematic
of turbine and representation in

coordinates
 6.13. Isothermal
expansion with friction
 6.15. Airfoil with control
volume for analysis of propulsive power
requirement
 7.1. Some
allowed states of the system in the numerical
example
 7.2. Constant energy state groups
 7.3. Transition probabilities in
numerical experiment with isolated
system
 7.4. Evolution
of the probability distribution with
time
 7.5. Entropy for the system as a function
of time
 8.1. Twophase system in contact with
constant temperature heat reservoir
 8.2.

relation for a
liquidvapor system
 8.3.

diagram for
twophase system showing isotherms
 8.4. Constant pressure curves in

coordinates showing vapor dome
 8.5. Specific volumes at constant
temperature and states within the vapor dome in a liquidvapor
system
 8.6. Liquid vapor equilibrium in a twophase
medium
 8.7. Carnot cycle with twophase medium
 8.8. Carnot cycle devised to test the validity of
the laws of thermodynamics
 8.9. ClausiusClapeyron Experimental Proof (1)
 8.10. ClausiusClapeyron Experimental Proof (2)
 8.11. Rankine power cycle with twophase working
fluid
 8.12. Rankine cycle diagram
 8.13. Rankine cycle with superheating
 8.14. Comparison of Rankine
cycle with superheating and Carnot cycle
 8.15. Rankine cycle with superheating
and reheat for space power application
 8.16. Effect of exit pressure on
Rankine cycle efficiency
 8.17. Effect of maximum boiler
pressure on Rankine cycle efficiency
 8.18. Gas turbinesteam combined
cycle
 8.19. Schematic of combined cycle
using gas turbine and steam
turbine
 8.20. Comparison of efficiency and power output of various
power products
 8.21. The vapor dome in

(experimental data)
 8.22. ClausiusClapeyron Experimental Proof (3)
 9.1. Typical liquid propellant rocket motor
 9.2. Schematics of typical military gas turbine engines
 9.3. Schematics of a PW PT6A65, a typical turboprop
 9.4. The RB211535E4, a typical high bypassratio turbofan
 10.1. Two inertial coordinate systems, one stationary, one translating
 10.2. Falling blocks
 10.3. Control volume for application of momentum theorem to a rocket.
 10.4. Control volume for application of momentum theorem to an
aircraft engine
 10.5. Alternate control volume for
application of momentum theorem to an
aircraft engine
 11.1. Schematic of the inlet area of an engine
 11.2. Propulsive
efficiency and specific thrust as a function of exhaust
velocity
 11.3. The F22 Raptor
 11.4. The Boeing 777200
 11.5. A propeller
gives a relatively small impulse (
) to a relatively large
mass flow
 11.6. An advanced, contourrotating,
unducted fan concept
 11.7. Propulsive efficiency comparison
for various gas turbine engine
configurations
 11.8. Trends
in aircraft engine efficiency
 11.9. Pressure ratio
trends for commercial transport engines
 11.10. Trends in
turbine inlet temperature
 11.11. Trends in engine
bypass ratio
 11.12. Gas turbine engine station numbering.
 11.13. Control volume over the burner
 11.14. Thrust per unit mass flow and
specific impulse for ideal
ramjet
 11.15. Schematic with appropriate component notations
added.
 11.16. Performance of an ideal turbojet
engine vs. flight Mach number
 11.17. Performance of an ideal
turbojet engine vs. compressor pressure ratio, flight Mach number
 11.18. Performance of an ideal turbojet engine vs.
compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature
 11.19. Gas turbine engine (Brayton)
cycle showing effect of departure from ideal behavior in compressor
and turbine
 11.20. Nondimensional power and efficiency for a nonideal gas turbine
engine
 11.21. Scale diagram of nonideal gas turbine cycle
 11.22. Cessna Skyhawk single engine propeller plane
 11.23. The V22 Osprey utilizes tiltrotor technology
 11.24. Schematic of propeller
 11.25. Control volume for analysis of a propeller
 11.26. Schematic of actuator disk model
 11.27. Control volume around actuator disk.
 11.28. Typical propeller efficiency curves vs.
advance ratio and blade angle
 11.29. Typical propeller thrust curves vs. advance ratio
and blade angle
 11.30. Typical propeller power curves vs. advance
ratio and blade angle
 12.1. Control volume around compressor or turbine.
 12.2. Control volume for
Euler Turbine Equation.
 12.3. A typical multistage axial flow compressor
 12.4. Schematic representation of an axial
flow compressor.
 12.5. Pressure and velocity profiles through a multistage
axial compressor
 12.6. Velocity triangles for an axial compressor stage
 12.7. Compressor behavior
 12.8. Schematic of an axial flow turbine.
 12.9. Velocity triangles for an axial flow turbine stage.
 13.1. A schematic of the forces on an aircraft in steady level flight
 13.2. Components of vehicle drag.
 13.3. Typical power required curve for an aircraft.
 13.4. The propulsion energy
conversion chain from Part I
 13.5. Relationship between condition for maximum endurance and
maximum range.
 13.6. Force balance for an aircraft in climbing flight.
 13.7. Typical behavior of power available as a function of
flight velocity.
 13.8. Lockheed Martin F16 performing a vertical accelerated
climb.
 14.1. Schematic of rocket nozzle and combustion chamber
 14.2. Schematic for application of the momentum theorem.
 14.3. The Saturn V rocket
 14.4. General form of relationship between flow area and Mach
number.
 15.1. Constant pressure combustion
 15.2. Specific heat as
a function of temperature
 15.3. Schematic of adiabatic
flame temperature
 16.1. Conduction heat transfer
 16.2. Heat transfer along a bar
 16.3. Onedimensional heat
conduction
 16.4. Temperature boundary
conditions for a slab
 16.5. Temperature distribution
through a slab
 16.6. Heat transfer across a
composite slab (series thermal resistance)
 16.7. Heat transfer for a wall with
dissimilar materials (parallel thermal resistance)
 16.8. Heat transfer
through an insulated wall
 16.9. Temperature
distribution through an insulated wall
 16.10. Cylindrical shell geometry notation
 16.11. Spherical shell
 16.12. Interface Control Volume
 17.1. Turbine blade heat
transfer configuration
 17.2. Temperature and velocity
distributions near a surface
 17.3. Velocity profile
near a surface
 17.4. Momentum and
energy exchanges in turbulent flow
 17.5. Heat exchanger configurations
 17.6. Conducting wall with convective
heat transfer
 17.7. Cylinder in a flowing fluid
 17.8. Critical radius of insulation
 17.9. Effect of the Biot Number on temperature distributions
 17.10. Temperature distribution in a convectively cooled
cylinder for different values of Biot
number
 18.1. Slab with heat sources
 18.2. Temperature distribution for
slab with distributed heat sources
 18.3. Geometry of heat
transfer fin
 18.4. Element of
fin showing heat transfer
 18.5. The temperature distribution in a fin
 18.6. Temperature variation in
an object cooled by a flowing fluid
 18.7. Voltage change
in an RC circuit
 18.8. Concentric tubes heat exchangers
 18.9. Crossflow heat
exchangers.
 18.10. Geometry for heat
transfer between two fluids
 18.11. Counterflow heat exchanger
 18.12. Fluid temperature
distribution along the tube with uniform wall temperature
 19.1. Radiation surface properties
 19.2. Emissive
power of a black body at several
temperatures
 19.3. A cavity with a small hole
(approximates a black body)
 19.4. A small black body
inside a cavity
 19.5. Path of a photon between
two gray surfaces
 19.6. Schematic of a thermos wall
 19.7. Thermocouple used to measure temperature
 19.8. Effect of radiation heat
transfer on measured temperature
 19.9. Shielding a thermocouple to
reduce radiation heat transfer error
 19.10. Radiation between two bodies
 19.11. Radiation between two
arbitrary surfaces
 19.12. Radiation heat transfer for concentric cylinders
or spheres
 . Total emittances for
different surfaces
 19.13. View Factors for threedimensional geometries
 19.14. View factor
for aligned parallel rectangles
 19.15. View factor for
coaxial parallel disk
 19.16. View factor for
perpendicular rectangles with a common edge
UnifiedTP
